Shallow-footed tape foundation with your own hands

To keep the building as long as possible, the following mistakes should be avoided when laying the foundation:
• before starting work it is necessary to completely remove the entire plant layer of the earth (turf) by 15-20 cm; otherwise, the plants, and behind it the lags will rot;

• it is prohibited to fill a shallow foundation without preliminary filling with sand-gravel mixture capable of passing water; otherwise, wet ground, having frozen to concrete in winter, will simply “pull” the tape upwards; This is especially dangerous in the absence of insulation;
• A common mistake is the incorrect binding of reinforcement in the corners of the foundation with overlapping in the shape of a cross; for a perfect connection with rods running along, its ends must be bent through 90 ° ;

• to tie the foundation of the porch or veranda to the main one is forbidden; they must be separated by a deformation seam. otherwise, a break may occur at the junction;

  Shallow-footed tape foundation with your own hands

Expansion joint between building and porch or veranda
it is better to lay mineral wool or other insulating material

• the foundation must not be left unloaded for winter. the whole cycle of building construction works should be completed in one season; if the construction is left for a year, the ground will simply push it out or “tear it”.

Related videos: Shallow foundation foundation with your own hands

How to make shallow-deeper tape type foundation yourself?

  • Ribbon Foundation – Benefits
    • Tape foundation do it yourself
    • Stages of creating a shallow-ribbon foundation
    • Foundation reinforcement
    • Concrete Pouring

Ribbon Foundation – Benefits

Ribbon shallow-foundation is often a priority choice in private construction. This is due to the fact that its construction is not difficult, so this foundation can be created by own hands without involving a professional team of builders.

For the device shallow strip foundation for the structure should dig a trench 40-60 cm deep.

This type of foundation is distinguished by its reliability, especially for heavy facades. Now you can arrange a basement that will be completely protected from mold, dampness and hazardous groundwater.

The main material of such a foundation is reinforced concrete, which you can pour with your hands a continuous wall under the entire perimeter of the house and its bearing walls. The shallow foundation foundation of the belt type can be safely used on difficult grounds, which are distinguished by their heterogeneity over the entire area. The depth and width of the foundation depend primarily on the mass of the building. You can create a shallow foundation with your own hands in the shortest possible time.

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Tape foundation do it yourself

Work on the creation of this type of foundation begins only after the drafting of the project on the house. This work must be entrusted to a professional designer. This is due to the fact that at this stage the cost of the error can be quite expensive. It is in the project that the parameters of the foundation are fully indicated, on the basis of which the required amount of building materials will be calculated. To build a shallow foundation foundation with your own hands, you must use the following building materials:

Scheme of types of strip foundations.

  • sand;
  • fittings;
  • cement;
  • knitting wire;
  • special tools for tying wire;
  • waterproofing material in rolls.

The first stage is the digging of trenches and the installation of a sand pillow. To do this, it is necessary to make markup on the plot, which will correspond to the future location of the supporting walls and the facade of the house. For marking use a rope that can be easily fixed with the help of pegs, specially driven into the ground. Mark the width of the wall, pulling the second rope parallel. For the sustainability of the future structure, the width of the foundation should be made 10 cm larger than the design width of the wall.

According to the resulting markup, it is necessary to dig trenches. Since you are doing this work with your own hands, use a shovel. The depth of the shallow strip foundation is 40-60 cm. Always consider the depth of soil freezing. It is desirable to place the base of the foundation below the given mark in centimeters by 20. Pour the sand in layers, no more than 15 cm thick, each layer should be poured abundantly with water from a hose. Watering is necessary for tamping sand.

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Stages of creating a shallow-ribbon foundation

Schematic ribbon shallow foundation of reinforced concrete blocks.

The second stage is the creation of your own formwork. To do this, on the sides of the trenches fix waterproofing material, which is sold in rolls. As an example, you can use glassine. This material is used quite often, because it allows, without any difficulties, to dismantle the formwork after hardening the solution. If everything is done carefully, the integrity of the waterproofing will not be compromised. Formwork must be made of boards, 50 mm thick. One side of the boards is specially planed to achieve a perfectly smooth surface. During self-assembly, they should be turned to the center of the trench.

The boards should be strictly vertical, they should exceed the ground level by more than 30 cm. As a rule, this height corresponds to the basement floor. The finished structure must be filled with concrete and reinforcement. This is exactly how a shallow tape foundation is arranged with its own hands. For private construction, this type of foundation is the most optimal in terms of reliability, quality and financial component.

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Foundation reinforcement

Scheme ribbon shallow monolithic foundation.

The third stage is the reinforcement of the foundation. Reinforcement is a very important step in the creation of a strip foundation, so it requires error-free operation. This stage affects the stability and quality of the foundation of the future erected structure. The calculation of the used reinforcement is based on the mass of the construction object. Proceeding from practical work, the diameter of the bars of the reinforcement should be not less than 10 mm and not more than 16 mm.

Since the work on the construction of the foundation is done with their own hands, then, as a rule, pliers and special hooks are used. Work require great physical effort. Reinforcement is necessary to produce two belts in four rods. Longitudinal rods are located at a distance of 5 cm from the edge of the foundation above and below. A distance of 25 cm is chosen between the transverse bars. In those places where the bars of the reinforcement intersect, an additional reinforcement must be made. This can be done in two ways: using welding or special knitting wire.

The first method, that is, welding, has many drawbacks. Among them, it is worth noting a noticeable increase in labor costs, welding can violate the integrity of the reinforcement and the entire shallow-foundation strip. This is due to the fact that welding reduces the stability of the rods due to the high temperature. At the same time, the rigidity of the whole structure increases, because the bars are fixed in place. Such a construction can easily be destroyed when pouring concrete or during operation of the vibrator. Knitting wire is considered a more reliable way of fixing the bars of the reinforcement. To perform such work, you can use the tool that is at your fingertips:

  • special hooks;
  • pliers;
  • wire knitting gun.

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Concrete Pouring

The mortar, which will be filled with shallow-tape foundation, is prepared from cement and sand in a ratio of 1 to 3. M500 cement is considered to be optimal for casting. For high-quality filling of the trench, a special vibrator is used, which allows pouring layers evenly. If there is no such vibrator, you can simply knock the walls of the formwork, at the same time distributing the solution manually with wooden rammers.

The scheme of reinforcement shallow-strip foundation.

To achieve a high-quality foundation, concrete must be poured only once. This will help eliminate the layer drying of the solution, which can lead to the formation of unwanted voids between the layers. The consistency of the resulting concrete mixture should not be very liquid, it must be constantly checked. To do this, rake the solution with a shovel and check how the solution bends around obstacles. If quick and easy, then the mixture is still liquid. To fill a shallow foundation strip, use a flexible hose through which the solution enters the trench with a pump. It is not necessary to raise it to a height of 1.5 m, otherwise the concrete will begin to stratify when it freezes. Such work is desirable to perform in the warm season.

According to the technology, the device of such a foundation includes waterproofing. Waterproofing can be done with your own hands, but you need to wait 10 days until the concrete completely hardens. By this time, you can already dismantle the formwork. Apply a layer of bitumen mastic to the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the solidified foundation, to which the rolled insulation material is then attached. The ruberoid well proved itself, it should firmly adhere to the layer of uniformly applied mastic.

These are the main stages of creating a strip foundation of shallow deepening with your own hands.

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

October 20, 2015

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

A few additions: 1. If you need to perform high-quality waterproofing liquid rubber, it is desirable to apply geotextiles over the entire surface. Consumption.

September 23, 2015

How and what to make the top border of the foundation lining (natural stone. Plitnyak)?

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How to make shallow depth foundation with your own hands: step-by-step instruction

Economical and at the same time the most reliable foundation – the dream of every novice developer. But is such an option possible? Full Direct confirmation of this – shallow tape base. Arrangement of such a foundation does not require large financial and time costs, but the result is very happy – you get a quality and durable base. Moreover, you can even build it yourself, without involving professional builders. So that you are convinced of this, let’s consider each stage of the construction of a shallow foundation. And in addition, we recommend watching the video editing – it will allow you to more fully understand the technology of laying the base.

Distinctive features of the shallow foundation

Before proceeding to the analysis of the technology of laying, let us designate the main features of the shallow-bottom ribbon base type:

  • is a frame in the form of a monolithic tape of reinforced concrete, outlining the perimeter of the future structure;
  • costs two times cheaper than a deep-well base;
  • suitable for the construction of one- and two- and three-story buildings made of wood, concrete, stone and brick;
  • can be used on non-rocky areas, as well as on low, medium and heavy ground;

Important! In the latter two cases, it is necessary to provide high-quality soil drainage.

  • arrangement assumes the minimum volume of land works;
  • makes it possible to build a small basement or cellar in the perimeter of the building;
  • for laying does not need to use special equipment.

Shallow-foundation can not be settled on frozen ground, so all the work must be completed before the arrival of frost. Laying the base is carried out in four stages.

Stage 1: Trench Preparation

First of all it is necessary to prepare trenches into which the concrete will be poured later.

First, mark the site on which the foundation will be located. Then accurately determine the angles of the future structure – they should be as smooth as possible. Next, go to the creation of the base – dig trenches around the perimeter of the marked site. The optimum depth of the foundation is 50 cm. The width of each trench must be at least 60-80 cm.

When the grooves are dug, you need to compact the soil – to arrange a special pillow on it. If the base of the site is dusty fine sand, the ground must first be covered with geotextile – it will prevent silting of the site and protect the foundation cushion from weeds, which are more likely to grow in it due to high humidity.

The cushion itself should reach a height of 30-50 cm – this will be enough to give the foundation the necessary strength. First, the sand is filled with a layer of 15-20 cm. It must be thoroughly moistened and compacted. Then pour 15-20 cm of gravel. Dampen and tamp the base again. Next is waterproofing – stacked sheets of roofing material.

When the work is completed, check the level of the obtained base surface – it should be strictly horizontal.

Stage 2: Arrangement of formwork

The next step is working with formwork. For its construction you will need a large number of boards. Keep in mind that when pouring concrete onto the formwork, serious mechanical impacts will be carried out, therefore stock up with a solid board – its thickness must be at least 5 cm.

Boards need to shoot down in the form of shields. The optimal connection pitch is 80 cm. If the pitch is wider, the construction will not be strong enough. Finished wooden shields can be fixed to the base with the help of props or support bars. The latter must be installed every 60-70 cm. The recommended cross-section of the bars is 50×50 mm. Shields must be firmly fixed between the installed bars or struts. After installing the formwork, cover the shields with dense polyethylene or glassine.

From the outside, it is also desirable to reinforce the formwork design with special props so that it does not deform during the subsequent installation work.

Stage 3: Base Reinforcement

High-quality reinforcement is a guarantee of the integrity and durability of the entire structure of the shallow foundation, so this step should not be skipped in any way.

To start, build a reinforced frame. To do this, prepare metal rods 14-18 mm in diameter. Their length can be any, but experts recommend the use of long products – 2-5 m. Remember: the longer the bars, the fewer the connections and the stronger the base of the foundation. Metal products are laid along the entire perimeter of the foundation on the pillow, thereby forming the frame.

For arranging the reinforced skeleton, rods of a smaller section are usually used – up to 10 mm. The length of the products should be slightly wider than the trench. All valves are installed strictly perpendicular to the frame elements. Connect them in two ways: more reliable – electric welding, and more affordable – wire ligation. The latter must be very flexible in order to work with it easily.

Council For ease of installation of the reinforcing skeleton, you can use plastic pipe trimming: cut them on a circular to get rings of 5 cm in height, install the resulting products on the base and fix the reinforced structure on them.

Stage 4. Concrete pouring

The most crucial stage is the direct pouring of the foundation. It can also be divided into several stages:

  1. Preparation of the mixture. If you are laying the foundation with your own hands, surely you should decide to prepare the concrete mix yourself. There is nothing complicated about it. The main thing is to buy high-quality consumables: concrete itself, rubble and sand. It is desirable that the latter was a large fraction – it is better coupled. The mixture is made of concrete, sand and water in a ratio of 1: 3: 1. After thorough mixing, 5 parts of crushed stone are added to the composition.
  2. Pouring the mixture. When the composition is thoroughly mixed, you can pour it into the prepared trenches. To prevent the formation of air chambers during solidification of the foundation, concrete must be compacted after installation. This can be done either manually – using a wooden tamper, or through a special vibropress. The composition must be poured not at one time, but as it is rammed. In the process of drying the concrete regularly check its level.
  3. After the final solidification of the foundation, cover the remaining layers between the foundation trenches with earth and tamp it down.

As you can see, it’s really easy to arrange your own shallow foundation foundation with your hands. Adhere to the general technology and follow the rules of installation, which professional builders have long since brought out – the observance of these two conditions will lead you to a positive result, even if for the first time you are busy pouring the foundation.

Shallow foundation foundations: video

Ribbon Foundation: photo

Sources: http://svoimi-rukamy.net/20-melkozaglublennyy-lentochnyy-fundament.html, http://moifundament.ru/lentochnyj/melkozaglublennyj-fundament-svoimi-rukami.html, http://dachadizain.ru/ dom / remont-snaruzhi / melkozaglublennyj-lentochnyj-fundament.html

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