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Any frame wall is a base, which in the next stage is sheathed and filled with various materials. In our case, a tree is used for the base.
The technology of building frame walls of wood
The frame is a rack, the cross section of which may be in the range of 38 * 150 mm. The distance between the axes of the racks is chosen, as a rule, depending on the width of the insulation used for frame walls and is usually 380-600 mm. This is done so that the next step does not have to do extra work on cutting the material.
The rafters are fastened at the top and bottom by strapping from boards (the section may be, for example, 38 * 200 mm). The distance between the axes of the rafter as well as the genital lag is about 380 mm, which allows the use of standard plywood sheets for plating. At the same time, these distances are chosen in view of giving the structure the necessary rigidity.
The frame is sheathed inside and out. Thermal insulation of frame walls is carried out by means of various plates, for example, peat, fiber, synthetic, fiber-fiber or glass-wool, reed, mineral wool mats.
Outside, the sheathing of the roof and frame are sheathed with 10 mm plywood, covered with a wind-waterproofing film. Over plywood frame is finished, as a rule, clapboard.
On the internal frame walls lies vapor barrier. It slows down the exit from the room of water vapor and, as a result, prevents the formation of condensate on the wall.
They clad the inner wall with drywall or, like the outer frame walls, clapboard. Over drywall can glue wallpaper. The thickness of the frame walls as a result, it turns out 180-200 mm. Overlapping beams (38 * 150 mm) rest on the top trim. If necessary, the framework of the second floor is built in a similar way.
If the house has a frame-shield construction, then ready-made shields are hung on the wooden frame, which will directly represent the walls. Here the bottom piping is a bar with a section of 100 * 150 mm or 150 * 150 mm. Bars laid on the foundation (tape or columnar) using waterproofing.
Shields are installed on the harness. The design ends with the device of the top trim at home. After assembly, shields may not undergo additional trimming from the inside. The gaps between the shields are caulked or blown out by building foam.
Timber for the construction of the frame can be partially replaced by a hollow, as well as composite. To replace the lining is quite suitable modern material block house. It is worth noting that the block house from the inside is no different from lining, so the choice depends only on personal preference. From the outside, it looks like a crown of a log house and from a long distance a house sheathed with a block house is almost impossible to distinguish from a house built of timber or logs. If the building is lined with a block-house with a thickness of 30 mm, and the total wall thickness is 200 mm, the sound insulation coefficient Rw will be up to 53 decibels.
How to make the walls of a frame house
Frame technology home construction is not in vain is very popular among buyers of suburban housing. After all, this is the ease of construction, and low cost, and assembly speed. But when designing such a house it is necessary to remember that the walls of this house should be protected not only from wind and cold, but also from extraneous noise. However, before we talk about the frame house as a whole, because the walls themselves will not line up into the house.
When the foundation is ready, we proceed to the construction of the house itself. It is very important at the very beginning to accurately set the binding frame of the frame structure, because the stability of the whole house will depend on it. In fact, the lower trim of the frame structure is its foundation, with which the walls are attached to the foundation, and the load of the whole house on the foundation is evenly distributed. As a rule, timber with a section of 150 * 200 mm is used for the binding device. At the same time, the distance between the vertical pillars of the frame should not exceed 2.5 meters.
Layers in the wall of the frame house
Subtleties of the device lower strapping
Preparation for laying a strapping beam consists in arranging waterproofing of the upper part of the foundation. One of the following materials is well suited for this purpose: roofing material, bituminous mastic, etc. Well, then in order:
- trimming bar treated with antiseptic;
- we perform wood joints vpoldereva and fix them with brackets and nails 120 mm;
- to reinforce the design, the corner mates are fixed with metal corners;
- we fasten the frame of the frame house to the foundation by means of an anchor bolt with a nut tightening.
Bottom trim boards
After installing the vertical racks of the external walls of the house, it is the turn of the arrangement of interfloor overlap. And this work should begin with the installation of the top trim. As a material for it, you can use a double board with a lining of insulation or solid timber. The total thickness of such a precast (or solid) beam should not be thicker than the vertical pillar of the frame wall. The height of the brace should be calculated by a specialist, since this parameter determines the uniform distribution of the load exerted by the upper structures on the lower part of the frame house.
The angle of the upper trim frame house
How to fix timber
The methods of fastening are exactly the same as when mounting the vertical pillars of the frame: either with corners or with fastenings by means of complete / incomplete cutting. Before installing interfloor beams, it is necessary to make the framework of the first floor rather rigid, since interfloor beams are also floor lags on the second floor. The necessary rigidity of the frame will give the constant braces, which can be mounted either by cutting or by means of metal fasteners. You can also fasten the bracing, piercing them with nails. The length of the nail should be such that after passing through the brace, he plunged into a rack at least 80 mm.
Device frame house
Important! If you have mounted the vertical uprights of the frame with the help of a cut-in, then all connecting nodes should be additionally reinforced with metal brackets, which can be made either from reinforcement with a cross-section of 8-10mm, or from sheet metal with a thickness of at least 3-4 mm.
Problems encountered during installation and their solutions
- Difficulties may arise during the installation of the strapping. They need to be prepared, but it would be even better if you consider some nuances and do not allow problems to arise.
- So, when constructing a foundation of screw piles or blocks, it sometimes happens that its individual elements may not coincide with the others in height, that is, they will not be located on the same level. As a result, the harness will not fall on all the piles and the load will not be distributed unevenly.
- In the future, it will be very difficult to correct something, so even at the stage of laying the foundation, it is necessary to thoroughly check the geometry of the pile field and eliminate the identified errors immediately.
- Sagging of the strapping beam over the foundation can be corrected with the help of wooden pads, but it is better not to allow such sagging. All columns must be moved to the same level.
- When drilling a hole under the foundation anchor in a timber, proceed carefully, as there is a risk of getting cut of the wrong size. For the same reason, wood can crack.
The frame of the house, ready for insulation
The essence of the wall element
The frame house is a special type of low-rise building, based on a rigid structure consisting of vertical posts connected horizontally. This rigid structure is called the frame. The device of the wall of the frame house in other words is called a pie, since such a wall consists of several layers.
At first glance it may seem that it is very simple to build a frame structure, and this is true, but the expected result can only be achieved by consistently performing all the steps and adhering to a certain technology, which still has its own tricks:
- The thickness of the walls – it must be selected in accordance with the purpose of the building and the climate zone.
- Good insulation is the material that combines quality and affordable price.
- Insulation must be protected from the effects of various atmospheric phenomena. For this purpose, special films are used.
- If the insulation is put incorrectly, then cold bridges can form in the walls – areas through which heat will escape.
- Exterior finish is performed with all the requirements for materials used in its device.
Now about everything in order.
Wall frame house
The main task in the construction of any home is to make it as warm as possible while reducing the cost of heating. This can be achieved only under the condition that the thermal conductivity of the walls will be minimized. Properly arranged frame wall will retain heat indoors and not let the cold out. To achieve the maximum effect, the frame stands must be made of a bar, 200 mm thick.
For areas with a hot climate, the walls can be made thinner – here the main task will be to minimize the cost of ventilation and air conditioning, and everything will depend on the size of insulation.
If you are building a country house and plan to use it only in summer, the wall thickness of 40 mm will be optimal. For the framework of such a house is usually used edged board, “forgive” width of about 150 mm.
Insulation for the wall
If you look at the wall in a section, you can see that the insulation occupies the main part of it. It performs the function of protecting structure – it provides reliable sound and heat insulation of the premises.
The main types of insulation for the frame house:
- Polyfoam is an inexpensive material, but it has many disadvantages. This is brittleness, low sound insulation, flammability, high risk of damage by rodents.
- Mineral wool is the most popular material that is used today by most construction companies that offer prefabricated frame houses.
- Ecowool and polyurethane foam have exceptional protection options. When using them as insulation, paroizol is not required. The disadvantage is quite a high price.
Wall insulation foam
We consider the filling of the wall of the frame house on the example of mineral wool, as the most popular insulation. And more information about the weatherization and the risks of error can be found here
How to lay insulation
Insulation can be laid both on top of the finished exterior and directly into the frame. Usually, in order to ensure the rigidity of the structure, the outer surface of the frame wall is sheathed with either plywood sheets or OSB slabs. In this case, the insulation is attached to them. If you decide to make the outer casing of edged boards, then between the sheets of insulation and plating you will need to lay a special wind-proof film.
Warm min wadding
When cutting insulation, cut squares with an allowance of 50mm in width on all sides. So mineral wool will fall tight, without gaps and gaps.
The joints between the stand and the mat should be sealed with narrow double folded stripes. You can pave them and hands, but it will be more convenient to use a screwdriver.
The best option would be a double layer of mineral wool between the racks, plus another layer on top. In this case, the risk of cold bridges will be reduced to zero.
Insulation is attached to the flat surface with a special glue, and dish-shaped plastic dowels can be used as an additional fixation.
The procedure for warming the frame house
Paro- and waterproofing
Under the inner lining of the wall of the frame house must be placed vapor barrier material. Waterproofing film is laid on top of the insulation under the outer skin to protect the structure from wind and moisture.
Vapor barrier prevents wet vapor from escaping. If we neglect this element – the steam will condense inside the “cake” and penetrate into the insulation, which over time will lead to a deterioration of its properties and an increase in heating costs. Attention! If you decide to use ecowool or polyurethane foam as a heater, vapor barrier will be superfluous.
Paro and hydro insulation of a frame house
In the construction of frame structures as a vapor barrier material is usually used penofol, and for waterproofing – asphalt or membrane films. Lay them need to overlap, and fixed with a construction stapler. The nodes of the joints and junctions are glued with a special self-adhesive tape.
About self-construction of a frame house read here.
The wall cake is sheathed with finishing materials on both sides. Since the wall of the frame house is ideally flat, almost any available cover can be used to finish it. For exterior decoration of country houses usually use wooden or plastic materials:
- imitation of a bar (log)
- vinyl siding
Often, in carrying out the final finishing of the facade on their own, the owners of country houses do not pay attention to the recommendations of the specialists and assemble the lining directly to the frame. Such a solution is quite viable if the house is operated exclusively in the summer, but if you live in such a house in the winter for at least a week – condensate will accumulate under the skin, causing double damage – to destroy the wood and moisten the insulation.
In order to avoid such consequences and to initially lay the possibility of operating the house all year round, the facade should be made ventilated. To do this, over the entire surface of the frame nail bars 30-40 mm thick are nailed, and a lining is placed on them. The main difficulty here is the exact pouring of the foundation, so that it does not prevent the penetration of air into the ventilation gap. Internal finishing is made, as a rule, by gypsum plasterboard, fiberboard or clapboard.
The walls of the frame houses have an ideal structure for the insulation of the interior, therefore, having collected the wall cake according to all the rules, you will get a warm, cozy and comfortable home.
Read about the perfect exterior finish here.
Sources: http://fb.ru/article/263837/ustroystvo-sten-karkasnogo-doma-opisanie-shema-i-rekomendatsii, http://moydomik.net/doma/derevyannyy-dom/47-tehnologiya-stroitelstva- karkasnyh-sten-iz-dereva.html, http://karkasblog.ru/mounting/steny-karkasnogo-doma.html