Studying the device truss system of the hip roof, it should be noted that within this type, there are several types of structures. In turn, this makes adjustments to the overall process of erecting the frame of the truss system.
Classic hip roof
It differs by supporting diagonal ribs on the skate support beam and the location of the overhangs at the same height. The individual elements of the hip roof correspond to the triangle (pediments) and trapezium (ramps).
Diagram of the device truss system and the appearance of the hip roof (normal, standard)
It is distinguished by the absence of a skate support beam. This leads to the fact that all diagonal edges converge at a single point, and ordinary short rafters are already adjacent to them. This roof is preferred in the presence of a square box at home. But the formation of a reliable ridge knot is quite complicated.
Diagram of the truss system and the appearance of a hip roof hip
Differs in the presence of vertical gables in which you can install windows. In the picture you can see the difference between the two types of half-hardened roofs (Dutch and Danish).
Diagram of the roof system and the appearance of the Dutch hip roof Diagram of the roof system and the appearance of the Danish hip roof
Broken hip roof or mansard chetyrehskatnaya
The construction of the truss system of the hip roof is the most difficult in terms of construction, as in this case, all the roof slopes have a different area and diverge at different angles. Broken (mansard) roof allows you to more rationally organize the inner roofing space and in addition to additional living space to give the house a spectacular appearance.
Diagram of the truss system and the appearance of a broken hip roof (mansard type)
Hip roof construction
Regardless of the type of roof, all types have the same elements of the truss system of the hip roof:
The arrangement of the ridge beam in the truss system of the hip roof ridge support beam or ridge beam – used for the classic hip roof, performs the function of the supporting element, to which the diagonal rafter is attached;
Diagonal arrangement of the diagonal (side) rafter of the gambular roof diagonal rafter (side, edge, slant or angular rafter) is a longer truss foot that joins the end of the ridge beam at an acute angle, forming one of the sides of the triangle;
The layout of the central rafters of the gambular roof is the central rafter – boards of the same length, which are adjacent to the ridge beam and form the edges of the trapezoidal slope of the roof. Between them are intermediate rafters;
The layout of the intermediate rafter of the hip roof, intermediate or common rafter, forms the plane of the trapezoid stingray, the distance between them determines the run of the truss system;
The layout of the hip-roofed naroshnik, the ladder or short rafter, is a constructive element that is mounted on the diagonal rafter, forming a triangular overhang and the angular parts of the trapezoids.
Calculation hip roof
The calculation of the truss system of the hip roof is performed taking into account the following assumptions:
- wind load in the region. The higher it is, the shallower the slope should be, and the stronger the whole structure. To level a strong wind, the central and diagonal rafters are made thicker;
- rainfall. There is an inverse relationship. The higher the precipitation, the more steep the slope should be, so that the snow and rain do not create pressure on the roof system;
- type of roofing material. Each type of roofing material puts forward its requirements for the crate, and also has a certain weight. These factors need to be considered at the design stage;
- the need for roof insulation In this case, the installation step rafters calculated taking into account the width of the insulating material. In addition, the distance between the rafters depends on the type and section of wood.
Table of parameters of the distance between the rafters, depending on the cross-section of the timber and the type of wood
The calculation of the roofing material is carried out according to the formulas, taking into account the angle of inclination of the roof. The optimal roof slope for roofing materials of various types is given in the table:
Table – the angle of the roof, depending on the roofing material Table – the angle of the roof depending on the type of coating
The slope of the angle of the slope determines the laying of the rafters. In turn, the inception of the intermediate rafter is calculated as follows:
- first, an axial line is applied to the top trim of the end wall;
- then half the thickness of the ridge beam is calculated, and the placement line of the first of the number of central intermediate rafters is plotted;
- then the end of the gauge rail and the placement line of the central intermediate rafter marked above are combined;
- on the opposite end of the gauge rail, the line of the inner side wall contour is applied;
- the resulting point is the foundation of the intermediate rafter.
The ratio between the length of the rafters and their inception is calculated using a correction factor, the value of which depends on the angle of inclination of the roof slope. The length of the truss foot is determined by multiplying the depth by the coefficient.
The material is prepared for the site www.moydomik.net
Formulas for calculating the hip roof
How to calculate the area of the hip roof?
To know how much to buy roofing material, you need to know the total area of the roof.
To do this, you need to break the entire roof into components of simple geometric shapes and make a calculation for each of them.
Calculate the area of the hip roof – formula
The calculation of the area of the hip roof allows you to determine in advance not only the cost of purchasing roofing materials and installation, but also to determine the material requirements, as well as the need for arrangement and the exact configuration of the battens.
Drawing of the truss system of the hip roof
The result of the project development and calculations will be a schematic drawing of the truss system of the hip roof. There are no similar drawings ready to use without taking into account the specific features of the particular structure and the place of its construction.
Development of the preliminary scheme can be done independently (a simple sketch will determine the direction of the project). But, it is better to entrust the drawing to specialists or use special programs for calculation. It should be remembered that the more complex the roof structure, the more accurate the calculation of the truss system: configuration and materials. This will also affect the cost and duration of the installation work.
The drawing of the hip roof should include an indication of the purpose of the material, its installation location and method of attachment. The key nodes of the truss system of the hip roof, for example, the junction of the diagonal supports to the ridge beam or the installation of the truss legs on the mauerlat should be carried out in a separate drawing and described in more detail.
Drawing hip roof (slanting rafters with an emphasis on two runs)
The scheme of wooden naslon rafters with an emphasis on two runs for hip roof
Drawing truss system hip roof with a bay window
Diagram of the dimensions of the truss system of the hip roof with a bay window
The presence of a schematic drawing will be a good help in the manufacture of blanks and the subsequent installation of the roof.
Tools for the construction of the hip roof
The roof structure and methods of arrangement of nodes determine the set of tools that should be prepared before the start of work.
For working with wood is useful: level, handsaw, hammer, tape measure, marking cord, stapler.
To work with metal structures will need a power drill, riveter, shears pierced.
Tools and consumables must be prepared in advance, because complex installation of the truss system of the hip roof involves a large number of gash and installation of nails.
To simplify the measurements and be able to do all the parts of the same size, the masters advise you to replace the tape measure with a gauge rail. The measuring rod is made of plywood 50 mm wide, on which the main dimensions are applied.
Hip Roof Material
Breed and type of wood have a direct impact on the duration and reliability of the roof structure. Masters advise to give preference to larch or pine lumber. All blanks require pre-treatment with flame retardants and antiseptics.
In addition to wood, metal fasteners, nails, screws, and anchor bolts will be needed.
Note. Forming a hip truss system on a wooden house, which can shrink, the masters advise to use floating mounts to connect the rafters with the power plate. This method compensates for the movement of the crowns with the natural shrinkage of the house from a bar or log.
Sliding support for rafters (closed sliding mounting)
Hinged roof truss system – installation technology
Devices truss system do it yourself step by step:
1. Preparation of blanks (rafters)
This is the most difficult and time-consuming part of the construction, since associated with:
- the need to ensure a given angle of rafter;
- different lengths of flats (short rafters);
- the presence of diagonal rafters (nososnyh), which are given special attention. Due to the length, the cropping rafters carry a greater load than the main rafters, and therefore require the use of higher quality lumber with a large cross-section. In addition, often the length of the diagonal rafters exceeds the standard length of the boards.
In order not to buy different lumber, in practice, the method of splicing (mating) edged boards is used to obtain a given length.
Advantages of splicing technology rafters:
- obtaining continuous beams of a given length;
- increase the strength of the diagonal rafters of the hip roof due to the double section;
- simplification of the calculation and purchase of material (unification of dimensions: length and cross section);
- the possibility of using boards intended for the formation of ordinary trusses.
Composite rafters of boards with liners
2. Fixing the power plate
Mauerlat for a hip roof is a wooden bar of a large section (100×100 or 100×150 mm) mounted around the perimeter of the walls. For Mauerlat used wood of the first grade.
The peculiarity of laying the power plate is that the timber is only overlapped in length, but not end-to-end, using multiple connection points with the base of the wall. Connecting nodes are additionally reinforced with metal clips.
How to connect the wall bars for hip roof
Since the purpose of the mauerlat is to serve as a support for rafter legs, he needs protection from moisture. For this purpose, a hydro-barrier is placed between the wall and the bar (for example, roofing material is used).
Note. Under the mauerlat in brick houses (or from aerated concrete, foam concrete, wood concrete) a reinforced concrete belt is poured in with pre-installed studs for the installation of a beam. The stud has a diameter of 10 mm or more and should protrude beyond the plane of the Mauerlat by 20-30 mm. The spacing of the studs is 1000-1200 mm.
3. Installation of the run
A run is a beam that is installed parallel to the sides of the mauerlat. The runway serves as the basis for mounting additional supports under the rafter legs. The run device is not an obligatory stage of work and is performed only for large hipped roofs or having a configuration of increased complexity. The location of the run is shown in the diagram.
It should be noted that the maximum load point will vary depending on the location – on the ridge of the hip or on the edge of the valley.
Points of maximum load on the hip ridge and end of the valley
Note. The hip-roof hip roof is mounted without support, and a complex assembly is formed at the junction of the diagonal rafters.
4. Installing support columns
The support stand of the gambrel roof Racks perform the function of support when installing the ridge beam (orange color in the picture).
5. Installation of the ridge beam
The installation of the ridge of the hip roof is accompanied by accurate measurements. Since the whole construction of the roof will be supported on the ridge, the correctness of its installation is checked for height and level.
6. Fixing truss legs
Regarding the sequence of work at this stage, the opinions of masters differ. This makes it possible to identify two areas for work:
- Mounted central rafters, and then diagonal. This work order is simpler;
- diagonal rafters are mounted, and then the rest.
When installing the lower part of the truss foot abut on the mauerlat.
The support of the rafters on the hip roof is shown in the diagram. The first option (with clipping) is simpler, but the second (with the support bar) is preferable, because in this case, the mount does not weaken the rafter.
Ways of mounting rafters on the mauerlate
Forming a knot on a ridge beam is possible in various ways.
Ways of mounting rafters on the ridge beam
Variants of the top mounting diagonal rafters are shown in the diagram.
Methods of upper bearing diagonal rafters
Council For rigidity, all nodes should be reinforced with metal elements (brackets, plates, corners).
Since diagonal rafters have a significant load, they can be strengthened using such means as:
- rack installation. Mounted on the floor vertically;
- installation of the strut. Mounted at an angle. The angle of inclination is not decisive. The ability of the strut to strengthen the diagonal rafter is important;
- sprengel In fact, this is a T-shaped short beam, deployed at 180o. It is used on long spans and set in such a way that its base is oriented perpendicular to the diagonal rafter.
Hip Roof Sprengel Support
7. Installation of ordinary rafters
Ordinary installed similarly to the installation of central rafters, which form the edge of the trapezoid. Their lower part is supported and fastened on the mauerlat, while the upper one rests on the ridge beam. It is important to observe the same distance between the ordinary rafters.
8. Installing blizzards (short trusses)
Narozhniks are made only from solid timber. In the place of junction of the rafter to the long rafter, they make cuttings or install support beams. The installation site is additionally reinforced with metal elements.
Note. Installing hip-roof flats is possible in a break to simplify installation.
Layout of rafters of the hip roof and installation of scammers
The women mates in any case are established after the formation of the power frame of the roof. Their installation ends work on the device truss system gambular roof.
Hip roof do it yourself step by step – video
The program shows the installation process of the truss system of a hipped roof with a central bay window along a short wall.
After the roof system is ready, you can proceed to the installation of roofing, the specificity of which determines the need to install the batten on the roof frames.
The installation of the truss system of the hip roof is a long process that requires attention to each stage of the work – from calculating and choosing the material, to installing the parts and strengthening the attachment points. But, with the proper implementation of all stages, the result will be a beautiful and reliable roof for a private house.
Hip roof do it yourself: step-by-step instructions, drawings, photos and video
Hip roof is very practical and elegant looks. But the effort and cost of it goes well. Its erection with your own hands is possible, but the main thing here is to have certain construction engineering skills and to follow the calculations and schemes clearly.
Specificity of the roof of this type
It is one of the types of hipped roof. Top view of the house with it resembles a closed envelope. Two slopes of small area, with a triangle format, the experts called “hip”. The shape of another pair of stingrays is a trapezoid. Their size is larger.
Hip roof form such nodes (scheme):
The ridge serves as the top of the roof. This is the line formed by the rafter tandems at the site of their fastening. The specifics of the ridge – it loses in the length of the overlapped structure.
Hips. These are triangular stingrays. They are positioned above the end walls and are used instead of the gable. They are diagonal and intermediate rafters (DS and PS).
Chutes. Their shape is trapezium. Their beginning is obtained from the skate, and the end is in the eaves.
Ribs These are the corners which have turned out in zones of a fastening of hips and slopes. The number of hips is equal to the number of DS. Their total number is 4.
Water drainage network. Its components: funnels, pipes and gutters. It allows you to divert waste liquid from the surface of the roof in the sewer.
Important! The hip roof does not provide for the creation of a residential attic in it. Reason: its two slopes significantly reduce the height of the ceiling in the under-roof area.
Rafters and supports
Differences in the installation of complex hip roof from the gable roof are in the presence of a larger number of components. They are as follows (scheme):
Ridge run. This is a special bar. On it are mounted trusses duets.
Diagonal rafters (DS). They make up the ribs of the hips. From the end of the skate, they follow to the corner nodes of the mowerlat, connecting with it. In length, they exceed the standard rafter. The material for their creation should have a large cross section. And those are usually double boards. When drawing up the drawings, it is important to take into account that the position angle of such rafters is more gentle than that of standard (intermediate) rafters.
Standard or intermediate rafters (PS). The place of fixing their top is the ridge run, and the zone of their end is the mauerlat.
Central standard rafters. They are usually 6 pieces. They are joined with the completion of the skate and the DS. This connection takes a lot of effort. Here you need absolute concentration and respect for accurate markup.
Narozhniks or legs of short length. In the upper side, their contact with the skate is not allowed. The place of their connection is diagonal rafters. The lower the position of the crooder, the shorter it is.
Tightening. This is a jumper from a bar. It is positioned between the standard truss duet.
Rigel. This is a tightening, arranged in the upper zone of the roof, right under the ridge .
Floor beams. This tightening, mounted below, at the base of the rafters.
Rack. This is a vertical bar. It serves as a support for the ridge, distributes the mass of the roof to the bearing elements. If you need to make a loft zone more spacious, the rack can be concentrated in the middle of the rafters.
Strut These are the supports fixed in the perpendicular position to the rafters. They protect them from sagging. The strut is essential if the slopes of the roof reach a length of 4.5 – 5 m.
Sprengel This device is designed to support diagonal rafters. Sprengel form two beams. One mounts two pieces of power plate. The second with an emphasis comes in the first and also in one DS.
Experts recommend for all elements of the truss network to use the same material. One cross section and fastener method must be observed.
Calculations, drawings, projects
Before creating a hip roof, it is necessary to carefully calculate its constituent structures. How to do it right? Before the calculations, a scheme of the overlapped building with all parameters is created. Then, using simple formulas on the basis of the Pythagorean theorem, we can calculate:
Scheme with parameters:
- The height of the ridge. The data here are as follows: h = bx tgα / 2. Here b is the length of the structure between the rafters from the end plane. A a is the angle of the position of skates.
- The length of standard rafters. Data: e = b / 2 x cosα. Here b is the same length, and is the same angle, e is the length of standard rafters.
- Square skates. Data: S = 2ea. Here S is the total surface area of the slopes, e is the same parameter from item 2, and is the length between the rafters along the length of the structure.
The following are the most common tables and charts.
Hip roof with parameters:
These schemes help to calculate the length of these rafters only with the availability of data on the parameters of standard rafters.
The necessary step between the rafter tandems is also often found in reference books, relying on the rock and the thickness of the working material (wood) and the length of the slopes. The results of the calculations are reflected in the drawing. On it further we do a marking of a roof.
It is also very convenient to make the above calculations on a calculator.
Mauerlat is the basis for installing the roof. It is necessary for the distribution of the mass of the roof over all bearing elements. It is usually created from a wooden bar, and solid wood is used. The greater the mass of the roof and the more complicated its configuration, the larger the section is obtained. As a rule, masters use pine timber with minimum parameters of 15 x 15 cm.
The installation of the mowerlat takes place before the construction of the house. How to do:
- Work with a bar. It is measured, sawed to the desired length. In the corner sections, the mauerlat is fastened to each other by the “paw” method. For cutting out the groove for fasteners is marking.
- Planking formwork is created on the last line of masonry . It is filled with viscous concrete. Metal spiers for fixing the necessary timber are introduced into it.
- After the concrete hardens, a hydroprotective layer is arranged between it and the mauerlat . Here you can apply bitumen mastic or roofing material.
- It should be treated with bar protection. Need antiseptics and flame retardant powerful penetration, as well as waterproof varnish.
- In the mauerlate , holes are made and metal holes are created. A marker will fit the markup. To create – drill.
- The beam is mounted on these spiers and is fastened powerfully with bolts of the anchor type.
Important!There should not be drilled a lot of holes and use a lot of studs. So only decreases the strength of the base (Mauerlat). Also, do not cut it in place for attaching rafters.
Stages of construction
Here it is imperative to follow the instructions and technology. The stages of work are as follows:
- Put the tightening. They are the floor beams. They require at least two. Racks are placed on them. Experts on top of them are satisfied with the boardwalk. So the truss network is built more conveniently and safer.
- Attaching racks to puffs. Racks can be used more. But the excess mass for the design is needed only with special need. While the network is not stable, the racks for some time are fixed with vertical struts.
- Installation of ridge girder to the racks. The fasteners here are long nails. By the run mounted standard rafters. Fasteners are metal overlays or corners.
- The central standard rafter joins to slopes. after which the DS, which are formed from twin boards. The diagram below:
- To one or two ramps are mounted: end PS, wind board, ladies and fillies
- Installation of counter-sheathing. A hydroprotective membrane spreads across it. It is attached with a construction stapler. Scheme:
To create a hip roof, a soft roof is usually involved. It is easier to cover the slopes with a complex configuration. For such a roof, a continuous crate is prepared from layers of moisture-resistant plywood.
- For fixing the roofing material on the crate used special hardware. Its composition: stainless steel with a rubber hat. The sheet positioning method is 10-15 cm overlap. This is how defense against moisture ingress is created. The steeper the slope, the more you need to follow this method.
- After laying the roof, the roof is insulated from the inside. In it, you can create windows, drain and even a chimney.
For the arbor
Hip roof – ideal for private homes. Its competent creation is impossible without special skills, calculations, diligence and patience.
Hip roofs can also be created on smaller buildings, for example, gazebos. But for such a roof there are only arbors of the following types:
- Square shape. Here the roof is made up of four slopes – triangles of the same size. They connect at one point. The fad is not created. Scheme:
- Rectangular shape. The roof is formed by two slopes – trapezoids and two slopes – triangles. Above – a fad. It follows along the long plane of the rectangle. A photo:
Required building materials
Hip roof build of the following materials:
- Wooden beam. Suitable parameters: 10×10 cm or 15×15 cm. Mauerlat is formed from it, as well as vertical uprights and puffs.
- Boards. The desired cross-section: 5x 5 cm and 10×15 cm. Of them form rafters. For diagonal rafters need boards of greater length and thickness. Therefore, a popular option with dual boards.
- Unedged boards. Required dimensions: 3×10 cm or 4×10 cm. The sheathing is mounted on them.
- Reiki. Parameters: 3×3. They will serve as counter-crate.
- Wind board
- Board for the eaves.
All wooden elements must be treated with antiseptics, flame retardants.
The design of the truss network
Creating a hip roof for the gazebo is also impossible without the stage of drawings and calculations. Calculated:
- slope angle;
- ridge height;
- load (to determine the sections of the rafters).
On the basis of the calculated data is drawing. It reflects the parameters and the mutual arrangement of the components of the truss network. She has many analogies with a rafter network to cover a house. As can be seen from the scheme, there is almost the same composition. There are only some nuances:
- The support and mass distribution of the roof is a function of the top trim.
- Step between standard rafters. which, on horseback, rest on the ridge girder, and on the bottom – on the base (mauerlat), is: 60-120 cm.
- Narozhniki. forming a slope, put in increments of 60-80 cm.
- There is no need for formwork and concreting.
Truss system of the hip roof and bay window by Anton Weber:
Stages of the hip roof erection
A gazebo with a gambrel roof is built according to the following rules:
- The arbor frame is strengthened. Here you need a board. You can act in two layers. Boards can overlap each other. Along the longest side of the structure to the strapping is mounted beam-tightening. The fastener here is metal corners.
- From the middle of this tightening need to retreat by half a meter. At this distance put two meter racks. Their verticality is maintained by temporary braces. Their tops are then sealed with a ridge girder.
- Installation of standard rafters. On condition of running in 1 m it is required to mount a pair of rafters on each side, along the edges of the run. Between them there will also be a meter interval.
- To skate attached DS. The fasteners here are nails. In advance, you need to make a gash so that the continuation of the ridge run get DS. Between the base and the rafters, it is important to form a mobile fastener – a crawler.
- Installing the scammers. One side they join the DS (types of fasteners – nails), the second – to the top trim. Step – 60-70 cm.
- Hydroprotection (film) spreads stripes on the rafters, it is attached there with a stapler. The bands go overlap by 10-15 cm. The film that runs along the rafters is fixed with counter-sheath strips.
- The crate spreads. It must be solid. She nails on nails.
- Roofing material is cut. It is fastened with galvanized fasteners (self-tapping screws). Joints are covered with sealant.
The following is an example of a well-arranged hip roof on the gazebo:
How to create a project
About the creation of the project hip roof for a bath in the program SketchUp tells the author of the blog “The frame bath in the village with your own hands!”
Sources: http://vseokrovle.com/valmovaja/48-valmovye-kryshi.html, http://moydomik.net/krovlya/ustroy-kryshi/455-stropilnaya-sistema-valmovoy-kryshi.html, http: // 1decor.org/postroyki/valmovaya-krysha.html