Fill the formwork with fittings with concrete of a grade not lower than 300. To arrange the foundation, we will need several cubic meters of mortar, therefore we should either rent a concrete mixer or order ready-made concrete from the manufacturer.
It is advisable to fill in at once, in order to avoid cold bridges. Immediately after pouring, we gut the concrete (pierce with a metal bar) or treat it with a vibrating compactor to remove air.
Pouring mortar from concrete mixer
For complete drying, the strip foundation requires at least 30 days. All this time, it is advisable to cover the surface of concrete with polyethylene to slow down evaporation and more efficient strength building. When the surface under polyethylene starts to crack, it should be moistened additionally.
Preparation for laying
If you do not want to mess around with the construction of the formwork and its subsequent casting, you can build a prefabricated foundation of building blocks. To date, several varieties of structural elements are available, ranging from traditional reinforced concrete products, to reinforced panels and slabs.
Note! When choosing which foundation to make from foam concrete blocks for a house, quite often they propose using the same foam blocks as a base. This should not be done, since the foam concrete is hygroscopic and vapor-permeable, and therefore such a foundation will become entangled with moisture over time and will be deformed when it freezes.
It is worth remembering that the erection of the block foundation necessarily requires the involvement of construction equipment, since the mass of the elements does not imply manual handling
The installation instructions for the block base imply the following sequence of actions:
- We dig a trench under all bearing elements – as in the previous case.
- At the bottom of the trench lay a gravel-sand pillow with a thickness of at least 40 cm. Carefully level and tamp the base.
- For greater strength, the pillow can be replaced with footing or even reinforced concrete slabs.
Foundation pit with footing
After completing the preparation, you can begin to mount the base itself.
Concrete blocks are laid in a trench on the brickwork principle:
- First, apply a layer of cement mortar on the base.
- Then with the help of a crane we place the first corner block, precisely positioning it and aligning it on the plane and vertical.
- We continue laying along the entire perimeter, carefully controlling the geometry of our base.
- After laying all the elements and setting the solution perform waterproofing. To protect against moisture, you can use bitumen mastic, roll materials, etc.
- Also at this stage it is possible to carry out heat insulation, pasting the outer surface of the blocks with foam plates based on polystyrene.
After completion of waterproofing and thermal insulation works we fill trenches or pits. The denser the soil is compacted, the more reliably the foundation will be protected from leakage.
The technologies described above have one rather serious drawback – a large amount of earthworks. That is why, alone, or even with a few assistants, it is rather difficult to implement such projects – you need to involve a brigade of workers.
However, if you are looking for, from which to make a foundation for a house with minimal labor costs, then you should consider the arrangement of the screw pile foundation.
- The key element of such a support structure is metal screw piles. They are buried in the ground under the main bearing walls and partitions.
- The pile consists of two elements – a trunk and a tip. The barrel is a hollow tube with a wall thickness of up to 5 mm, in the upper part of which there are holes for attaching handles.
Ground support pattern
- The tips of most supports are made of hardened steel. The conical nozzle is equipped with a screw blade, which provides burial in the ground during rotation.
- The cavities of the installed piles are poured with concrete, after which the tip with a metal platform is put on the top of each support.
- All heads are aligned on a plane, and a horizontal frame of bars or metal beams is trampled on them – the so-called grillage.
Screw foundations are indispensable in those cases when you are looking for how to make a foundation for a house from foam blocks or other light materials, or try to place the structure on a section with a slope.
An important factor in favor of this design is its reasonable price: yes, the piles themselves are not cheap, but their installation does not provide for laying trenches and large pits.
The foundation of the screw type is assembled quite quickly – in less than a day.
The sequence of works is as follows:
- Using the yamobur, we make shallow starting holes in the places of the planned installation.
- In the hole we start the tip of the pile, align it vertically, and then insert it into the grooves on the shaft of the handle.
Depth support in the ground with the help of scrap and ingenuity: two piles play the role of levers
- To facilitate the work, you can use the machine for screwing supports. It will also help to quickly penetrate the pile using capstan – pipes with special eyelets for long handles.
- We begin the rotation of the handles, gradually deepening the tip of the support into the ground.
Tip! If the support has to be screwed into a dense clay soil, it is worthwhile to pre-do a well in it, the diameter of which will be less than the diameter of the stem. This will weaken the structure somewhat, but will allow the pile to be lowered to the design depth.
- All screwed support pruned level with a saw for metal, then fill with cast concrete to the level of the cut.
- We put on caps on sections and weld them, making sure that the pads are in the same plane.
Base with welded tips
The above-ground part of the pile foundation is treated with a composition that protects the metal from corrosion. Particular attention is paid to weld seams.
On recessed supports we mount a horizontal grillage of beams, rails or channels.
As can be seen from the description, the main advantage is the highest speed of work: no need to wait until the concrete is dry, and you can immediately proceed to the next stage of construction.
We hope that having studied this article, you have understood for yourself how to properly make the foundation for the house in your situation. As you can see, there are several options, and each of them has its own unique features. That is why it is worthwhile to carefully examine all the initial data, decide on priorities – and only then get down to work. In the presented video in this article you will find additional information on this topic.
How to make a foundation for the house
When it comes to building a house, you need a very competent and responsible approach to the device carrying the foundation, as the foundation is the most important constructive element of the entire structure.
Scheme of pile and slab foundations.
If the foundation is initially made incorrectly, then global consequences are inevitable, the house can be skewed, and cracks will go along the walls.
Saving on the foundation will entail an overrun of the material, horizontal and vertical deformations of the whole house. To make the foundation right, you need to familiarize yourself with the types of foundation and choose the most suitable option for your future construction.
Types and characteristics
If the foundation is viewed by design features, it can be divided into the main types:
The scheme of the tape foundation.
Each of these types has its own characteristics in the application. For example, some of the foundations can be made by hand without the involvement of special equipment. The most common type of carrier is a strip foundation. This type is most often used in construction due to the fact that it is done quite simply.
Ribbon foundation is made in the form of solid strips buried in the ground. All the load from the bearing elements (walls, columns) is transferred to them. Tapes are based on evenly distributed pillows (base plates), which makes it possible to transfer the force to a large area of soil from the supporting columns or walls. This will allow the use of a soil base without special preparatory work.
The strip foundation is suitable for the construction of a one-story or multi-storey building with or without a basement. This base can be safely made for walls of brick and reinforced concrete, load-bearing walls can have a multilayer coating. The strip foundation maintains the pressure under the pillow from 10 tons per sq.m. This carrier can be divided into two types according to the type of execution:
- monolithic foundation, which can be made directly on the construction site under the house;
- prefabricated, which is made of prefabricated reinforced concrete blocks (FBS), which are manufactured at the factory. The assembly is performed at the construction site using a crane and consists of several block rows, the lower row has a grazing extension, that is, it is trapezoidal.
Tape carrier base
According to the type of material, the strip foundation can be divided into the following types:
The scheme of reinforcement strip foundation.
- Concrete foundations, which are made of concrete with aggregates (rubble, stones, gravel, crushed brick).
- Reinforced concrete, made of concrete (B15-B30) and reinforcement. This strip foundation correctly applied under the house with massive load-bearing walls, a thickness of 380 mm.
- Brick, which are made of solid clay brick (M100 and M200). They are used under the house up to 5 floors and in cases when it is not possible to make formwork and solid works.
In order to make a strip foundation, you will need the following materials and tools:
Installation scheme reinforced foundation.
- knitting wire or welding tools;
- rolled material for waterproofing;
- special hooks;
- mating gun;
- building level;
- marking pegs;
- shovel, if you have to make a trench with your own hands;
- boards, 50 mm thick for formwork.
In frequent cases, butobeton and reinforced concrete are used for tape material, this is due to the high demand for the construction of private houses. Given that the technology of the device is somewhat more complicated than the precast strip foundation. as an example, consider it.
Scheme of the drainage system of the foundation.
One of the advantages of this foundation is that you can do it yourself without much effort, but you will need helpers to build quickly. Initially, the construction site is cleared and the material is imported. On the site is the marking of the perimeter of the house and fixed the location of the elements for the supporting base. For this you will need a tape measure, a cord and pegs. At this stage it is necessary to do everything correctly.
If the building site with a difficult terrain, then you need a level and slats. The angles of the rectangular and square support should be strictly at right angles. The construction site should be about 0.5 m more than the overall dimensions of the house. Next, you need to dig a trench, you can do it yourself with a shovel or an excavator.
When using the technique, the bottom of the trench will still have to be leveled manually, cleaned and strengthened the pit. For the construction of the house to be carried out correctly, it is necessary to lay a pillow of sand or gravel, which is 150 mm thick, on the trench. Next, you need to pour it with water and carefully tamped. A waterproofing layer is laid on the pillow, then it is poured with cement mortar. This is necessary so that moisture does not penetrate from the ground and does not violate the performance characteristics of the foundation.
See also: Features mechanized floor screed
Installation of formwork and installation of fittings
The scheme of slab foundation.
- the formwork device can be made correctly without your own hands from planks 50 mm thick, planed on one side. They are installed inside the trench. Perfect fit collapsible iron formwork. The installed structure is thoroughly cleaned of dirt and debris, and is wetted with plenty of water. To make everything right, the formwork must be rigidly fixed with struts;
- it is necessary to carefully approach the verticalization of the walls of the trench under the house, depends on how durable the strip foundation will be. The formwork must be brought 30 cm above the ground surface. Height above ground will be the base for the future home. It is immediately necessary to make holes for plumbing, sewage and other utilities, if this is left for later, you will have to break the integrity of the monolith. After the construction of the monolith, another waterproofing layer is made to protect the walls of the house from moisture;
- simultaneously with the formwork around the perimeter mounted valves, assembled with their own hands in the frame product. The diameter of the bars of the fittings and the number provided by the project. If not, then do it yourself 2 rows of reinforcement vertically and 1 horizontally (fastening). The number of rods depends on the depth of the base. The fittings are installed in 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm increments;
- when the reinforcement is poured with concrete, the structure gets very strong properties. The frame is laid on the entire height of the supporting base and binds very rigidly the upper and lower parts. Thus, the reinforcement cage for a strip foundation is produced by welding or tying with wire. The connection of the reinforcement by welding is performed outside the trench. Then the sections are installed at the bottom of the trench and are fastened together with a wire. Installation of valves is carried out with strict observance of steps, diameter and material class, according to the project.
Pouring concrete into formwork
Pile foundation layout.
To complete the strip foundation, it is necessary to correctly cast the foundation into the formwork. To do this, concrete must be poured gradually, in layers, each layer should have about 20 cm. Each layer for the house is carefully pressed with its own hands using wooden tampers to subsequently eliminate voids in the concrete composition. You also need to knock out the walls of the formwork.
For these purposes, it is recommended to use a concrete vibrator. It is very important to ensure that the concrete is of the same consistency. If the solution is kneaded with your own hands, it is necessary to ensure that the solution is not too liquid. If it is made like this, the aggregate can settle on the bottom, then the solution will stratify and its quality will decrease, which will greatly affect the house.
In order to obtain high-strength concrete, and hence a high-quality strip foundation, it is necessary to make it rigid, with maximum effort applied when mixing with a shovel. If construction is carried out in the winter, which is undesirable, concrete requires warming when setting. This is done with straw, sawdust, glass wool, or you can simply warm up. It is impossible to pour concrete from a height of more than 1.5 m, otherwise the mixture will separate.
If butobeton is used as a mixture, it is necessary to follow the joining of rubble stones, they should fit tightly to each other. This choice will take considerable time, especially if done with your own hands, as the stones are precisely selected and adjusted. This technology is reduced to the alternation of operations for laying layers and their compaction, and between them is poured concrete binder, which should be finely filled.
Diagram of the columnar foundation.
After the concrete completely hardens (at least 10 days), the formwork can be removed. For waterproofing it is recommended to use bitumen mastic. She coat the outer walls and then install waterproofing material. As a waterproofing perfectly suitable roofing material. At this stage, it is necessary to carefully monitor the quality of the installation so that the waterproofing material does not depart from the walls of the foundation.
If holes and detachments are found, they must be removed. There is another way, more simple, to provide waterproofing. Sinuses carrying the base are filled with clay, which is well compacted. After that, it is recommended to treat the soil, which is adjacent to the foundation, with polymer mixtures, then you can be sure of the strength of the base.
Scheme drainage stepped foundation.
After a layer of waterproofing is made, backfilling of the sinuses of the supporting base is performed. For this we need medium sand. Each layer is carefully rammed and watered. This operation must be done carefully with your own hands so as not to damage the waterproofing layer. Waterproofing is protected by a drainage membrane or geotextile. If there is a basement in the project and it is necessary to warm it, then it is recommended to use a layer of insulation over the waterproofing. Then the waterproofing layer will be reliably protected from mechanical impact during backfilling.
See also: Mauerlat attachment points to the foam block
This category of carrier is a pillar, which is immersed to the required depth provided by the project. On top of the pillars connect the foundation beams of reinforced concrete. Pillar foundation foundation is used for individual construction of houses (no more than 2 floors), which are built from wood or other lightweight material. Most often, the column foundation is used for the construction of a frame house or a light country cottage.
According to the type of performance, they can be divided into:
- national teams;
- monolithic concrete (B10 and B20).
The following materials are used for the pillars:
- Tree. It can be treated oak or pine. It is used for small buildings.
- Brick made of clay on a solution of cement and bricks. It is used for 2-storey brick buildings.
- Natural stone of high strength. It is used for heavy brick buildings.
- Concrete (B15, B25) with reinforcing cages. It is used for heavy premises without a basement or industrial structures.
The order of construction of this type of foundation begins with the markup, for this you need tools:
- construction cord;
- wooden pegs (50 cm long);
The marking starts from the anchor point or from an arbitrarily selected one of the corners along the internal contour, it is there that the first peg clogs. Then the outer sides of the foundation are measured. On the one hand, the size is equal to the longitudinal wall (length), and on the other – transverse. At the intersection of the axes set the remaining pegs. Diagonal measurements are achieved keeping right angles.
After that, digging the pits of the columnar foundation at a distance of 3-4 meters, installing formwork and pouring concrete. This will require the following materials:
For formwork will need boards with a thickness of 20 mm, from which to create a shield. A box is made of shields and inserted into prepared pits in the ground at the support site. Reinforcement is produced by fittings with a diameter of 14 mm, it is inserted inside the box, so that the edges do not reach the formwork of 5 mm. The longitudinal rods are mounted to the horizontal with a step of 40 cm. At the final stage they make the pouring of concrete and grouting.
Foundation fill pattern.
The bearing base has the appearance of a reinforced concrete slab laid on the ground. It should be from 30 to 10 cm. This plate is reinforced with fittings with a diameter of 12 to 25 mm. For leveling the soil used lightweight concrete (V7, 5) or sand. This type of foundation allows you to redistribute the load of the building over the entire area of the plate.
Such a bearing base is used for weak soils, where sand, bulk dumps and uneven compressibility. The foundation is applicable for 2 or 3-storey buildings with a high load under the sheet set. The foundation is also suitable if the building has a complex shape or a large length, then expansion joints are applied. These seams cut each slab into smaller sizes.
At the finish all parts of the plate will work as one unit. Even with an uneven draft on the plate, no cracks will arise, and the carrying capacity remains reliable. The only disadvantage of this type of foundation is its high cost, but the costs will be blocked by long-term operation.
Pile foundation device
The construction of strip foundations.
This carrier is made from a whole group of piles. Often use individual piles, which are interconnected on top of reinforced concrete or concrete slab, or grillage (beam). Pile carrier base is used in cases when it is necessary to transfer a large load to very weak soil or to support the building on a more durable one by piercing the upper layer. When weak soils (water-saturated, subsiding, loose, sandy) are deposited at great depths, a pile bearing foundation comes to the rescue.
Piles are used for powerful buildings up to 25 tons per square meter, but it is possible to use them in individual construction, where the soil base is very weak and, except for piles, nothing fits. If we take into account the material, we can distinguish the following types of foundation:
- Reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete for heavy structures made of reinforced concrete.
- The tree from the processed pine is applied to an easy 2-storeyed design.
- Metal pipes are used for heavy structures, where it is inconvenient to use reinforced concrete piles.
- Combined piles of concrete and metal are used in difficult geodesic conditions for high-rise buildings.
Piles are of the following types:
Drift piles are used in the case when the site is not fully investigated. And indented and printed are designed for very cramped conditions. Screws are used for the supports of towers, masts, bridges and are laid in any soils. The disadvantage is the high cost, it is virtually impossible to do it yourself, it is necessary to attract special equipment.
How to make a foundation for a house with your own hands
The foundation is the foundation of any structure. Its main purpose is to ensure the strength and reliability of the erected structure. Building a foundation is key to building a house. If you want to build a foundation with your own hands, then do it as best as possible! Qualitatively laid foundation will extend the life of the building, protect it from the negative effects of the environment. Of great importance is the type of foundation, the choice of which depends largely on the type of soil on the construction site and the type of structure.
Foundation types and their features
It is possible to build a house on any foundation; it is only important to take into account the natural conditions of the area where the building site is located. In modern construction, the following types of foundation are used:
- The columnar foundation is erected under wooden or light frame structures, as well as under houses in which the arrangement of the basement is not planned. The base in the form of pillars is ideal for a site with a slope. From an economic point of view, such a foundation is more profitable to build with a large depth of soil freezing or in wetlands.
- The base in the form of concrete tape – the most common option. Ribbon foundation can be erected under the brick houses, block buildings. outbuildings and fences. However, it is not recommended to build heavy stone structures on a strip foundation. The tape basis allows to equip the basement in the house. The best place for the construction of the tape is considered to be a plot with deep groundwater and an insignificant amount of soil freezing.
- Slab base – an ideal basement with dubious characteristics of the soil. It is a solid, solid foundation. The slab is one of the most expensive construction processes that requires accurate calculation. Therefore, to choose a slab foundation is necessary only as a last resort.
- The pile and screw base enjoys wide popularity, thanks to the high bearing ability, the low price and high speed of installation. The weak point of such a base – corrosion of metal piles. It is possible to build a pile foundation on all types of soil with the exception of rocky soil.
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Independent construction of the foundation for the house
In order for the foundation of the house to be strong and reliable, it is necessary to treat each stage of its construction very responsibly.
Stage 1. Layout of the foundation.
Making markup for the foundation
Marking indicates the position of the future house, so the strength of the whole structure depends on its proper performance. The main tools of this stage are wooden pegs and thick threads. The following actions are performed:
- According to the alleged line of the facade of the structure, they drive in pegs and stretch a thread between them. The distance between the stakes should exceed the length of the house by 0.5 m.
- On the thread mark the places where the corners of the house will be located, and draw lines perpendicular to the facade through these marks of the line. Their length should slightly exceed the planned width of the house.
Tip! To check the perpendicularity of the corners, one line should be measured 3 m, on the other – 4 m. If the distance between these points is 5 m, then the angles are right angles.
- For these threads measure the distance equal to the length of the side walls, and make a mark with pegs.
- Between the marks stretch the thread parallel to the front line of the house.
Tip! To check the accuracy of the location of the corners, you need to measure the diagonal of the formed rectangle. If these parameters are equal, then the markup is correct.
- After all the control measurements, the inner lines of the basement are marked. To this end, it is necessary to retreat 0.4 m inside the perimeter. For more accurate marking of corners, pegs are set outside the perimeter.
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Stage 2. Earthworks.
Earthworks during construction
It is possible to perform work at this stage manually, using a shovel. You can attract a special technique that will speed up the process several times. The depth of the trench depends on the chosen type of foundation: for shallow tape – 0.6-0.7 m, for a normal base – about 1.8 m. For arranging the sand-gravel pad, an additional 20 cm is dug.
The walls of the trench must be strictly vertical, to use the building level to check. To prevent the shedding of the soil, you can install props.
The bottom of the trench is carefully leveled, also using the building level to check the horizontal position.
The gravel-sand pillow settles in the following order:
- At the bottom of the sand poured a layer of 10-15 cm, moistened and compacted.
- Re-fill the sand and ram again carefully.
- A layer of gravel up to 15 cm in height is laid over the sand, which is also carefully tamped.
Tip! To avoid erosion or silting of the shallow bottom pillow, the bottom of the trench can be covered with geotextile.
Stage 3. Installation of the formwork for the foundation.
Arrangement of formwork tape grounds – this is a very crucial stage. His main task is to choose the right material. After all, the formwork must withstand a huge mass of concrete solution. Most often for the manufacture of formwork using edged boards with a thickness of more than 20 mm or sheets of moisture-resistant plywood. These materials are low cost and more affordable than other options.
The installation of the formwork is carried out in the following order:
- Rectangular shields are made of planks, fastened with transverse bars. It is better to use screws as fasteners. This will facilitate the dismantling of the formwork system in the future.
- The installation of shields is carried out on both sides of the trench with reinforcement through 50-70 cm with wooden struts. Using struts of the same length, one can achieve the same distance between the opposite sides of the formwork.
- Outside the formwork is fixed with wooden supports. One side of the bars must be cut to 45 0. It is with this end that the bar rests against the formwork shields. This design will make the form more durable.
- Further, the formwork and the bottom of the trench are covered with waterproofing material that will prevent the wood from absorbing the milk from the concrete solution. For this purpose, you can use the usual plastic film.
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Stage 4. Creating a reinforcing frame.
The reinforcing frame laid in the foundation serves to strengthen the base and prolong its service life. Most often, the frame is made of steel rods with a diameter of 10-16 mm, and for their bundles using soft knitting wire. The framework is created in the following way:
- The armature is cut into bars along the length and width of the trench.
- Longitudinal rods laid at a distance, every 25-30 cm fasten transverse elements. The result is a horizontal grille.
- To create a three-dimensional form, the horizontal grids are laid in several rows, also fastened with transverse rods.
To avoid corrosion of reinforcement, it is not recommended to lay the frame directly on the pillow. It is best to use a stand made of scraps of polyethylene pipe.
In the corners of the foundation and at the intersection of the main tape with bearing partitions, you must additionally perform a bundle frame.
Stage 5. Concrete pouring.
Before starting work it is recommended to indicate the level of concrete pouring. For this purpose, on the inside of the boards, formwork tension the fishing line. It must be placed above the frame of the reinforcement by 5 cm and stretch along the entire perimeter of the trench.
To fill the foundation you need to use high-quality concrete factory made. It will be delivered to the site with specialized equipment. But to save money, you can independently prepare the mixture on the site. To do this, you need cement brand M400, crushed stone fines and coarse sand. Compliance with the proportions of the batch is a very important condition that guarantees the production of a high quality solution. Preparation of the mixture is carried out according to the following technology:
- Sift 3 parts of sand and connect them with 5 parts of gravel.
- Mix everything well and add 1 part water. When this fluid is injected in small portions to obtain a solution of medium density.
- The solution is stirred until a homogeneous consistency.
It is necessary to pour the resulting composition in layers of no more than 20 cm. It is very important that the solution fill all voids in the reinforcement cage. For sealing, you can use small bars of reinforcement, piercing the filled mixture with them. This will also remove air bubbles that have formed during the mixing of the solution. If you use a special vibrator, you can increase the strength of the cast base several times.
Fill in the following layers according to a similar scheme, until the concrete is equal to the stretched fishing line. The top of the concrete mix level with a trowel.
Dismantling of the formwork can be done in two weeks, and further construction is recommended to begin only in a month.
Important! The whole period of hardening of the foundation is necessary to monitor its surface. From rain and sunlight, it is necessary to cover the foundation with plastic wrap. In order to avoid cracking – to carry out constant moistening.
How to equip the foundation for the extension to the house
Sometimes at the end of the main construction there is a need to build an extension to the house. To avoid trouble during the operation of this part, it is necessary to build it on a quality basis. To do this, you must follow the rules:
- The foundation of the house and extension must be exactly the same.
- For the rigid mounting of an additional base, the reinforcement cage of the main building is connected with the extension reinforcement.
The process of pouring the foundation for the extension is performed using the same technology as the main tape.
Creating a foundation for your own home is a very important and time-consuming process. However, with the observance of all the rules and regulations, you can make a high-quality and reliable base with your crayfish.
Sources: http://ofundamentah.com/stroit/201-kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom, http://1pobetonu.ru/montazh/kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom.html, http: // stroykarecept.ru/fundament/montazh/kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom-svoimi-rukami.html