Secondly, the price of a plot is not of little importance, but rather the ratio of its price and criteria, the presence of which you considered necessary.
And finally, if everything suits you, you must carefully check the documents on the site, talk with your neighbors. It would not be superfluous to contact the local authorities, get information about the site. It is necessary to check whether all taxes and fees for the site have been paid, and whether the site you like is not a subject of legal dispute as to how correctly the survey was carried out, to once again clarify the number of the site being acquired.
About the size of the plot:
The size of the land plot plays an important role, if only because the possible dimensions of the house being built will depend on it. The desired proportion of one to ten, that is, if you plan to build a house with an area of 100 square meters, then the land must be at least ten acres. Otherwise, the development of the site will become too costly, or you will not be able to subsequently increase your structure if necessary.
Where to get water for the site?
One of the most important issues is the problem with water. Is it on the site, or at least nearby, how is the water supply to the neighboring sites, and the possibility of leading the communications to the selected site, or the probability of drilling your own well, and if possible, how likely. You should carefully evaluate this operation. All this will significantly affect the price of the plot, so these issues need to be considered without delay.
We do not need an energy crisis!
Equally important is the issue of electrification of the site and the likely need for your own substation, since the 10 kW of electricity allocated by the standards is unlikely to be enough for you to carry out construction work and for further life activity. However, the construction of a diesel substation is a rather expensive undertaking. Therefore, here it is necessary to consider the option of combining with neighbors in order to jointly obtain additional electricity.
The most important thing is the weather in the house…
In the event that you can get more than 30 kW to your home, the issue of heating the house is almost solved, because in any case it is better to heat the room with electricity. Otherwise, you should not be upset, because you can consider installing a gas boiler, if you can connect to a common gas pipeline. Also at this stage you will need to create or select a project for the future house that you are going to build. A successful house project is a guarantee of a comfortable and cozy life in this house.
When choosing a project for a future building, you need to keep in mind that when building a private house with a height of no more than three floors, you will only need to provide an architectural planning solution and order the design of water supply systems, electricity and heating, if necessary. The basis for such a decision may be the third part of Article 48 of the Urban Planning Code, according to which for the construction of a private house with a height of no more than three floors of project documentation is not required.
Planning work on site:
After all the preparatory work with the documentation, planning should be carried out, in the case when the construction site has irregularities, or it is necessary to carry out geodetic works.
Foundation as the basis of the house
The foundation of the whole house is the foundation, so you need to be especially careful about its type and the material from which it will be made. You can not save any money. nor the time on its tab, since the reliability and safety of the entire structure will depend on it.
The choice of basement material also affects the soil of the land. The most reliable soils are sandy. In such a ground, the foundation shrinks evenly, and the building does not warp. Clay soils are very capricious, they are calm in dry weather, but as soon as the soil is over-humidified, it becomes fluid, and freezes and swells during cold weather. All this gives an additional, uneven load on the foundation, which means there is a high probability that cracks may appear in the walls as the brick house shrinks. If the soil contains a lot of peat, then this is the most difficult option. Here, before you set the foundation, you need to get rid of peat at the place of foundation, and fill the resulting pit with sand.
Considering that we are considering the option of building a brick house, in this case it would be most appropriate to lay a monolithic reinforced concrete slab as a foundation, but then it would not be possible to arrange an underground garage or basement. As a minus, it may be too expensive and may exceed 20% of the total cost of building a house. In such a situation, it is allowed to use a tape-type foundation, where the foundation is made under all bearing walls and structures. Of course, you can apply and pile foundation, or pile-sprouting.
Walls and floors
The next stage of building a house will be the construction of walls and internal ceilings.
Since we are considering building a house of bricks. should pay special attention to the fact that the brick has an extremely high thermal conductivity, therefore, after the construction of the walls of this material, it is necessary to conduct their insulation. The rest of the brick, as a building material, has excellent quality and performance characteristics. To improve the insulating properties of the walls is better to use a hollow brick.
The overlap of a brick house is better to do their glued wooden beams, because they most meet the requirements for the construction of low brick houses. They are strong enough and make it possible, if necessary, to make additional thermal and sound insulation. When choosing beams, special attention should be paid to ensure that they are free from cracks and rot, and when mounted on brick walls, take care of additional insulation of the ends. Then the beams sheathed rough ceiling boards or shields, the space between the beams filled with insulation. The ceiling, in order to fire safety sheathe drywall. On the top floor lags are placed on the beams, and on the top there is a flooring, which can be either a clean floor or serve as a basis for any floor covering.
Roof of shingles
The construction of the roof is the final and very crucial moment in all construction. You must competently and carefully select the material from which your roof will be made.
In our country, the most popular are shingles, plastic paneling, waterproofing film. Alternatively, you can consider the roof, multi-layered as a sandwich, consisting of two moisture-resistant plates, between which there is insulation. This roof is installed on the house with attic.
To the roof does not flow:
The roof is the top element of the coating, which protects your home from precipitation, the durability of the entire structure depends on its reliability.
The most widely used, due to its simplicity and reliability, received “ondulin”. Also popular metal shingles. Marble chips are a more expensive option. After the construction of the roof comes the turn of the windows and doors, after which you can proceed to the interior decoration of the house and the installation of utilities. But first things first.
Floors and ceilings
The floors in the house can be made of dry pine planks, plywood, linoleum, laminate is perfect for this purpose. In the bathroom and toilet, it is advisable to make the floors of tile or polymer coating, resistant to moisture. It would be nice to have heated floors, especially in those rooms where small children will play.
The ceilings are made of drywall, and it can later be trimmed with a putty and whitewash. But there are many other types of ceilings – this is as you wish. It will be beautiful to make on the ceiling any pattern or design that would harmoniously fit into the overall interior of the room.
All engineering communications in the house
An integral part of any building construction is engineering communications. Without them, modern man can not live comfortably. Engineering utilities include: electrical wiring, plumbing and sanitary, steam heating, gas supply.
Wiring in the house can be closed and open. Closed should be planned before the construction of the house, open is safer from the point of view of operation, it is easier to get to it if necessary.
Even if you managed to connect to the central water supply, it is advisable to have a storage tank with water, which can be installed in the attic on the floor beams, and that in winter time the water in it does not freeze, it can be insulated with any available material. If the heat supply in your home is electric, then the role of such a tank can be performed by an electric boiler. Water supply to the house can be carried out using plastic, metal or copper pipes. The most practical choice in this case is metal-plastic, it is cheaper than copper pipes and more practical than plastic.
Equipment for heating is mounted depending on the method of its implementation. If gas heating is planned, then a gas boiler is installed, if electric, then electric. The volume of the boilers is calculated depending on the volume of the premises.
Exterior finish brick house
Exterior wall decoration is made depending on what these walls are built from. Since we are talking about a brick house, brick walls do not require any special decoration. Sometimes brick walls are treated with water repellent. Allowed wall siding.
Interior decoration is made at its discretion. Ceilings must be putty and whitewashed. You can stick the wallpaper to the ceiling, or you can just leave the beams open and cover them with a protective layer of varnish or stain, but in this case there will be problems with sound insulation between the second and first floor.
The walls need to be leveled with plaster, then putty and glue the wallpaper, either with a ready-made drawing, or for painting. You can sheathe the wall clapboard. In the bathroom and toilet, ceramic tiles are usually glued to the walls.
There are many options for interior decoration, however, as well as exterior wall decoration.
On the floor you can put a variety of coverage (for your taste and color). These can be boards, ground and painted. Floors can be laminated. You can lay the plywood, which put on top of linoleum.
How to start building a private house, if you have only the desire and you do not know what to do next
If you are going to build a house, you have to think it over carefully. After all, if there is a clear plan of action, all stages of work, from design to finishing, will be more successful, high-quality and fast. That’s just not everyone is well aware of where to start building a house. What to do at the very first moment? Many people ask themselves this question. Let’s try to answer.
Finance is a high priority
At the stage of project selection, we are repelled from the amount we have. So, if you build a house of aerated concrete blocks or ceramic bricks, then an average of 1 m² of such housing will cost $ 650. This includes the cost of materials, as well as the work of builders (their services make up 40% of the total cost). So, a house of 100 m² will cost $ 65,000. By the way, a large house per square meter will be cheaper than a small one. The cost of building a frame-type home will be cheaper. And yet: keep in mind that there are all sorts of emergency expenses, and 15% of the total budget should be allocated to them.
Now we understand what can affect the value of the house in one direction or another.
- The complex shape of the house and the presence of the decor on the facade.
- Balconies and basement.
- The abundance of small rooms.
- Constructions of irregular shape, second light in the rooms, high ceilings.
- Roof with a fancy shape or a corner too sharp.
- Replacing the second floor attic.
- The house has a simple square shape, a smooth facade without protrusions and grooves.
- A large number of windows.
- Minimum internal partitions.
To make it easier to make calculations, we will list the stages of the construction of a house, and what part of the total budget should be allocated to each of them.
- The zero cycle will require 15% of finance. It includes pouring the foundation (if necessary). The walls are built no earlier than a month after that. When building is preserved for the winter, the foundation is laid.
- 35% of the estimate take the work of general construction purposes. They include the installation of the roof and the laying of the walls, both interior and exterior. This is done to ensure that the load on the base is uniform. This stage must be completed before the winter cold.
- The next 15% of the funds will take away the installation of windows and doors, as well as the insulation of the house.
- Another 15% will take on communication. Pipes, plumbing fixtures, boiler check after installation.
- The remaining 20% estimates belong to the interior decoration. It is not necessary to hurry with her – inside an insulated house you can work for as long as you wish.
Time does not wait – how much may it need?
To build a house is a serious matter. Determining where to start building a private house, we must prepare for the fact that the process will not be very fast. Depending on the technology used, building a house may take different times. The brickwork in any case takes longer than the assembly of a frame or wooden house. Those who want to build a house very quickly, usually get a ready-made set of materials and fasteners for a frame or wooden house. Such a prefab building is mounted as a designer for a fairly quick period.
But with any technology you want to meet the minimum time. By the way, the longer the construction lasts, the more money you have to invest in it. Experts advise you to calculate well the start time of construction and investment in it. After all, it is optimal to move into a house before the winter cold weather comes. Let the interior finishing works by this time not be completed – nothing, the main thing is that you can live.
The speed of construction of a frame house is high, but it will be necessary to acquire all the details at the same time.
The speed of building a house of bricks or blocks is much lower, but money can be invested gradually.
What size should the apartment be
The area of the future home primarily depends on the size of the wallet. It is also important how many people will live in a built house. It has been established that 30 m² per family member is more than enough. If the house will live five, then its area, respectively, should be about 150 m².
And now we list the basic rules by which the living area is determined.
- The house should have two zones: day (kitchen, living room, dining room, hallway, toilets) and night (bathrooms and bedrooms). The first one is closer to the entrance, and the second is at the back of the house.
- The day zone is spacious enough for living. For a family of 3 to 5 people, 40 to 60 m² is enough.
- For a night zone, a family of 3 to 5 people needs from 50 to 70 m² of space. Everyone should have their own room to sleep.
- More than three people in a family need two toilet rooms. Bathrooms are equipped one by one for two bedrooms.
- Between 10 and 15 square meters give to the terrace, and from 10 to 20 square meters – to corridors, stairs and storerooms.
A full second floor has a large area, compared with the attic.
One floor, two or more?
A neat square-shaped house is inexpensive, economical in maintenance, and easier to equip it inside. Therefore, if you do not need an area of more than 100 m², then you can stay on such a one-story house. It is especially convenient for old people. Two-storey house is built when you want space, but not at the expense of the site. Three floors will be appropriate when the area is small, and the area of the house should be large. On the upper floors they make rooms where they are not often. Guest rooms and bedrooms for old people occupy part of the first floor.
Build a house not only in height but also in depth. It is about the basement. When setting it up, consult a specialist – what if you have close groundwater at your site? If the relief of the soil allows, you can make a spacious basement, arranging in it a billiard room, sauna or workshop. And the house, built on a slope of a hill, asks him to make him a basement floor. In it and the garage can be placed, and the kitchen, and pantry.
What to make the walls of the house
And how to start building a private house, without thinking about what to build it from? That’s right – no way. And first of all we decide on the choice of material for the walls. Frame light houses for the most part consist of lightweight structures and insulation, so they are built quickly and cost less. Buildings from concrete and ceramic blocks have thicker walls, build them longer, observing the necessary breaks for setting the mortar.
To facilitate the selection, we list the differences between heavy block and light frame houses.
- A house built of blocks must be made on a deep foundation of a tape type. The frame house can be built on a simple column base.
- Light homes require wooden or metal floors. In block buildings, they can be made of reinforced concrete or in the form of wooden beams.
- Although it is cheaper and faster to build a frame house, its service life is less than that of “heavy” materials. The latter may last a hundred years. And still the house from heavy piece materials warms up more slowly in the summer and cools in the winter.
- But during the construction of a block or brick house on the site will have to dissolve a lot of dirt – after all, it is necessary to make the solution and lay down the materials. Lightweight materials do not require “wet” stages of construction and the whole construction process looks more compact.
Building a roof – what?
The more complex the contours of the house, the more intricate and the shape of its roof. It can be made more difficult and more expensive, and it can even flow in places of bends. So it does not always make sense to refine the form. Sometimes simple lines in combination with the original roofing material look much more interesting. Roofing materials are in the form of sheets, and piece.
- Sheet materials (slate, metal tile and folded roofing) weigh little and are inexpensive. They are well suited for plain roofs with rectangular ramps. There is almost no waste. Under them settle a rare crate.
- Piece materials are a different type of tile. For her laying need an experienced master. Suitable tile for any shape of the roof. It can be made of bitumen, ceramics or cement-sand mixture. The cheapest – bituminous roof. But the crate under it is only solid. Ceramic tile is the most expensive, but it lasts a very long time. Under her need powerful rafters.
The following articles can help with the choice of roof and roofing materials:
Heating and sewage
#one. The cheapest way of heating is a gas boiler. If the plot is gasified, then this method will be the best. Keep in mind that obtaining the appropriate permits will cost a certain amount.
When the gas is not supplied, it is worth thinking about electric heating. Put the electric boiler cheap.
Solid fuel boilers are very economical, easier to install than gas. But they need coal or wood.
The combined boiler is still expensive, so it is practical to use it only in larger houses.
# 2. Sewage – an essential moment in the construction of the house. If in the village where you build, it is centralized, then you just need to connect. If not, then it is necessary to mount either a septic tank or VOC, a local sewage treatment plant. Their pros and cons on.
- LOS will require more space than a septic tank, and will also cost more.
- The septic tank, unlike VOC, is not afraid of any chemicals.
- For a large family, the cleaning system is more practical, since the volume of the septic tank is limited.
Who will build?
That it was not necessary to regret about hiring of unfortunate workers, and the beginning of construction of a house, and finishing works we will entrust professionals. In this case, you can go in several ways.
- For each stage of the work we hire a separate team that specializes in the foundation, roofing or masonry walls. The main thing is to know who to ask in case of marriage.
- It is also possible to entrust the large construction firm with the whole matter by concluding an agreement on the liability of the parties. This will give a guarantee.
- A house made of wood or on a frame, which is designed by the design and construction organization, it makes sense to give to build it.
- As for the finishing and engineering works, let them be conducted by experts with good reviews.
Approach the choice of builders very carefully, because not only does the cost of work amount to about 40% of the value of the whole house, the quality and comfort of the house depends on it.
We are looking for a project for home
When choosing a project, you can go two ways: take a sample or develop an individual. The finished project is 5 or even 10 times cheaper. He will allow to see immediately the future home “in all its glory.” An individual project is developed up to two months. But when building a large house or a complex plot it is better to stay on it. In other cases, the best solution would be to search for a project on various Internet sites.
Video: How to start building a private house
Sources: http://good-com.ru/articles/etapy-stroitelstva-chastnogo-doma, http://www.13min.ru/dom/etapy-stroitelstva-doma/, http://srbu.ru/stroitelnye -raboty / 95-s-chego-nachat-stroitelstvo-chastnogo-doma.html