Mounting the frame house with their own hands, the developers from the very name of the technology understand that the main element of such a structure is the frame, and it is on it that the entire structure is retained. The skeleton consists of vertical posts fixed with bolts and horizontal strapping. As before, here the entire construction process is carried out in stages. The material used is wood or metal profile. for the installation of which will require a welding machine and certain skills. If you decide to create a frame of wood, it is recommended to choose hardwoods, such as larch or the most popular oak. The height of the rack should correspond to the same parameter of the room. Connect the rack thorn-groove on the principle of lower strapping. After fitting, there should be no gaps.
Wall frame elements
Depending on what kind of load will affect the load-bearing supports, plan the distance between the uprights and their caliber, and the dimensions of the cladding material are already selected for them. Typically, the cross-section of the racks take 150×50 mm, in the openings put a double beam 150x50mm. The most popular step racks – 600 mm (allows you to install insulation “in the tension” for dense filling the wall). To connect the uprights with the lower strapping, temporary braces are used, which is why the structure acquires the necessary rigidity.
Diagram of the device corners frame
Now the step-by-step instruction led us to the installation of the top trim, which is carried out after the installation of the vertical beam. Fixing occurs with the help of the same grooves, which fastened the lower timber. The upper fastening to the posts is carried out by two nails, which should enter the material not less than 10 cm. The final fastening of the frame is carried out by permanent mowing, installed instead of the dismantled temporary. Read more about this in the article “Upper and lower trim of a frame house.” We also recommend that you familiarize yourself with the device of the most important components of the frame house.
We install and insulate walls
The outer walls of the house are sheathed with a siding under a log, wooden lining, plastic siding, as the owner of the house wishes. Warming is best done using mineral wool. It will reliably and inexpensively solve the problem of home insulation, which makes frame construction even more profitable and in demand. If you plan to live here all year round, then select insulation with a thickness of 15 cm or more. For greater efficiency, tackle the counter lattice from a 50×50 mm (8) bar and put insulation (7) with the “second layer” over the racks, so you can avoid possible cold bridges and make the house truly energy efficient. Read more about the pie wall device. and also about the general warming of the frame house.
Scheme of warming of a frame wall
The material is pressed into all the gaps between the beams to remove voids. To protect the wood from moisture, a waterproofing film will help, which is mounted on top of the insulation on the racks, and only then the lath casing for ventfacade, which will be hidden under the external facing, is packed. An OSB or gypsum fiber board is suitable for wall cladding from the inside.
Building a ceiling
The ceiling is attached to the ceiling beams, which, in turn, are fixed with grooves or steel brackets on the top trim bar. Where interroom partitions are installed, it is necessary to install support bars in the place of which a wooden ceiling shield is nailed.
Warming attic flooring scheme
On top of the shield you need to put a vapor barrier membrane with an obligatory overlap on the beams, with which the mineral wool, foam plastic, etc., are laid level with. The insulation is closed by vapor barrier, and boards are laid over it. Read more about weatherization attic.
So in stages we got to the installation of the roof. The roof weighs a lot, so it must rely on the finished walls without finishing. Before starting work, determine the degree of slope, the number of ramps, the type of roof cladding, the design of the truss system.
The dependence of the slope of the roof of the material used
A roof with a complex shape looks attractive, but it is difficult to implement, therefore, not cheap. Most often there are two-fold constructions. allowing to equip the attic or attic space. Here it is necessary to install only one ridge, endy and completely absent, which eliminates the accumulation of precipitation and leakage. So that the snow did not stay on the roof, plan its slope more than 28º but not more than 50º, otherwise the wind load will increase.
The cross section of the rafters is determined according to the placement of insulation material between them, an average of 100-150 mm. It is best to take a board, caliber 150x50mm and 6 m long. Two boards need to be knocked down in the shape of an L, and then they are lifted up and the angle is determined, ensuring that the overhangs extend beyond the wall level by 30-50 cm. Now the boards can be assembled with a bolt, and we get a kind of rafters.
The design of the truss system gable roof
Where there will be supports, triangular notches are provided for a third of the height. The upper frame binding acts here as a mauerlat. According to the made sample, they create rafters on the entire roof, not forgetting about a step of 700 – 800 mm. Rafters on a skate set to the gable, and already on them continue to install the remaining elements. Depends on what decorative lining will be.
Step-by-step instruction ends at the stage of installing the roof cladding. You can choose a soft tile, corrugated board or metal tile. It is easy to work with all these materials, they are affordable and have a decent look. After facing, it will only be necessary to install drainpipes and a drainage system, which will be responsible for the removal of precipitation outside the site.
But for you a unique film – a detailed step-by-step instruction on the construction of a frame house from scratch. Do not thank!)
Now you know how to build a frame house with your own hands so that the structure is strong and warm. If you do not ignore the rules of construction and assembly technology, you will become the happy owner of your own home, which you can only dream of.
Frame house in stages: construction and step-by-step technology
An important advantage of such buildings is that a person has the opportunity to build a house in full compliance with their preferences. After all, you can choose any suitable project.
Features of the construction of houses on frame technology lies in the fact that before being built a rigid frame of a house with a roof. After this, finishing with sheet material and thermal insulation begins.
Further construction is also carried out frame-shield method. If you take up the construction with your own hands, then the construction of such a dwelling can be completed within six months.
Frame house: phased construction
When building a house using this technology, it is very important to take into account the estimated time of residence there. Because if it is seasonal, then there will be the same requirements for the house, if it is planned to use the dwelling all year round, it should be carefully insulated.
Construction technology: the foundation
All frame buildings have a fairly small weight, so they do not require a capital foundation.
It is possible to do one of the following foundations:
The final choice of foundation depends on the height of the future house and the type of soil in the area.
Low-rise building will be enough simple columnar foundation. which is suitable even for capricious soil.
Recesses are made in it with a diameter of about 20 centimeters, and about a meter deep, at a distance of 0.8 m from each other.
Recently, the pile-screw foundation is in demand, the peculiarity of which is that it can be installed without the involvement of specialists. It is better to do this manually, so that the piles are screwed in without deviations, strictly on the level.
At the same time, one should try not to make a mistake, since it is not recommended to re-inject them, otherwise the soil already rammed will be broken.
Two different technologies are most commonly used – Canadian and Finnish. Given that they have different names, the principle of erection is practically the same. And there and there the foundation is a frame, made of metal or wood. Frames from different types of timber are very popular.
Construction stages: strapping
It is necessary to prepare wooden bars that have a cross section of 20/25, 15/15, 20/20 cm. Before installation, the timber must be prepared. It is treated with a special antiseptic composition. On the tops of the piles, in turn, put a double layer of mastic, and cover them with a double layer of roofing material. The beam should cover the entire area inside the perimeter of the future home. Between themselves, the individual bars are connected by nails.
Metal corners in the corners of the joints will provide greater structural strength. The construction of the strapping is fastened to the foundation with special screws. The bar is inserted into the grooves, screwed. A plank is laid on top of the trim, overlapping the joints of the bars. Later here stand up the main frame. Like all wooden parts, the board is treated with antiseptic.
Do it yourself: rough floor
You will need to make logs from a bar. A material of 15/10 size is used, the step width between the individual bars is 0.6 meters.
Between them is placed insulation. the purpose of which is to protect from moisture from the cold. A layer of vapor barrier film is laid on it.
The rough floor itself is usually made from unedged board, the cheapest material.
But he must be treated with antiseptic agents. Boards to the logs are fastened with nails, logs to the trim with metal corners.
House in stages: frame mounting
You will need a board of a different format: 10, 20, 5 and 15 by 5 centimeters. First, the corner posts are made, which are fastened with reinforced corners of steel. With the help of the same corners are fastened and the other installed racks. For the reliability of the frame, wall stitches are made that will not allow it to loosen.
By cutting, the timber is fastened at the corners, in other places with steel corners and self-tapping screws.
Diagonal braces also serve to ensure durability. When building walls, remember the ceiling. or rather, its height. The optimum value will be about 2.5 m. After finishing and decorating it will remain no less than 2.3.
If you intend to hide in the walls of communication. then it is advisable to hold them right away.
Installation of ceiling beams is carried out in one of three possible ways:
- steel corners;
- cutting method;
- by perforated brackets.
The choice of the most suitable depends on the place of attachment. Timber strapping will serve as a support for the beams. The latter is fixed with screws.
Phased construction: roof installation
Separate rafters at the top are fastened together by means of nails. For strength they are reinforced with boards. Further on the wall are laid rafters. so that the protrusion is 20 cm in size. With a few mowings and nails, the rafters are fastened starting from the edges. After fixing their central elements mounted ridge board.
Then, with the help of edged boards made crate. Roofing material is laid and attached to the made crate.
It is fixed with large-boned nails. Installation of roofing material occurs at the very last stage. If the technique allows the use of the material used, then all activities can be done by hand.
House in stages: insulation and finishing
There are many different materials used for exterior decoration. This is siding. timber simulator, wall paneling, block house. Chipboard plates and stuff. Final finishing is preceded by the mounting of the batten from 50/40 bars, with a distance of 0.6 m between them. Metal profiles are successfully used for this purpose.
If the crate is wooden, then it must be treated with fire-fighting and antiseptic agents.
Then there is a manual finish in accordance with the technology used for finishing the material.
In order to build a house with his own hands, the frame house was warm and cozy, it must be insulated. This will require both internal and external insulation. Outside the building is insulated with mineral wool (even before the finishing), which is mounted foam.
As an internal insulating material is used mineral wool and drywall. All available slots and openings are filled with foam from a pistol. All should warm – the floor. ceiling, walls and roofing. Between the decorative trim and insulation is placed a layer of vapor barrier material.
The final stage of work is the provision of all necessary communications, and final finishing, the type of which depends on the preferences of the owner. Today’s selection of finishing materials will satisfy the most biased taste. It is possible to embody any fantasy and project in the dream. There would be a desire! Successes you in construction.
Sources: http://fb.ru/article/180392/karkasnyiy-dom-svoimi-rukami-poshagovaya-instruktsiya-tehnologiya-stroitelstva, http://domzastroika.ru/construction/poshagovaya-instrukciya-stroitelstva-karkasnogo-doma html, http://domsdelat.ru/karkas-doma/karkasnyj-dom-poetapno-stroitelstvo-i-poshagovaya-texnologiya.html