Thermal insulation materials for walls

Extruded appearance is a plate or sheet of rigid texture, made of synthetic polystyrene granules, with the addition of a gas mixture and a foaming agent. With very low thermal conductivity and absolutely non-hygroscopic.

The material is not subjected to deformation, it can ignite, but with the disappearance of the source of ignition fades.

  Thermal insulation materials for walls

The advantages of basalt wool are: low thermal conductivity, long service life, resistance to the formation of fungus and mold, high sound insulation, etc.

The disadvantage is poor vapor permeability, which leads to deterioration of the microclimate. If you decide to use this type of insulation, do not forget about ventilation.

Glass wool refers to the materials that are used for thermal insulation. The basis of manufacturing is glass waste.

Advantages of material for internal warming:

  • high elasticity;
  • non-toxicity;
  • soundproofing;
  • fire resistance;
  • not susceptible to mold.
  • when working with the material need overalls;
  • Some species contain formaldehyde.

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Ecowool and its characteristics

Cellulose-based material is very light, retains heat well, friable, contains wood fiber, borax antiseptic with boric acid.

  • environmentally friendly material, all components are natural and safe, toxins are not released when ignited;
  • moisture resistant material has the properties of accumulating and returning moisture without losing its basic properties;
  • fire-resistant material, ecowool does not burn, does not melt, but has the properties to smolder, when eliminating the source of ignition, it immediately fades;
  • it is biologically stable, because ecowool contains antiseptic substances with additives of boric compounds, and this is detrimental to rodents and allows them to successfully protect the structure from microorganisms;
  • easy installation: they spray the walls with a construction vacuum cleaner, filling all the cracks and cracks, resulting in a seamless, level surface.
  • material cannot be mounted near working fireplaces, flues.

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Cork wallpaper: application

This type of insulation is designed for wall insulation, but can also serve as a separate decorative finish. The most important positive indicator is the environmental friendliness of the material. This type of cork insulation is made; before manufacturing, the material is cleaned, crushed and then pressed.

  • durability in operation;
  • antibacterial properties;
  • good thermal insulation;
  • excellent soundproofing.

But whichever material you choose to insulate the walls from the inside, remember that it is better to insulate everything from the outside, and only when you are convinced that this is not possible for any reason, proceed to the internal repair work.

Moments that you must pay attention to when starting to work on home insulation from the inside:

  1. Maximum dry work surfaces, made installation waterproofing works that will separate the wall from the interior room space.
  2. The insulator that you will use should be as moisture-resistant as possible and with the least vapor permeability. In no case should the layer of heat insulator to be installed have gaps or slots.

Before you begin repairs, you must remember that all insulation work is carried out only in the warm season, and be sure to ensure that there is no precipitation, the weather was dry. Dry the wall as much as possible, using heaters or heat guns to accelerate drying over the entire depth of the wall. This procedure will help reduce humidity to a minimum.

To do this qualitatively, very carefully choose the material for wall insulation from the inside. This type of work is considered to be long-term, it is carried out on the basis of a long service life, respectively, all the necessary building materials must have the necessary properties at all times.

Material for wall insulation inside

Often, when in old houses it is necessary to make wall insulation inside the apartment or to completely replace the insulation with more technological insulation. Here it is important to choose the right material and correctly install it, otherwise condensation will start to accumulate and mold will develop right inside the walls. And to remove the consequences of improper thermal insulation is very expensive and time consuming. Therefore, do not hurry, and calculate the possible options and choose the only right decision.

Styrofoam

Or, as it is called – foam (PPP). This most common insulation is obtained by polymerization of styrene, which is heated and foamed under the influence of a gas-forming substance. The obtained granules can be poured into horizontal slabs for insulation, but in most cases already pressed blocks or slabs are sold.

PPS has excellent thermal insulation properties and practically does not absorb moisture. When warming, they will not have to construct formwork and perform additional work on waterproofing and vapor barrier walls. It is undemanding during operation, and with proper installation for several decades retains its properties. Moreover, its low price is also attractive. But the choice of material for wall insulation inside the house should be approached with great responsibility, and low cost should not prevail in this matter. The faculty has a number of shortcomings that are not so important for the insulation of walls outside or non-residential premises, but for apartments and private houses they are a serious danger.

  • polystyrene is flammable, and when burned it emits toxic substances hazardous to human health;
  • PPP plates are very fragile and easily broken, so very often you have to buy more material;
  • almost always, rodents are found in the PPS, who gladly settle their holes in it. This leads to the destruction of insulation and the need to use special chemicals.

Extruded polystyrene foam

It is also used for wall insulation from the inside. It is a rigid slab of polystyrene granules, a mixture of gas and a foaming agent. This is a universal insulation that is used for thermal insulation of walls, basements, freezers, rooms with high humidity, etc.

It has a low thermal conductivity and is practically non-hygroscopic. It is not subject to destruction under the influence of environment (difference of temperatures, an atmospheric precipitation). Extruded polystyrene foam can heat up when heated, but damps when the source is removed. When burning, it does not emit harmful substances.

Despite all the advantages, extruded polystyrene foam (EPS) has low vapor permeability, which leads to a poor indoor climate. Therefore, when insulation is necessary to provide a ventilation system.

And with a long stay in direct sunlight begins to deteriorate and lose its heat-conducting properties. Under ideal operating conditions, the service life does not exceed 30 years.

Mineral wool

This is an excellent material for wall insulation inside and out on the basis of basalt, slag, etc. Minvata is produced in rolls or slabs and has a different density, on which the thermal insulation qualities and price depend. The rolled material is suitable for insulation of ceilings and floors, and plates are used for walls.

  • the house warmed by a mineral wool well keeps heat in the winter and is protected from an overheat in the summer;
  • good sound reflecting and sound absorbing properties of the material. A material with a looser structure absorbs air noises well, and a more dense one isolates a room from sounds appearing due to impact;
  • It is important, especially for residential premises, and the fact that the mineral wool belongs to non-combustible materials. And by direct contact with fire, it does not emit toxic substances and practically does not form smoke.
  • The declared safety of the material is rather conditional. In the manufacture of mineral wool used a binder that is able to release phenol;
  • working with it is not as dangerous as with fiberglass, but it also requires mandatory protective equipment.

To insulate the walls inside the room, it is best to use basalt cotton wool from superfine fiber, since there is no binder in its composition. After laying the insulation, it is closed with a vapor barrier film that protects it from condensation, and the room from small particles of insulation.

Glass wool

This is one of the most famous thermal insulation materials, but in recent years its popularity has declined due to the emergence of newer and more technologically advanced heaters. Made on the basis of glass waste, which in the structure is represented by wide fibers up to 5 cm in length.

  • high elasticity. For storage, it can be compactly pressed, and if necessary, it can quickly take its original size;
  • high vibration resistance;
  • non-toxicity;
  • excellent sound and heat insulation properties;
  • fireproof;
  • not subject to the formation of fungi and mold;
  • pests do not damage it.
  • in comparison with other heaters lower operating life;
  • some types of glass wool contain formaldehyde;
  • during work, protective equipment for the whole body and face is required.

The last and, perhaps, the most important drawback should be discussed in more detail. If we neglect the precautions when working with glass wool, and it gets on the skin, severe itching will begin, from which it will not be possible to get rid of for a long time. And if particles of material get into the respiratory tract, there is a risk of serious and irreversible health problems. All clothing and respirator after work should be discarded immediately.

But this disadvantage more than pays off a great combination of high thermal insulation properties and low prices. It is enough to be careful in the work, and then at a low financial cost it will be possible to qualitatively insulate the walls of the house from the inside.

This is a lightweight, cellulose-based thermal insulation material. It has a loose structure of light gray or gray color. It contains wood fiber, boric acid and borax as an antiseptic.

  • environmental friendliness. All components in its composition are of natural origin and safe for humans and the environment. Due to this, it was entered into the register of natural and safe materials, and the hypoallergenic and hygienic qualities were confirmed by certificates. In case of fire, ecowool does not emit toxic substances;
  • good thermal insulation properties. This is due to the low air permeability, low thermal conductivity and fine fiber structure. As practice has shown, the heat-conducting properties of ecowool do not decrease with time, and in terms of the quality of insulation, it is not inferior to mineral wool, foam concrete, wooden beam, brickwork and expanded clay;
  • does not cause corrosion. Ecowool is ideal for insulation of metal structures, as it does not provoke the formation of rust;
  • does not shrink. Due to the elasticity and resilience of cellulose fibers, ecowool does not shrink over time, even in vertical structures. This is an incomparable advantage over wadded insulation;
  • high-quality sound insulation. It is much higher than mineral wool. A layer 5 cm thick can absorb 63 dB noise. Therefore, when it insulates all walls, floor and interfloor ceilings, excellent results can be achieved. But most often this material is used for wall insulation inside the house at the construction stage;
  • quick installation. It is sprayed on the walls using a special vacuum cleaner. This method allows you to fill all the cracks and hard to reach places, creating a seamless coating. A professional will cope with the warming of a house of 100 m2 in just 1-2 days;
  • possesses moisture resistant and vapor-permeable properties. Ecowool is able to both accumulate and release moisture without losing its insulating properties. But, despite the assurances of manufacturers in the absence of the need for a vapor barrier device, it should be done;
  • biostability of the material. Due to the content of antiseptics in its composition, ecowool is resistant to microorganisms. So, successfully protects the walls from rotting and destruction. The antiseptics are boric compounds that have a specific taste and are destructive for rodents and other pests;
  • fire resistance. Ecowool is resistant to burning, it smolders, but does not ignite and does not melt. With the elimination of the source of ignition, it immediately goes out.
  • Despite the fact that the sprayer can be rented, installation should be entrusted to professionals, which leads to higher cost of work. Successful and long-term operation of the house will depend on the quality of performance;
  • ecowool should not be laid near the chimney, lighted fireplace or a hot pipe. Under the influence of high temperature, the material begins to glow;
  • when warming with a “wet” method and with applying a thick layer, the drying process may take more than a day.

The total cost of works on wall insulation from the inside with ecowool will be more expensive than mineral wool. But this is a justified overpayment, because once it is qualitatively warm, you can enjoy a warm house for many years.

Liquid ceramic insulation of walls from the inside

This is an ultra-thin thermal insulation, consisting of a whole range of evacuated microspheres, acrylic binder, anti-corrosion and antifungal additives. The result is a water-resistant, flexible and resistant to negative external effects composition.

Externally, liquid ceramic insulation resembles ordinary paint, which makes it possible to apply it to absolutely any surface with a brush, spray gun or roller. Due to its versatility and easy application, liquid insulation is so popular during construction and repair work. And in its characteristics, it even surpasses foam plastic and mineral wool. A layer thickness of just 1 mm is equivalent to 50 mm of mineral wool.

Liquid insulation can withstand temperatures from – 60 to +250 degrees without changing its performance characteristics. It will not require additional work on the hydro- and vapor barrier. The service life is 15-30 years.

  • excellent adhesion with any material (wood, concrete, plastic, metal);
  • protects the wall from moisture;
  • easy to apply;
  • reduction of room heat loss – 1 mm of the layer increases the temperature of the wall by 3 degrees;
  • ease of repair if necessary;
  • environmentally friendly and safe for health;
  • there are no shelters for pests;
  • allowed to be applied at temperatures up to – 20 degrees;
  • the total cost of thermal insulation is the same as the cost of painting the walls;
  • does not increase the load on the walls.

Cork wallpaper as a heater for walls

It is an eco-friendly and safe material. They are both insulation for walls and decorative coating. But, despite the assurances of manufacturers of good insulating qualities, due to the thin layer, they are not effective enough.

Polystyrene wallpaper with thermal insulation properties

With their help, they not only insulate the walls from the inside, but also mask small surface defects. This method is most rational for the insulation of apartments, when it is not possible to install insulation outside. Wallpapers have a thickness of only 3, 6 or 10 mm, and therefore the living space is practically not engaged. They are rolls with a width of 50 cm to 1 meter and a length of 10 m. They are glued to the walls as usual wallpaper butt but with a special glue.

  • polystyrene wallpaper has excellent thermal insulation properties, 6 mm of material is equivalent to a brick wall 12.5 cm thick (half a brick);
  • provide noise insulation;
  • high moisture resistance protects the walls from the formation of mold;
  • there is no unpleasant smell.

Styrofoam wallpaper is safe for health, as they do not contain freon and butane. But glued end-to-end, they create a break-resistant structure. On their front side there is a paper layer on which it is not difficult to glue decorative wallpaper. There is a more budget option, without a paper layer, it is suitable for non-residential premises.

The disadvantages include its flammability. And also the fact that when pasting with polystyrene foam the walls of the room (as with any other internal insulation), the dew point shifts towards the room.

Warming of the walls inside the premises is responsible work, the result of which should please for many years. If you have doubts about your own abilities, entrust all calculations and choice of thermal insulation material to professionals.

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Thermal insulation of the walls from the inside – types of insulation materials

Wall insulation is the only way to create a comfortable microclimate in the house and reduce heating costs. What to do if the placement of insulation outside is impossible because of the height of the floor or the need to preserve the architectural image of the building? In this situation, the only way out is to mount the insulating material from the inside.

Internal warming: pros and cons

The walls of brick or concrete panels easily let the cold inside the room, so they must be insulated with a material with low thermal conductivity. So that its placement from the inside does not bring more minuses than positive moments, it is necessary to choose the right insulation.

There are several basic criteria by which a selection is made:

  • Flammability class. The indicator characterizes the degree of safety in case of fire. For mounting it is better to use products with G1 marking.
  • No deformation and shrinkage. The material should not pile up and expose sections of the wall.
  • Durability. The insulation device is made for a long time, so the products used must have a long operation.
  • Thermal conductivity. One of the most important indicators, the smaller it is, the better the insulation works.
  • Vapor permeability Low ability to pass steam in the conditions of internal warming is a plus. It allows you to isolate the wall from moisture from the room.

In the internal warming has its advantages:

  • room temperature rises;
  • work can be done at any time, regardless of the weather and season;
  • interior change.

The process has more minuses:

  • the area of ​​the room decreases;
  • offset dew point leads to dampness on the walls;
  • at the time of insulation will have to leave the apartment;
  • walls remain unprotected from external influence and are deprived of heating from the inside;
  • in case of installation errors, mold and fungus appear.

How to minimize negative effects?

The main requirement that avoids the appearance of condensation, insulation of the wall from wet steam from the room. In addition, its surface must be protected by a continuous layer of high-quality waterproofing. To fulfill these conditions you need to follow several rules:

  1. Insulation must have a lower coefficient of vapor permeability than the wall, then the moisture will go out.
  2. It is necessary to provide effective ventilation of the room.
  3. Between the layer of insulation and the surface of the wall leave a minimum gap.
  4. The adhesive composition is applied not a point, but a continuous coating.
  5. Finishing is carried out by a moisture resistant cardboard.
  6. For the tightness of the waterproofing fabric, you need to lay it overlapping and glue with special adhesive tape joints and abutments.

Characteristics and types of materials for internal insulation

Extruded polystyrene foam is the optimal choice for warming internal walls. It has a minimum vapor permeability, when mounted on glue there is no gap between the plates and the wall. The effective thickness of the plates is 25-30 mm, they occupy a small area of ​​the room. Durable material does not lose shape, is resistant to moisture, has a small weight. Plastering can be carried out on the surface of the insulation, laying reinforcing mesh. It does not require a framing device for finishing and attaching waterproofing like mineral wool. Before mounting the slabs, the wall is simply covered with an antifungal compound.

Polyfoam – the material is a cheaper and less durable version of extruded polystyrene foam. It attracts customers with low thermal conductivity, moisture resistance, ease of installation. Insulation badly permits steam, which is necessary for the internal placement of the insulating material. Affordable cost is a weighty argument in favor of foam plastic. Among the disadvantages:

  • flammability;
  • attraction for rodents;
  • fragility.

Mineral wool is not the best material for warming a room from the inside. Its excellent vapor permeability, which is useful in another situation, becomes a minus here. But it is not necessary to abandon mineral wool, it is necessary to waterproof the wall with plastic wrap before laying it.

For the installation of insulation will have to collect the crate of wooden bars or galvanized profile. With the vertical placement of the material is not recommended to use the cotton wool, it gets loose over time, and form unprotected sections of the wall. It is better to purchase rigid plates that are conveniently mounted and not subject to deformation.

According to all other characteristics, mineral wool is optimally suitable for indoor placement, it is durable, does not burn, retains heat well and absorbs noise. During the work with a heater the protective suit is necessary.

Penofol – foamed polyethylene coated with aluminum foil film. The reflective layer can be located on one or two sides. The material is safe, has a low thermal conductivity and vapor permeability. It can be used alone or as a protective layer on top of mineral wool.

Ecowool – friable loose material from natural cellulose. It contains borax and boric acid additives, chemicals protect the insulation from burning and rotting. Ecowool is a good heat and sound insulator, it does not shrink and serves a long time. Disadvantages:

  • the application of the material is carried out with the help of special equipment;
  • wet insulation will dry out for several days.

Liquid ceramic insulation consists of air-filled ceramic balls and a polymer to bind them. The material is applied with a thin layer of spray gun. In terms of its efficiency, it surpasses all the listed insulants. Advantages:

  • maintains heat to + 250º;
  • moisture resistance;
  • adhesion with all construction materials;
  • environmental friendliness;
  • no load on the wall;
  • for insulation, it is enough to apply a layer of 3 mm;
  • resistance to mold and mildew;
  • durability, warranty period up to 25 years.

Insulation of walls from the inside is carried out in exceptional cases, it will bring the expected effect only when using a suitable material and observing the technology of its installation.

Sources: http://ostroymaterialah.ru/utepliteli/materialy-dlya-utepleniya-sten-iznutri.html, http://strport.ru/izolyatsionnye-materialy/utepliteli/material-dlya-utepleniya-sten-vnutri, http: //remontami.ru/teploizolyaciya-sten-iznutri/

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