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The device of a floor in the frame house
The surface of the foundation must be checked for evenness of the surface. The height difference should not exceed 1 cm per 1 running meter. Otherwise, you must additionally use the cement-sand screed.
In the process of pouring the concrete foundation, when it has not yet hardened, anchoring mounts should be installed for laying down in increments of 2 m.
Prior to the continuation of construction work, you should also take care of proper waterproofing of the foundation. This will ensure its durability, protect it from gradual destruction, protect the ground floor and basements (if any) from fungus, dampness and the multiplication of insects.
It is possible to waterproof the foundation with the help of various versions of roll, coating, sheet and sprayed materials. You can also use concrete with special hydrophobic additives that increase the degree of water repulsion.
Concrete gains full strength by 28 days of hardening in normal conditions. However, laying the floor can begin about a week after pouring, when the foundation already has about 60-70% of the final strength.
If the laying of the floor is made to the device walls and the construction of the ceiling of the next floor, the work must be performed in dry weather, as well as making sure that the foundation is dry from precipitation.
The device of floors of the frame house on piles
In the case of a house on stilts, the floor of the first floor will rise more or less above the ground, leading to significant heat loss through it. In this case, you can not do without a good insulation of the grillage.
If the distance between the grillage and the ground level is small, it is better to build a basement frame around the perimeter of the building, which is insulated and then sheathed with decorative panels, siding, decorative stone, etc. The base can also be built from bricks, foam and cinder blocks. The result will be a small technical room that can be used for household needs.
In the case when the overlap of the first floor is too high, the grillage itself is insulated directly – with coating, roll or sheet insulation outside and inside.
Naturally, warming is performed before laying the floor covering.
The device of a draft floor in the frame house
Between the upper surface of the foundation and sunbeds, a layer of waterproofing (usually roofing material) is laid. Along the perimeter of the foundation, boards with a width equal to the width of the foundation and 50 mm thick are attached to the pre-set anchor bolts. The most popular wood for this is larch, because it is resistant to decay. However, the boards are still impregnated with an antiseptic, which is allowed to dry well.
Poles and floor joists
If the span has a length of more than 3 meters, then in order for the floorboards not to bend much, additional supports should be arranged under them. They are brick columns with a cross section of one brick and a concrete reinforced base measuring 40×40 cm, recessed into the ground by 30-40 cm.
Under these pillars, holes are pulled out somewhat deeper than is necessary for their concrete foundation. The bottom of the dimples is rammed, a sand cushion about 5 cm thick is poured and carefully leveled. The bottom and walls are covered with polyethylene or similar waterproof material, and formwork is installed. Further the reinforcing grid keeps within and concrete is filled in.
Brick laying can be carried out not earlier than in 3 days, when the concrete dries out and gains minimum strength capable of withstanding the load from the bricks.
Binding and logs
Along the perimeter of the foundation, on the end of the butt joint, the stitching boards are laid on the butt joint, on the plane of the future floor they are laid out in 40-50 cm lags on average. The position of the boards on the butt ensures high rigidity and geometric unchangeability of the structure. Between themselves, strapping and logs are connected using galvanized corners. It is acceptable to use nails as well, but such a connection will be much less reliable. If there are no boards at the disposal of a sufficiently large length to cover the entire span at once, then it is permissible to make logs of several fragments. In this case, the joints should be on brick supports.
For the construction of piping and lag wood is also used impregnated with protective compounds, 5 cm thick and 20-25 cm wide.
The floor of the lower floor is a source of constant cooling of the room. No matter how efficient home heating systems are used, they will be useless without proper floor insulation. In addition, condensate will inevitably form in the room, leading to dampness, mold, fungus development, deterioration of wooden floor structures, etc.
The construction market offers a large variety of natural and synthetic insulation of varying degrees of efficiency. When choosing between them, it should be remembered that with high environmental friendliness, natural materials will be much less durable, in addition, there is a high probability that rodents can live in them.
Installation of insulation and flooring
That the heater was where to lie, boards are hemmed to the bottom of the lags. If they fail to fit there in height, you can lag bars and lay boards for insulation on them. If rigid plate heaters are used, then boards can be replaced with a frequent grid. On top of the flooring roll waterproofing is laid. Next fit insulation. It should be remembered that the denser it is laid, the worse it will be heat-insulating and noise-protective properties.
Also, the heater should not reach the height to the top of the lag by a few centimeters to provide floor ventilation. Among the popular materials for insulation are expanded clay, mineral wool, polystyrene foam, foam plastic, penofol, sawdust. If mineral wool is chosen, then during its installation special care should be taken to protect exposed skin and face from small particles of material scattering everywhere.
After laying the insulation you can proceed to the installation of floorboards. The less often logs are laid, the greater the thickness of these boards should be: for example, at a step of 70 cm lag it is recommended to lay at least 4 cm thick, with a more frequent arrangement of the lag every 40 cm is enough for a three-centimeter board.
Flooring boards have grooves and protrusions – spikes. The first floorboard is laid with a spike to the wall with a distance of 3-4 cm from it. The indentation is necessary to compensate for fluctuations in the size of the boards with changes in temperature and humidity.
It is better if the transverse joints of the boards will fall on the logs – this will increase the strength of the floor construction.
The device of a water heat-insulated floor in the frame house
In brick and concrete houses, floor heating is usually arranged in a cement-sand screed. However, the wooden floor just will not sustain such a load. In such cases, the floor heating system is mounted on a dry polystyrene foam screed.
Installation of heated floor
The boards of the flooring are made of expanded polystyrene plates (related to the foam material) with pipe fittings. These plates have an extremely small weight and thickness of only 2-3 cm. They are fastened together with a lock-type joint (like laminate).
On the plates in the grooves fit the contours of the pipes. The length of the circuit should not exceed 100-120 meters, one circuit is designed for heating a room of no more than 40 square meters. It is unacceptable to use one circuit for several rooms, even if they together have an area of less than 40 m 2.
After laying the pipes, it is necessary to carry out their hydraulic test, which will make sure that the system does not leak and heats the room properly. After checking, it is possible to stack aluminum heat distribution plates on top, to cover them with a waterproofing substrate.
At the device of a heat-insulated floor it is useful to think over the layout of the room at once. So under the large-sized furniture in the presence of a heated floor does not make sense, and when placed under the appliances (refrigerator, washing machine, etc.), it will only harm it with additional heating.
On average, a warm floor will cost between one and a half – three thousand per square meter.
Other options for underfloor heating in the frame house
An alternative to a water-heated floor will be electric – cable or with an infrared carbon film.
The cable is laid with a step of 10-20 cm on the floor surface on the heat insulating material. To increase the temperature, the step can be slightly reduced, but not more than 5 cm. The power of the system varies depending on whether the heated floor is the main way of heating the room, or only complements traditional batteries.
The action of film heating systems is based on infrared radiation of carbon paste inside the film. To increase the efficiency of such a floor, a heat-insulating substrate with a foil-coated coating is placed under it, which will reflect the heat back into the room. Fragments of the film are placed jointly at the joint, with 10 cm indents from the walls. If it is necessary to cut a solid piece, this can be done only in the places specially marked on the film with a dotted line.
Heating is also located only under the useful open part of the room. Before laying the floor covering, the performance of the underfloor heating system must also be checked.
Choosing a clean floor covering, you should give preference to materials specifically designed for installation over a warm floor. They will have a high thermal conductivity, which means they will allow the maximum amount of heat to go to the heating room.
Soft flooring such as carpet or linoleum can be put directly on the warm floor, and for hard (laminate, tile, etc.), you will need an additional base, made of plywood sheets or moisture resistant plasterboard.
Any material must be “accustomed” to the microclimate of the room, for this it must lie in it before installation at least several hours.
For a house with a wooden floor construction, it is better to use the lightest flooring materials. These will be linoleum and laminate.
Linoleum is laid on a thin (1-2 mm) polyethylene substrate, or even without it, if it has its soft layer below, with a slight overlap on the walls. Having settled on the floor for a couple of days, it can sit down a little or, on the contrary, expand, so you shouldn’t immediately cut it along the contour of the walls.
Linoleum is fixed on the masking tape or glue. If the coating somewhere blistering, it is bristling, then this place should be straightened and press down with something heavy. To prevent shifts and deformations of the coating, it should be installed indoors without drafts. Do not also immediately arrange the furniture, the glue must be given time to grab.
After linoleum flooring, wooden or plastic plinths are mounted around the perimeter of the room, and aluminum sills are at the joints.
Laminate is mounted with a small indentation from the walls, necessary to compensate for the change in the dimensions of the material during temperature fluctuations. The transverse joints of the individual boards of the material should not be on the same line, they should be laid separately.
The device of the floor in the frame house is a labor-intensive, but quite simple thing, accessible even to a novice in the field of construction. Regulatory documents will help to make accurate calculations of the required size and quantity of materials. Compliance with the technology and the use of high-quality materials will provide a design that will last a long time.
What you shouldn’t particularly save on is the waterproofing of the foundation and antiseptic impregnation of all wooden floor elements.
How to properly arrange a concrete floor in a frame house
I am designing a one-storeyed frame house on screw stilts with an area of 100 square meters. Estimated floor cake: fine-meshed mesh from mice, PPS 25- 200 mm, edged board 25 mm, vapor barrier, PPS 25- 50 mm, 50 mm concrete screed with mesh, heated floor.
The fact is that the draft board will be purchased in the winter and will lie under a canopy until installation in the summer (already when the house is under the roof). Dries, I think, to 20%. Concrete plan to pour two months after the floor.
Tell me, are there any pitfalls, in particular:
1. Whether the shrinkage of the emergency state will affect the screed.
2. Will PPP help to minimize changes in a state of emergency?
3. Whether the given variant of a floor will rot (on a heat meter it seems norm).
4. Whether sound insulation will suffer from the use of PPP.
The “pie” described by you on the ground floor on the ground floor, which you plan to arrange in your own home, is at least irrational. As a maximum – in a year another floor will have to be disassembled and re-made. We strongly advise you to abandon this design and this is why:
You yourself had a doubt whether the wooden boards located between the layers of the airtight insulation would not rot. We confirm your guess: rot necessarily. And regardless of how well you dry them and what you soak. Without ventilation, wood will be affected by fungus. Construction materials that are biodegradable cannot be placed in structures where moisture is not allowed to drain. And one more thing: it is completely incomprehensible why you need this layer of 25 mm boards at all. After all, without a frame or lag (there is no mention of their presence in your letter), the boards of the carrier function will not and will not be black floors. Moreover, if they are not fixed to the base (again, the frame is not provided for you), the wood will “twist” over time. Pouring the screed two months after laying the lower layers of the floor according to your scheme, you can not, the boards and insulation will already be deformed, the design will have to disassemble. Even if you succeed in initially picking up flat boards and pouring the screed immediately, before they are warped, it’s not a fact that the reinforced concrete (in fact, the cement-sand mortar) will withstand the deformation and will not crack at any time.
The mistake is that for some reason you are trying to invent a hybrid construction: to combine wooden load-bearing elements (in fact, the flooring without a frame will not hold the load) and solid concrete. Do not invent know-how, no need. Use the developed specialists and repeatedly proven technologies.
“Right” design, reliable and durable
There are two options, frame and monolithic:
- Frame: assemble a normal insulated wooden frame that will hang above the ground, leaning on the posts and ventilated from below, in the underground part. But in this case, heated water floors will be an irrational decision. Although technically possible:
- Strengthening the frame, it can be laid OSB or DSP 35 mm thick and pour reinforced cement-sand screed with floor heating pipes located in its thickness. Since we are airing the structure from below, it is necessary to exclude the penetration of moisture from the soil, having waterproofed it. A few excellent options are also used, but they all have one thing in common: the frame must be strong enough to withstand the load of the screed, the wooden elements must be ventilated from below.
One of the options for the installation of a heated floor with a concrete screed, poured directly on the insulation, without slab base. With this solution, a dense expanded polystyrene should be based on a fairly strong binder, located below
Heating pipes can be laid in the frame, using the so-called “dry” or “flat” technology. Galvanized steel or aluminum heat distribution plates are placed under the flooring, which serve as a support and guide for heating pipes and reflect the thermal radiation into the room. It is advisable to arrange the ventilation of the wooden frame and insulation (you can use fibrous materials – mineral wool, eco wool, etc.) from above, through the holes in the floor or bring the channels into the walls. The presence of the ventilation gap above and the vapor barrier below is required. As a coating, you can use laminate, non-insulated linoleum, even tile.
Heat distribution plates can be laid not only on the frame, but also be drowned in insulation, in which case the ventilation of the structure will have to be organized from below
Dry floor option with a ventilated gap
Another option – a monolithic concrete floor on the ground. In our opinion, it is the best option for the device of a water heat-insulated floor.
Monolithic floor heating on the ground, a rational option. Does not contain wooden elements and other materials subject to intensive biological destruction
Let’s look at the layers one by one, starting from the bottom and moving up:
- The base – it should be as smooth and durable as possible. We do not know what kind of soil you have, so see for yourself what to pour: rubble, sand and gravel, sand and what layer. In any case, the base should be well rammed. Perhaps it makes sense to make footing.
As a base, you can use compacted soil with bedding seeded sand, which is easy to trim in place
Isolation from moisture of the basis is obligatory. It is possible to lay rolled bituminous waterproofing on the footing or compacted soil, gluing the cloth together and always putting it on the wall. Or it is good to shed molten bitumen, mastic. You can save by using an inexpensive vapor barrier film instead of waterproofing. But it should be laid not on the ground (it can break), but between the layers of insulation.
Insulation. What should be the layer, we can not say, not knowing the climatic conditions of your region. In any case, the more the better, especially given the fact that it is necessary to prevent the leakage of thermal energy of heated floors down into the ground. Any sufficiently rigid non-hygroscopic and non-rotting effective insulation will suit: foam glass, extruded polystyrene foam (EPS), foam plastic. Probably, under the PPP (this is a common abbreviation of polystyrene foam), you meant low-cost foam plastic brand PSB-S-25. But not the fact that it will suit you. Unambiguous rules, what should be the brand of foam for the device of monolithic floors, no. Much depends on the load: for example, in the place where there will be a piano or a large aquarium, it is better to put not foam, but solid foam glass. Under heavy furniture – PSB-S-50 maximum density or EPS. In monolithic floors, we would not recommend using polystyrene foam with a density below 25 kg / m3, with less resistance to compression, the density may be insufficient, there is a possibility of deformation of the floor.
Note! The number 25 in the designation of the brand PSB-S-25 indicates not real, but the limiting (highest) density. In fact, in accordance with GOST 15588-86, the manufacturer may, under this brand, sell products with a density of 15.1 to 25 kg / m3.
Naturally, many are trying to save on raw materials. We recommend that you purchase polystyrene foam grade PSB-S-35 for a monolithic floor, the density of which should be 25.1-35 kg / m3 or try to find an “honest” PSB-C-25, the density of which would be closer to the maximum. You can determine it by weighing the required amount of material.
The denser the foam, the higher its strength
The insulation should be laid in such a way that the joints of the foam sheets overlap each other, the gap can be filled with building foam.
Sheets of insulation stack with overlapping joints
Reflective foil film. The mirror surface of the foil reflects thermal radiation and will save you up to 2.5% of thermal energy, reducing fuel costs. If you decide to put not just a foil, but a layer of foiled polyethylene foam (additional thermal insulation), the reflecting surface should be directed upwards into the room.
Reinforced concrete screed, thickness 50-60 mm. Concrete, even on fine aggregate, will be laid between pipes and mesh, and it will be difficult to erase, most likely you would prefer to use cement-sand mortar. The mark is not lower than 150, better than 200. We recommend adding a plasticizer to it during preparation of the mortar, the screed will be tighter and it will be easier to smooth it out. If you order a ready-made solution, you can ask to add a plasticizer at the mixing unit (delivery by a dump truck) or pour it into the mixer capacity (delivery by an auto concrete mixer). During the manufacture of screed floor heating pipes must be filled with water or compressed air under working pressure. Floor heating can be turned on no earlier than one month after the screed has been fabricated; the temperature is raised smoothly within three days.
Do not forget that the floor screed, if necessary, is separated by expansion joints: the maximum size of the solid section should not exceed 40 m2, and the length on either side should be 8 m.
Expansion joints should not cross the contours of the floor heating; only supply lines can pass through them in the insulating casing
Also along the perimeter of the premises along the walls must necessarily lay a damper (coastal) tape – a strip of elastic material (we recommend using foam polystyrene) with a thickness of at least 1 cm.
The strip of elastic foamed polystyrene (blue on the photo) along the walls will not allow the screed to crack during thermal expansion, in addition serves as a heat insulator. When making the screed, roll the tape a few centimeters onto the walls; you can always cut off the excess
Optimal from the thermal point of view, the options for covering the heated floor – facing ceramic, ceramic granite tiles, natural stone. These materials transfer heat in the best possible way and are not deformed. Tile adhesive should be specifically designed for underfloor heating, have a high elasticity. Parquet and solid wood boards are not recommended to use, they will crack. Acceptable options: laminate, linoleum, not very thick carpet.
Another very important issue that you will certainly encounter is the heat insulation of the base. Since you have a frame house, on screw stilts, you will have to figure out how to make a strong and aesthetic zabirku. A lot of options, it can be a frame (wooden or steel), wired with siding or asbestos cement slabs.
The easiest way is to build a frame around the house, sheathe it outside and insulate it well from the inside.
Vinyl basement siding is not cheap, but it is beautiful, does not require finishing and care. As the siding and the frame can not be lowered to the ground level, in the cold it can rise. The gap can be closed with a steel apron
Asbestos sheets significantly cheaper
Lay the base can be small-sized concrete blocks, rubble or masonry.
Under the stone foundation will have to make a concrete base
The main thing is to insulate the outer perimeter well and not to allow the soil to freeze under the house. The best option is to insulate not only the base, but also the blind area, as is commonly done in cold Scandinavian countries.
The diagram shows how the joint warming of the basement and the blind area changes the nature of soil freezing. The land under the building (if it is heated) never freezes, which eliminates frost-deformation strains and helps reduce operating costs. As a heater, use EPS
And finally. Monolithic floors can be made not only after installation of the box at home, but also before, immediately after installing the screw supports and linking them into a common grillage with horizontal elements. With the right approach, it is faster and cheaper.
In countries with a developed construction industry, monolithic floors on the ground are usually arranged before installing walls, it is easier. The photo has a strip foundation, but the technology is also suitable for piling. Before starting work, you need to have a detailed project of communication placement.
If the floor is monolithic, the upper concrete layer will absorb all the noise and vibration. In the case when the floor is frame and covered with laminate, you will hear a “clatter” when walking in shoes with hard soles. Perhaps the underground mice will be a bit noisy.
Sources: http://fb.ru/article/262198/ustroystvo-pola-v-karkasnom-dome-obzor-suschestvuyuschih-variantov, http://okarkase.ru/konsturkciya-doma/pol/ustrojstvo-pola-v- karkasnom-dome.html, http://strmnt.com/vopros/ustrojstvo-betonnogo-pola-v-karkasnike.html