After laying the pipes, it is necessary to carry out their hydraulic test, which will make sure that the system does not leak and heats the room properly. After checking, it is possible to stack aluminum heat distribution plates on top, to cover them with a waterproofing substrate.
At the device of a heat-insulated floor it is useful to think over at once layout of the room. So under the large-sized furniture in the presence of a heated floor does not make sense, and when placed under the appliances (refrigerator, washing machine, etc.), it will only harm it with additional heating.
On average, a warm floor will cost between one and a half – three thousand per square meter.
Other options for underfloor heating in the frame house
An alternative to a water-heated floor will be electric – cable or with an infrared carbon film.
The cable is laid with a step of 10-20 cm on the floor surface on the heat insulating material. To increase the temperature, the step can be slightly reduced, but not more than 5 cm. The power of the system varies depending on whether the heated floor is the main way of heating the room, or only complements traditional batteries.
The action of film heating systems is based on infrared radiation of carbon paste inside the film. To increase the efficiency of such a floor, a heat-insulating substrate with a foil-coated coating is placed under it, which will reflect the heat back into the room. Fragments of the film are placed jointly at the joint, with 10 cm indents from the walls. If it is necessary to cut a solid piece, this can be done only in the places specially marked on the film with a dotted line.
Heating is also located only under the useful open part of the room. Before laying the floor covering, the performance of the underfloor heating system must also be checked.
Choosing a clean floor covering, you should give preference to materials specifically designed for installation over a warm floor. They will have a high thermal conductivity, which means they will allow the maximum amount of heat to go to the heating room.
Soft flooring such as carpet or linoleum can be put directly on the warm floor, and for hard (laminate, tile, etc.), you will need an additional base, made of plywood sheets or moisture resistant plasterboard.
Any material must be “accustomed” to the microclimate of the room, for this it must lie down in it before installation at least several hours.
For a house with a wooden floor construction, it is better to use the lightest flooring materials. These will be linoleum and laminate.
Linoleum is laid on a thin (1-2 mm) polyethylene substrate, or even without it, if it has its soft layer below, with a slight overlap on the walls. Having settled on the floor for a couple of days, it can sit down a little or, on the contrary, expand, so you shouldn’t immediately cut it along the contour of the walls.
Linoleum is fixed on the masking tape or glue. If blisters form somewhere on the coating, it bristles, then this place should be straightened and crushed by something heavy. To prevent shifts and deformations of the coating, it should be installed indoors without drafts. Do not also immediately arrange the furniture, the glue must be given time to grab.
After the linoleum flooring, wooden or plastic plinths are mounted around the perimeter of the room. Aluminum joints at the joints.
Laminate is mounted with a small indentation from the walls, necessary to compensate for the change in the dimensions of the material during temperature fluctuations. The transverse joints of the individual boards of the material should not be on the same line, they should be laid separately.
The device of the floor in the frame house is a labor-intensive, but quite simple thing, accessible even to a novice in the field of construction. Regulatory documents will help to make accurate calculations of the required size and quantity of materials. Compliance with the technology and the use of high-quality materials will provide a design that will last a long time.
What you shouldn’t particularly save on is the waterproofing of the foundation and antiseptic impregnation of all wooden floor elements.
How to make a floor in a frame house at the lowest cost
Erection of the floor is the most important construction stage. The quality of the floor determines how comfortable your home will be, whether it will have a body in it in the winter. The floor in the frame house can be made in several ways. For seasonal living in the country, it can be easier, and for the living space additional warming is often required, and then water heating is mounted under its surface. Consider the basic methods of device of this element of the building.
The device floor in a frame house with their own hands
The main types and their advantages
In a wooden house warm floor can be installed in several ways. The choice depends on the personal preferences of the owner, on the foundation, on financial possibilities. There are 3 main ways to create a floor:
- based on concrete screed
- based on concrete slabs
- based on adjustable systems
Concrete floor screed
The floor on the basis of a concrete screed has several advantages, in addition to low prices:
- It withstands heavy loads.
- Creates a flat surface.
- Is an excellent basis for the device of a heat-insulated floor.
- The big term of operation at which repair is not required.
The use of plates for the home
A floor based on concrete slabs is also called a dry screed. Its main advantages are:
- Ease of installation and construction.
- Quality base for the frame house.
- On the plates it is good to lay down a water-heated floor.
- The life of more than a hundred years.
Adjustable floor systems
If you choose a solution using regulated systems, you will acquire:
- Modern way of arranging the floor.
- Ease of installation.
- We create the necessary floor drops for the visual division of the room into zones.
- It can be mounted both on logs, and on overlappings.
Concrete frame under frame
Before you make a concrete screed, it is necessary to carry out a series of preparatory work. This is a layer under the concrete screed. It should consist of the following layers:
- The very first layer is a coarse-grained soil.
- Next, you need to pour the sand, which must be tamped.
- We cover the sand with large rubble, which we also tamp. The thickness of this layer should be at least 10 cm.
Draft screed on the ground
If the foundation is high, then the sand should be filled and tamped down gradually, each layer falling asleep and tamping separately. Use a rammer or vibro-compactor that will visibly facilitate your work. Moisten the surface of the sand with water, only not much, it will help to seal the sand more strongly. This is a very important stage of laying floors on the ground, so it’s best not to hurry and allow the sand to settle for some time after mechanical compaction. If the sand is compacted quality, the top layer of rubble may not be required.
Tip: Sometimes you can find the following composition of the cake under the floor: soil, rubble, sand. It is also considered correct, and often its use is more justified.
We leave about 10 cm to the upper edge of the foundation. The concrete screed itself will be located here. Do not forget that by the time the device is installed, you should have parts of engineering communications, this applies to sewage, water mains and wires for conducting electricity to the frame house.
Diagram of the floor in the frame house
Now it is time for the screed device. Concrete is supplied from the mixer, its density should be slightly below average. We can say that the concrete should be freely spread over the entire surface, having the consistency of liquid sour cream. We level and distribute it with shovels evenly in each department of the future house.
Tip: underfloor heating can be done under the finishing screed, and you can put them directly on the insulation. To do this, they put a reinforcing mesh on it, and a warm floor pipe is fixed to it with clamps (another mesh can be put on top), and it is poured with a finishing tie.
You can additionally use a metal grid and reinforce the foundation, which will give it additional strength. However, experience suggests that most often this is not necessary.
Flatten Liquid Cement
Since you used more liquid concrete than usual, there is no need to install beacons for leveling concrete. The liquid consistency allows the solution to more evenly distribute itself independently in space and maintain the desired level. The only negative – a longer basement battle. On the second day, the foundation is still liquid and puddles of released water can penetrate across its surface.
Waterproofing the floor with a draft screed
If the moisture evaporates very quickly, for example during dry and hot weather, on the second day, moisten the screed.
At this stage, the floor can be left and continue to put the frame of the frame house. if it has not previously been delivered. If you make a screed on the ground after installing the walls. You can continue to do the floor.
On the rough concrete screed, which we have made, it is necessary to lay the following layers:
- Vapor barrier.
- Finishing screed.
- Warm water floor.
In some companies laying hydro and vapor barrier produce a single layer, which is fraught with accumulation of moisture in the insulation. To understand correctly why it is impossible to do this, you need to know the nature of the vapor barrier and waterproofing. Waterproofing is placed immediately on the concrete, as it must prevent the ingress of moisture from the concrete to the insulation. This is especially true when mineral moisture is used as a heater, which absorbs moisture, crumples and loses all the suites of thermal properties. Therefore, waterproofing protects from moisture in the insulation.
We use a damper film
Do not forget to use a damper film to compensate for the expansion of concrete, if you lay the “warm floor”.
Tip: If you lay a layer of penoizol under the concrete, moisture will not be absorbed into the concrete, thereby increasing the life of the structure. And the floors in such a house will be warmer.
However, the insulation itself is often located in the dew formation zone, and if it comes into contact with cold concrete, even through waterproofing, it can collect condensate on itself. That is why we put a vapor barrier over the insulation, which allows excess moisture to go outside, and does not allow moisture to penetrate inside. These are the qualities that modern vapor barrier membranes have.
Water warm floor in the frame house
Only after laying all the layers, you can proceed to the device bulk self-leveling floor. The finishing floor is also made by pouring the surface with a concrete mix, on which, after drying, pipes can be installed under a water-heated floor. At the same time the warm floor has a pitch of 160-300 mm.
Why it is better not to use a tile tie
For the device of such floor reinforced concrete plates are used. Such a floor requires additional ventilation in the foundation – it is necessary to form airways. It is better to make them through for adequate ventilation under the plates. The minimum height from the ground to the bottom of the slab should be half a meter. Therefore, the foundation should be quite high.
Using slabs when flooring
For low-depth foundations, which are most often erected under the frame houses, this type of screed is not suitable. Moisture coming from the ground will lead to premature destruction of the plates, due to which their operation becomes unsafe.
To lay the unused part of the foundation, it is necessary to lay it with bricks, which leads to additional costs and difficulties in the work.
That is why it is better not to use a dry tile tie for frame houses.
Lag-based wooden construction
Wooden floors for the frame house are considered a universal solution. They support the tradition of wooden construction, breathe, perform some role of ventilation of the frame house. and the whole house is done in one technology.
Wooden floor logs
Wooden floors for the skeleton carcasses are made with the help of logs, which are an ordinary timber from high-quality, better coniferous, wood. All elements of the wooden house should be impregnated with an antiseptic. Lags spread across the light from the windows, then the flooring boards will be located along this direction. A gap of 2-3 cm must be left between the lags and the wall. Lags should touch the sound insulation layer without gaps.
Half meter lag
If you plan to dock two lags, then their length should be at least 2 meters. If the surface on which spread logs is uneven, it is necessary to put a gasket under them. The height of the space between the roughing screed and the floor surface should be at least 10 cm. Lags are attached to the roughing screed using anchors. Lags need to be laid flat, so check the geometry of laying in all directions. To do this, you can use a two-meter rail, which is laid on the logs, checking – if there are no gaps. The rake must lie flat, without free space under it.
Floor scheme in the frame house
After all the logs are laid and checked, it was the turn to make crate. We place the bolts on the lugs (lining), securing them with self-tapping screws. The size of the lathing should correspond to the size of the plywood used. The distance between the bolts must be at least 30 cm.
Crate lag board
We put sheets of plywood on the crate. It is also necessary to pre-soak the antiseptic. Laying should be done so that the sheets do not touch each other. If the sheets have a contact point, then in the future the floors may creak, so leave a space of 2 mm between the sheets. Fasten plywood with screws, the distance between which is about 50 cm.
Warm floor is placed most often on the plastic film, with a thickness of 100 microns.
A further stage of work is the preparation of the surface for finishing. Perform priming or treatment with antiseptic. The last stage is the laying of finishing materials, for example, laminate or tile.
We lay plywood on the crate
If you decide to arrange a warm floor, use special concrete mixes.
Useful video on the topic:
Floor frame house with his own hands. Device and step by step instructions
Poles and floor joists
Beams – the main elements of the support, which are laid logs. The supports are pillars made of wood, installed on concrete, which serve to stabilize the beams and protect them from contact with concrete. These elements are made of coniferous wood, impregnated with a bioprotective composition.
- We carry out marking of supports. To do this, draw a plan of their location, indicating the height. Along the line of the location of the supports, we stretch the string, securing it on the beds, where the cuts for the beams are made. Measure the height of each support and record the results in the plan.
- We cut bar 100 x 100 mm in accordance with measurements. We place the blanks in places, laying a layer of waterproofing on the base. We nail the supports with nails to the wooden liners made during pouring.
- Beams are laid end in the pocket, use the liners to adjust their height flush with the floor. If the blanks are long, mark the second end of the beam and cut off the surplus. If short, we join the beams on the support.
- Beams fasten to the deck and intermediate supports corrugated nails. With a height of supports more than 1 m, we strengthen them with hacks from the board.
Binding and logs
The binding is also performed from a board of 50 mm, the width depends on the planned load and the thickness of the insulation.
- Laying strapping performed on the sides of the house, parallel to the beams of the floor. We put the boards on the end, align with the outer edge of the floor and fasten them with nails with a step of 20 cm.
- Mark up the location of the lag. We measure 40 cm from the corner along the laid board of the harness. Lay the boards for the logs on the beams, set them on the side plane and align them by marking.
- With the length of the board covering the length of the building, on the other hand, the marking is done similarly. Lags are cut and fastened with nails to the harness and log beds, checked and fastened to the beams at the intersection.
- If the size of the building is larger, then we overlap the logs. The joint should be on the ceiling beam. We cut 30 cm intermediate logs and make joints between each other, using trimmings as struts. After we fix the logs on the ceiling beams.
The best material for warming is mineral wool. The disadvantage of it is the loss of insulating ability when wet. Therefore, a layer of insulation is protected by vapor-waterproofing and wind-proof film.
If a low-density insulation is chosen, we will heal the subfloor-treated subfloor under the lags.
- Steam insulation film is laid across the log with sagging, which will allow laying insulation between the lags. The joints of the strips are taped, we fasten the film with a stapler.
- Plates of insulation put between the lags, leaving no gaps. When double laying insulation, the second layer overlaps the joints of the first.
- On top of the insulation we put and fasten with straps a waterproofing film that protects against fluid leakage in the house.
How to make a flooring
Often the flooring in the rooms is different, so a layer of plywood of 16-20 mm is laid on the logs, and finishing occurs after construction is completed.
- We mark sheets of plywood so that the joints are on the log. We coat the logs with liquid nails (eliminates squeak and additionally strengthens), we lay sheets of plywood, we fasten with nails or screws.
- Between the sheets, leave a 2 mm gap, so that at high humidity the floor is not led.
- In the places of communications in plywood we make the saws with a circular saw, for which we first mark it.
- We align the edges of the plywood with the trimming board, mark it with a coated thread and trim it.
After the arrangement of the floor, further construction can be carried out – the erection of a frame of walls and a roof. The finish covering on the floor is laid after the installation of internal partitions.
Heat-insulated floor in the frame house
It is necessary at the planning stage of the floor to think through all the important details. That is, if it is necessary that the floor in the bathroom, or the entire floor in the house was heated, it is necessary to make a thermal coating in advance.
It is necessary to study all types of heating and choose the desired one. Heated floor can be made in the whole house, and only in certain areas.
It consists of a system of plastic pipes that are placed throughout the room or house. If your frame house is equipped with a warm floor. take care of the management of this system, make a control center located in a place where it will not hurt anyone.
Saving options for floors and floors
To save in the manufacture of floors and floors can be using:
- used flooring;
- door leaves instead of flooring.
Not new flooring is often even better than the one sold to us in construction markets. It is usually drier, and by using it, you reduce the risk that it will lead. The price of such material may be several times lower than the new raw board.
You can find it on the dismantling of old buildings and technical structures.
Saving on floors using old interior doors
The second option is to use the door leaf instead of the board. You can find old interior doors and lay them instead of boards. Top is covered with parquet flooring. Thus, you can save tens of thousands of rubles on a medium-sized house.
Using this method, you can save on time as well, since wooden canvases are made faster than boards.
It is possible to find old door leafs during the demolition of old five-story houses or in the production of doors where rejected lots are redeemed for next to nothing
Sources: http://okarkase.ru/konsturkciya-doma/pol/ustrojstvo-pola-v-karkasnom-dome.html, http://karkasblog.ru/mounting/pol-v-karkasnom-dome.html, http: //domsdelat.ru/poli/pol-karkasnogo-doma-svoimi-rukami-ustrojstvoi-i-poshagovaya-instrukciya.html