But it was believed that the sawn wood absorbs moisture more strongly, swells and rot. And the wood in logs that are treated with an ax, as if clogged under his blows and does not absorb moisture.
Houses were built without nails, there were several ways to cut logs. The cups were cut down strictly according to the shape of the logs that fit in them, in the crowns they made a longitudinal groove for better log house density. Carefully caulked the joints of the logs.
All this gave the effect of solidity. The thickness of the logs in the log house was sufficient to maintain heat.
House with a male roof, nineteenth century.
Another feature was the construction of a log house under the very roof, the construction of which in this case was called mats. This type of structure was especially widely distributed in the north of Russia. The logs were raised to the very roof, they built the triangle of the pediment, on which they fastened the slings for tesa.
So, we see the following features that did not allow traditional wooden houses to be made in Russia:
- wall thickness sufficient to maintain heat;
- solidity of the walls, achieved by the density of logs and caulking slots;
- low level of hygroscopicity of wood due to its processing with an ax.
Consider these features as applied to modern homes from timber.
Modern house of timber
Modern house from a bar with a section of 150 mm.
For a normal level of microclimate in the house, when winter frosts run cold, it is necessary to build a house out of a bar with a thickness of 40 cm. If the cross section of the bar is smaller, you will not be able to keep warm; After all, the timber simply by itself will freeze through in extreme cold.
In modern housing construction timber is used with a cross section of 150 mm, so this house has to be insulated from the outside or from the inside. The most appropriate to achieve the desired effect is considered external warming log house.
The level of hygroscopicity is reduced by treating the bar with special impregnations. With the help of various methods of outdoor insulation it will be possible to achieve the effect of solidity and sufficient thickness of the walls, the main thing is to find the right answer to the question of what is better to warm the house from the bar outside.
Advantages of outdoor insulation
The advantages of the house insulation method from the outside are as follows:
- the internal space is not affected, it is possible to carry out works without breaking the usual rhythm of life of owners;
- the ability to perform work on the insulation with their own hands, without the involvement of specialists;
- the possibility of an original solution to the facade of the house;
- heat losses are reduced;
- external walls will be protected from the adverse effects of the environment.
Thermal insulation made of basalt wool – Light Butts.
The modern market is rich in materials that are used for wall insulation:
- basalt insulation;
- glass wool;
- extruded polystyrene foam;
- polyethylene foam;
- polyester fiber insulation;
- sprayed polyurethane foam.
In the photo foil insulation Penofol-A of polyethylene foam.
When deciding how to insulate a house from a bar outside, it is necessary to take into account many factors, take them into account and draw the right conclusions. In this matter, an important role is played by the price, quality and thickness of the insulation.
In order to make the right decision, it is necessary to consider all the comparative mechanical and thermal characteristics of insulation, given that the materials produced by different manufacturers, the characteristics may differ.
What features should be paid attention to when deciding how to insulate a bar-shaped house outside:
- thermal conductivity index;
- compressive strength index;
- indicator of elasticity, elasticity (it is important to understand the ability of the material not to break when bent and to restore its original shape);
- study the installation conditions (for each material the manufacturer’s instructions on how to install this heater are attached).
Council When choosing the thickness of insulation, you can face the choice that mineral wool insulation 50 mm thick will be insufficient for walls of 150 mm according to the requirements of SNiP 23-02-2003 “Thermal protection of buildings”, and with insulation thickness of 100 mm will significantly exceed them.
In this case, you can use a combination of different heaters. For example, use foamed polyethylene, covering them with the facade directly along the vapor barrier. and on it sew bars, between which and strengthen the mineral wool insulation.
The order of the insulation
Consider how to properly insulate the outside of the log house, what stages of work must be performed and in what sequence.
In order for the air vapor passing through the thickness of the beam, did not turn into water in the thickness of the insulation, it is necessary to make a vapor barrier. The best option would be to hold it from the inside of the walls by running from the foil material reflecting heat inside the room.
Variant of warming the walls of the house from a bar with vapor insulation inside the room (1-outer sheathing, 2-counter-rail, 3 windscreen, 4 – insulation, 5 – load-bearing wall).
Consider how to insulate a bar-shaped house outside, when the interior has been completed and it is necessary to provide for a wind insulation device outside (read also the article Finishing a house from a bar inside on its own).
You must do this in the following order:
- we fill the vertical crate on the outer walls of the edged board with a thickness of 40-50 mm;
- we fasten the boards with a continuous sheet with an overlapping vapor barrier membrane;
- we fill the second layer of the lathing on the same boards with a step suitable for the chosen heater;
- we lay a heater between bars;
- we lay a film or membrane for wind protection;
- we fix a wind protection with counter racks;
- Mounted on rails outer lining.
Important. The vapor barrier of the wall should have air ducts arranged below and above. This is necessary for air circulation and balancing the temperature in the area of the gap and the temperature in the interior.
Warming a wooden house from a bar is an important stage in the process of reducing energy costs during exploitation and ensuring a high level of living comfort (read also the article Warming from the inside of a house from a bar: features, work order). In the presented video in this article you will find additional information on this topic.
Warming of the house from a bar outside: video and installation rules
When buying a country house from a bar, some people believe that wood is a warm material, so the wooden house does not need additional insulation. But it’s not always the case. In order for the indoor climate to be normal for living in the winter frost, and not to have to pay huge sums for heating, it is necessary that the walls be erected from a bar not less than 40 cm thick. But the construction of such a building will be very expensive.
Most of the houses in the country have walls that are not thick enough to withstand severe frosts. Even if you quality seal all the gaps of the log house – it does not make the house much warmer. In order for the log cabin not to freeze, and the room has a normal temperature, even in the most severe winters, it is necessary to provide high-quality insulation for the log house outside. To make a good insulation system is not difficult now. Manufacturers offer customers a wide selection of a wide variety of insulation materials, the installation technology of which is so simple that it can be performed even by inexperienced and unskilled craftsmen. And in order to ease the task of installing insulation materials, you can view the insulation of a house from a bar outside the video on the Internet with detailed explanations of all stages of insulation works.
External insulation of log houses: the main advantages and useful recommendations
External warming of a log house is carried out using different materials, but they all must meet this requirement.
- Do not sustain burning.
- Have a low thermal conductivity.
- Do not release harmful substances, do not have toxicity.
- Made from environmentally friendly materials.
- Keep warm well.
- Do not accumulate moisture.
- Let out evaporating emissions from home.
- Do not let in atmospheric moisture.
- Have sound insulation properties.
Among the advantages of outdoor insulation can be particularly noted:
- The ability to change, transform or update the facade of the house.
- Reducing heat loss through the building envelope, reducing fuel costs.
- Protection of the bearing walls of the house from adverse natural factors.
- Saving internal space at home.
Useful recommendations for laying insulation
- When performing installation work, do not leave the insulating material in the open air. If the insulation gets wet, it dramatically loses its heat-shielding properties.
- When laying the horizontal bars of the batten with a step smaller than the width of the insulation by 15 mm, they can be laid on the floor without fixing materials.
- When working with insulation, it is necessary to use personal protective equipment (respirator, gloves, glasses).
Outdoor insulation technologies
External wall insulation is performed most often in three ways:
- Ventilated facade.
- Polyurethane spraying method (the material is sprayed onto the wall of the house using a special installation)
- Wall insulation foam.
The most effective and convenient type of insulation, many experts believe hinged ventilated facade. In favor of this method, and say many of its benefits such as:
- Quick installation.
- Large selection of cladding material (siding, wall paneling, granite, wooden front board, batten profile, composite, brick).
- High levels of thermal protection and sound insulation.
- Durability (service life up to 50 years).
- Reducing cash costs for heating.
- Protection of the facade from weathering.
- The “dew point” is outside the bearing walls.
Materials for warming the walls of the house of timber
To insulate the walls of log houses you can use different modern insulation materials. The house from a bar is warmed:
- Mineral wool slabs
- Basalt mats
- Styrofoam and other materials
Each of these heaters has its own distinctive properties. But when choosing a material for a heat insulation system for a wooden house, you need to pay attention to whether this type of heat insulator meets the basic requirements.
Insulators for external insulation of houses from timber should have:
- High heat-shielding properties.
- Resistant to moisture.
- The ability to prevent heat transfer between the room and the external environment.
- Ecological safety.
Excellent conditions for warming and will not allow condensate to accumulate
What and how to insulate a house from a bar
The most popular material for warming log houses is mineral wool. This material is light enough not to create an additional load on the structural elements of the building. The cost of mineral wool is not high, it keeps the house warm, but, most importantly, mineral wool is not a combustible insulation. Due to its softness, elasticity, mineral wool is easy to fit and does not form cold bridges. In addition, it is resistant to thermal deformations of the walls.
Warming can be done under the block-house, and you can outside sheathe the walls of the house with plastic siding. Installation of a thermal insulation system using mineral wool consists of several stages:
The installation of the thermal insulation system of a wooden house begins with the installation of a vapor barrier. To do this, you can use aluminum foil, plastic film, special film-vapor barrier and roofing material. Vapor barrier provides ventilation of the facade under the film.
Vertical slats 2.5 cm thick are stuffed on the walls, at a distance of 1 meter from one another. Next, a vapor barrier is stuffed onto the plank slats on the entire surface of the wall. Between the base slats at the top and bottom make holes (20 mm in diameter) for ventilation. The presence of a ventilated layer between the vapor barrier and the wall will not allow moisture to accumulate under the film, which could cause the wooden wall to rot. The vapor barrier is fastened with nails or staples, the attachment points are taped to protect them from water.
Installation of a framework for thermal insulation
For the frame take the board width of 100 mm and a thickness of 40-50 mm. On the wall boards are stuffed vertically on the edge. The distance between the boards should be less than the width of the insulation by one to two centimeters.
The beam to the facade of the house is fastened with screws. When installing a timber, you need to control its position by level or plumb. If the lathing is unevenly mounted, the installation of the cladding material at the final stage of thermal insulation works will be of poor quality.
To install the insulation system of a log house, it is necessary to install a frame
Between the boards of the slab frame, mints are installed as closely as possible to each other so that there are no gaps. Mineral wool 50 mm thick is laid in two layers. They use semi-rigid, elastic, plates with a density of 80–120 kg / m3, they are easily held between the framework boards, without sliding down without additional fastening.
Laying insulation between the bars of the frame
After finishing the laying of insulation you need to put a waterproofing film that must pass steam, but at the same time retain water. The film is placed on the insulation, nailing with staples or nails frame. When joining the film leave 5-10 cm of overlap, the joints are sealed with self-adhesive tape.
The second layer of the frame
On the framework of thermal insulation stuffed over the rail waterproofing (50 mm wide and 2.5 – 3 cm thick). This is necessary in order to ensure free air circulation between the skin and the vapor barrier, which will dry the condensate that appears on the waterproofing layer. The formed space is covered from below with a thick metal grid, from the penetration of insects and rodents into it.
Exterior plating serves mainly a decorative function. Therefore, what will be the facing material does not matter much. It can be wooden lining, and plastic siding or any other material.
Insulators for thermal insulation of walls from timber
Recently, there have been many effective heaters that are manufactured on the basis of advanced technologies. One of these modern materials is Penoplex, produced by a Russian company in the form of heat-insulating plates.
“Penoplex” is a type of foamed extruded polystyrene foam, prepared according to special technologies. Panels are durable and highly resistant to moisture. This material does not have the ability to absorb moisture, is not afraid of dampness, is not an environment for the development of bacteria, mold and other microorganisms.
The plates of “Penoplex”, due to their high strength, can be laid both vertically and horizontally. The structure of their surface allows you to apply plaster.
Insulation “Penoplex” is a material having a uniform structure, which consists of small, closed cells (size 0.1-0.2 mm).
The main properties of PENOPLEX plates are:
- low thermal conductivity
- low vapor permeability
- lack of water absorption
- high compressive strength
- resistance to burning and biodegradation
- ecological purity
- easy and convenient installation
When using penoplex plates, you should be aware that this material, like other types of extruded polystyrene foam, has a low chemical resistance to such substances as:
- Aldehydes (formaldehyde, formalin)
- Aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene)
- Ketones (acetone, methyl ethyl ketone)
- Esters (diethyl ether), you can not use solvents with ethyl acetate, methyl acetate,
- Gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel
- Polyester resins (hardeners of epoxy resins and coal tar should not be used),
- Oil paints.
Penoplex is resistant to the following chemicals:
- Salt solutions.
- Caustic alkali.
- For alcohol and alcohol dyes.
- For water based paints.
- Ammonia, carbon dioxide, oxygen, acetylene, propane, butane.
- Fluorinated hydrocarbons (freons)
- To cement and concrete solutions.
- Animal and vegetable oils, paraffin.
Important! Plates “PENOPLEX” should be used only in the temperature mode recommended by the manufacturer. If the range of the recommended working temperatures is prolonged for a long time, the plates may lose their mechanical, heat-insulating properties and change their dimensions. With Penoplex insulation, only adhesive solutions allowed by the manufacturer should be used. Products containing acetone, ethyl acetate, etc. lead to softening, shrinkage of extruded polystyrene foam.
Another modern insulation – Polyurethane foam is used to warm the walls of a log-house at home by spraying.
The main advantages of this method:
- Thermal insulation system based on polyurethane foam is not subject to rotting and bacteria.
- The material has a long service life, during which retains its insulating qualities.
- Does not support burning.
- It has soundproofing properties.
- A simple way to apply insulating material.
- Does not need additional fasteners.
- Environmental friendliness.
This method of insulation can be used for thermal insulation of walls, basement, foundation.
It is easiest to insulate a log house with foam plastic, but this material has low fire-fighting properties. And since wood itself is a combustible material, many experts do not recommend using foam plates for insulation of wooden walls.
Therefore, the best option for warming a log house will be mineral wool, glass wool and other materials which are incombustible.
Important! Before starting the insulation of the walls of a log house outside, it is necessary to treat the fire retardants (wood combustibility reducing agents) and antiseptics (preparations protecting the wood from rotting, fungi, mold, insects).
Sources: http://delai-remont.com/uteplenie/uteplenie-doma-iz-brusa-snaruzhi.html, http://1brus.ru/operacii/uteplenije/34-kak-uteplit-dom-iz-brusa- snaruzhi, http://79w.ru/uteplenie/dom/uteplenie-doma-iz-brusa-snaruzhi-video