Roof slope in percent
Select the appropriate type of rafter system. Rafters, as noted, contribute to the uniform distribution of the load on the walls. Additionally, thanks to the truss system, the house is reliably protected from all sorts of adverse weather conditions.
How to calculate rafters on the roof
The simplest version of the attic roof is the construction of a triangular shape. The hardest thing is to make a mansard roof with a break. In the absence of appropriate skills, it is strongly recommended not to undertake the independent construction of complex roofs.
Step-by-step instruction on the construction of the attic roof
In the construction of the attic roof there are no super-complex stages. You just need to carefully read the instructions and step by step to follow all the recommendations.
First step. Calculate the strength of the building. Attic increases the load on the walls and foundation of the house. It is better if the calculation will be done by qualified specialists. If you do not plan to carry out work to strengthen the house, you can skip this step.
The second step. Calculate the attic and prepare a draft of the future attic and roof. It is also recommended to involve specialists in this work. If you wish, you can try to create a project yourself or use any ready-made solution from available sources.
The third step. Remove the old roof. Do this as carefully as possible, try not to damage other structural elements of the house.
Dismantle the old roof
Fourth step. Make a truss frame. This is the most time-consuming step of the instruction under consideration. It is better if at least 3 people will be simultaneously engaged in the arrangement of the frame.
Fifth step. Place and lock the mowerlat. To assemble this element, use wooden bars of 10×10 cm.
Sixth step. Install the frame for the roofing room. Elements of the frame will simultaneously perform the function of supports for the rafters. First secure the vertical posts along the edges of the building. Racks need to be attached to the long beams. This will help you screws and ordinary metal corners.
Seventh step. Attach the jumper to the racks.
The eighth step. Make sure the above elements are mounted correctly. Any cord will help you with this – simply stretch it between the arches. If the cord is in a strictly horizontal position, you have done everything as needed. If the cord deviates from the horizontal, trim the inappropriate arches or replace them with new elements.
The ninth step. Lock the arches together. This will help you nail plate or stamping corners.
Installation of truss system
Installation of truss system
Fasten the first rafter, where the roof slope will have a maximum slope. To obtain the required slope, simply cut the bars to the desired length.
The first step is to prepare the rafters. Pre-cut the bars to the desired length and angle. At the bottom of the rafter legs, select the grooves for connecting to the power plate. The grooves can be made with a chisel.
The second step. Secure each bar to its designated place.
The third step. Go to the installation of the upper rafters. At this stage, be especially careful. Observe the desired angle of the slope and the overall centering of the structure.
Fourth step. Nail the elements of the batten to the rafters. The crate can be made of plywood sheets or ordinary wooden boards. The type of sheathing should correspond to the selected roofing material. As a rule, solid flooring is made. This is a versatile and most reliable option.
Nail the elements of the batten to the rafters
Laying protective materials and finishing work
Mansard roof requires the organization of high-quality protection against various adverse factors.
The first step is laying a vapor barrier on the material. Vapor barrier must be fixed from the inside of the truss system. The material is attached to the bars with special construction brackets.
Cushioning vapor barrier roof
The second step – laying insulation. For insulation traditionally used mineral wool. If you wish, you can opt for a more modern and expensive material. Plates of insulation should be tightly joined to each other and also fit snugly to the rafters.
The third step – the device obreshetki. On the laid insulation you need to fill the crate. Use ordinary wooden bars. Fasten the elements of the batten in steps of about half a meter. Thanks to this system, the insulation will remain in place.
The fourth step is the installation of a moisture insulating material. Secure the waterproofing from the outside of the truss system. As a moisture barrier layer, polyethylene film is most often used. Waterproofing will protect the elements of the roof from atmospheric moisture.
The fifth step is laying the topcoat. Choose a roofing material at your discretion. The best option in terms of cost and quality is a metal tile. From budget materials, we can recommend slate or its more modern analogue ondulin.
After you fix the selected roofing material, the construction of the mansard roof can be considered complete. Thus, in the arrangement of the considered system with their own hands there is nothing difficult. Understand the instructions, and you will successfully cope with all tasks without third-party assistance.
Video – Mansard roof do it yourself step by step
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Construction of a mansard roof do it yourself
Use all possible area, give the house originality and significantly reduce heat loss through the roof – these are the tasks that the attic solves. With a certain margin of safety at the foundation in this way, it is possible to turn a one-story house into a two-level one. It also attracts that the mansard roof was built with its own hands can be even without any special construction skills. It is important not to make a mistake with the choice of materials and do everything according to the rules.
The windows in the usual floor are located in the walls. In the attic walls there are few or no. They are replaced by a roof. Therefore, the windows are made special: they not only have to transmit light in sufficient quantities, but also to withstand wind and snow loads, which are much larger on the roof than on the walls.
When planning a penthouse should take into account the recommendations of the SNiP. They recommend the area of windows to do at least 10% of the floor area. So if the attic will be divided into several rooms in each there should be a window.
Construction of skylights in the roof
Of all the ways in the photo of the device windows in the roof with a mansard, the most simple is implemented inclined installation. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure the proper degree of waterproofing of the junction, as well as to use special models with a reinforced frame and reinforced glass – the load on the surface is considerable.
Pluses skylight window:
- more light, not so sharp borders of light and shade;
- the surface of the roof remains flat, its relief is not complicated;
- relatively easy installation.
When planning such a window, it is necessary to remember that its area increases with increasing angle of inclination. At what height it is more convenient to install such a window and how its height increases in centimeters, depending on the inclination, look at the photo.
The steeper the slope relative to the floor, the less should be the height of the window
The width of the window frame should be 4-6 cm less than the step between the rafters. Then it can be easily installed without disrupting the structure of the frame. If the window is wider, you need to do a reinforced beam above it, calculate the load.
If you need to have a larger window, it is easier to put two narrow ones nearby. They look no worse than one large, and there will be fewer problems.
Two windows side by side look no worse than one wide
When installing a dormer window, the geometry of the roof becomes more complicated: endova appears at the top and sides. Because of this, the truss system becomes more complex in both planning and assembly. Also increases the complexity of laying roofing. All endovy – the place of the most likely occurrence of leaks. Because here it is necessary to do everything very carefully. In regions with a large amount of snow, it is advisable to install snow guards over such windows: so that during a sharp descent they are not demolished.
The device of the vertical window-dormer in the roof roof
Plus this window: near it you can stand in full growth. But they let less light in, the relief becomes more difficult and the roof becomes more problematic.
A recessed window is usually used if they make an exit to the balcony through it. In other cases, this method of device is not the best option: there is little light, shadows are very deep, which is tiring for the eye, geometry also becomes more complicated, although not to the same extent as in the previous version.
The easiest way is to make a window in the end part of the attic. In this case, do not need a reinforced frame or reinforced glass. It is quite enough just high-quality glass. It is this option that can most often be seen in the country penthouses: this is the most inexpensive option that is easily realized by hand.
In the case of self-construction of private houses with a mansard, a broken roof is usually chosen. It allows you to get a room of a large area, larger than under the gable.
With an equal width of the base (house), the mansard room under the broken roof is obtained more than under the usual gable. The rafter system becomes more complicated, but a gable roof with an attic under a sloping roof is still more popular
The design of the broken attic roof is such that the overhangs can be lowered quite low, giving the house an interesting look. But the long overhang of the roof serves not only a decorative role. They still cover the upper part of the wall from precipitation and divert the bulk of the water away from the foundation. Although when planning you need to have in the form that with strong winds, they increase windage. Because of this, it is necessary to use more powerful boards and beams. Because the size of the overhang of the roof is chosen based on several considerations, the main of which is weather conditions.
It depends on the roofing material, but most of all – on the region and weather conditions. The classic version is shown in the figure: the lower slopes with respect to the attic floor plane are inclined by 60 °, the upper ones – by 30 °. Based on this data and the parameters of your building, you can calculate all the lengths. Only it is worth considering that, according to the SNiP, the ceiling height in the attic can not be less than 2 m. Then, by definition, this is the attic. Comfortably, the person will feel himself if the ceiling is raised to a height of at least 2.2-2.3 m. Based on this, according to the rules of geometry, calculate the required lengths.
Classic tilt angles
In the classic version, the load from precipitation on the side surfaces may not be taken into account. Precipitation can be kept only on the upper part, the angle of which is less than 45 °.
In general, the slope of the side surfaces usually ranges between 45 ° and up to 80 °. The steeper the slope, the more sail it possesses, it must be taken into account: in regions with strong winds it is better to do more flat roofs. Then the wind loads will be perceived much better.
Types of roof systems of broken roofs
Construction of a broken roof attic – one of the variants of the truss system (the most common)
For the manufacture of a broken roof frame, they often use lumber from pine, the grade is at least 2. The choice of cross-section of timber and planks depends on the size of the roof, selected roofing (its weight), wind and snow load in the region, and the rafter installation step. All these parameters are taken into account in the calculation. The technique is prescribed in SNiP 2.08.01-89 and TCP 45-5.05-146-2009.
One of the options for building a frame with hanging rafters
Above in the figure will lead a drawing of a frame with hanging rafters. It can only be implemented if the base of the upper triangle is no more than 4.5 meters (in this case, it is the width of the attic room). If more, it is necessary to do slant rafters that should rest on the supporting wall in the middle (the attic will be divided into two parts by a series of beams).
Another version of the upper part is depicted in the photo below (the image is clickable). In this case, the side rafters reinforced struts. They significantly increase the rigidity of the system.
There is a second way to achieve a similar effect – to set up contractions – in the figure they are only outlined by barely visible lines. The length of the side truss legs is divided into three, in these places set contractions. They will be needed if the roofing will have a substantial weight.
Variant of the device of a rafter system of a broken roof – with struts that increase the rigidity of the system
For a small building in razorov, the frame of the roof can be generally simple: at the top there are two hanging rafter legs, a puff, floor beams, pillars and side rafters (in the photo below).
Construction of a truss system of a broken attic roof for a small house
How to calculate a broken roof
Mansard broken roof of a small house (width not more than 6-7 meters) was built so many times that, based on experience, we can say which materials should be used. Many parameters are dependent on other materials. For example, the installation step rafters tied with insulation parameters. In order to keep the waste as little as possible, the installation was easier, it is necessary that the distance from one rack to the other be slightly less than the width of the insulation (20-30 mm). So, if you are going to use mineral wool, its width is 60 cm. Then the racks must be installed so that the gap between the two adjacent ones is 57-58 cm and not more.
The width of the board for the truss foot is again determined on the basis of insulation. For the middle zone of Russia, the required thickness of basalt wool is 200-250 mm. That’s not all. In order for the insulation to dry out, a ventilation gap of 20-30 mm is needed (without it, condensate will gradually rot out the wood and make mineral wool unusable). Total it turns out that at a minimum the width of the truss leg should be 230 mm. Board thickness – not less than 50 mm. This is in regions with gentle winds and not very heavy snowfalls. Summing up, for all rafters – ridge and side – required board 230 * 50 mm.
If lumber with such characteristics turns out to be too expensive, it will be possible to make insulation in two directions: a part along the rafters, a part, having filled the crate, across. It is possible to lay a minimum of 100 mm of basalt cotton wool, therefore you can take a standard board of 50 * 150 mm and leave for a ventilation gap of 50 mm, or order a non-standard 130 * 50 mm. This is a look that is more profitable for the money.
For racks and beams it is better to take a bar of at least 80 * 80 mm, better – 100 * 100 mm. Especially in areas with difficult weather conditions – with heavy snowfall or strong winds.
Order more accurate calculation from experts. This is a long process consisting of collecting loads from the roofing material, the structural elements themselves, wind and snow loads. After that, according to a certain formula, there is a selection of elements. For more information on how the calculation is carried out, see the following video.
Mansard roof do it yourself: installation procedure
The device on the mansard roofs is no different from the standard version. If the house is made of timber or logs, you can use the upper crown as a mauerlat. It is only pre-treated by impregnation with high protective properties.
If the wall is made of foam blocks, a reinforced monolithic belt is arranged on top of it. On a brick wall or made of shell rock, other similar materials, the device of such a belt is optional. On the wall is placed in two layers of waterproofing, and on top – antiseptic-treated timber – 150 * 150 mm or log. It is secured with embedded studs.
How to attach the power plate and truss legs to it
When assembling all the elements use long nails – at least 150 mm long. In the most critical places, it is better to connect three or more elements to bolts or studs with double-sided threads. It is desirable to strengthen all the joints with steel plates or corners.
Installation rafters mansard roof do in two ways. The first: collect parts on the ground, then in finished form raise upward. There, the first to expose the extreme structures that will become gables. They are set vertically, fastened. It is often more convenient to fix them with long bars nailed to the wall (temporary). The following assembled structures are inserted into the prepared indentations in the mauerlat (they are made with the required pitch). They are set vertically, carefully fixed. If necessary, install additional temporary struts that lock them in the desired position. Side beams are installed.
How to build a sloping roof in this way, to collect nodes, see the video below.
The second method – the construction of a broken roof are consistently collecting elements right on the spot. This method is more convenient if the construction is large and when assembled, it can only be lifted using special equipment (crane).
First laid floor beams. They are attached to the rack and tightening, put temporary struts, holding them in the vertical direction. Next, the truss upper and side legs are assembled, and the braces and braces are installed.
During installation, the following sequence of actions is observed: first, the extreme elements are set and set in the desired position, securely fastened. If necessary, use temporary struts. Between them the fishing line, rope, string, which will serve as a guideline for the installation of all subsequent elements, are being pulled. This simple move allows you to get the perfect geometry (do not forget to check the angle of inclination, verticality or horizontal).
On top of the racks fasteners fix – bars, to which the side rafters are then fixed and on which the upper triangle is tightened. Tightening fasten with metal corners. Since the beams are long, they sag. This is further eliminated – after the installation of the upper truss legs – with the help of vertical beams of a fixed or adjustable height. And temporarily they can be propped up with racks (so as not to drag the whole system).
One of the stages of building a mansard roof do it yourself
To make it easier to withstand the desired angle when installing the side truss legs, make templates, which make zapily. But since the geometry of self-made buildings is rarely perfect, an adjustment may be needed. To check the resulting angle of inclination from several boards, one more pattern is knocked down, which is used to verify the correctness of the installation.
If the standard length of lumber – 6 meters – is not enough, or order the required length (expensive pleasure) or increase. When building, two boards of at least 0.6 meters in size (30 cm on each side of the joint) are nailed to the joint. They are nailed on both sides or used with bolts.
Reliable way to build rafters. The length of the “patch” – at least 60 cm
After installing the side rafters remains to install the top. For them, too, a template is made, pre-washed on the ground, and installed at the top.
Almost finished frame
The upper part can be made in different ways. Its structure depends on the width of the base. How to do it, look at the photo below.
How can you make an upper triangle on a sloping roof
Since the device of the mansard broken roof does not provide for the presence of a ridge, a bar is fastened in the middle to which the braces are fastened, which fix the triangle in the required position.
The upper part is fixed by hacks, nailed to the bar laid in the middle
Ha it can be considered that the mansard roof is assembled with his own hands. It remains to mount the roofing material and do the warming (you can in this order, at the same time). Features of insulation roofs are described here.
Nodes and their drawings
When installing the truss system, there may be questions about the assembly of nodes – the places of intersection and connection of several structural elements. In the photo you see the drawings of key connections.
How to make the connection elements truss system broken roof
The second version of the connection side of the rafters and the upper triangle. For more reliable fastening bolts are used.
How to make the mount of the upper triangle and rafter foot on the roof attic with his own hands
Ways of attaching truss legs to the mauerlat or, as in this case, to the side beam are shown in the figure below. To make it easier to mount a heavy element, a thrust board (bar) is nailed to the rafter below, which restricts its movement: the board rests against the edge and prevents it from dropping below.
Several options for attaching rafters to the mauerlat
We build a mansard roof with our own hands
The cost of building a roof is 25-35% of the cost of building the whole house, and the cost of work is 50-80% of the price of materials, so if you build a mansard roof with your own hands, the savings can be 15% of the total budget.
Mansard is called any roof, under which there are rooms, suitable for housing height (attic, or mansard floor).
The construction of the roof roof is a difficult and painstaking job.
In industrial construction, the installation of the roof is done when the drawings represent each node, the fastenings of the parts, and the dimensions themselves.
The builders do not think about the construction of the roof, about whether the load is calculated correctly, their task is to build a skeleton, cutting out templates of parts and fastening them together, and the system for fixing roof elements is also indicated.
To figure out how to make a mansard roof, you will have to study the video, photo and master the theoretical part.
Mansard roof structure
Comfortable ceiling height for residential premises from 2.5 m and above. The walls of the attic floor are often slopes of the roof, so it is necessary to ensure their thermal insulation.
The top of the mansard roof is a ridge, a beam lying parallel to the floor plane of the house, and the highest point of the roof. The edges of the roof are called rafters.
From the ridge down the ridge (top) rafters. The beams of the attic floor connect the bases of the left and right ridge rafters of the same roof section.
Racks (bars section of 100×100) are fixed on the interfloor overlap at right angles at a distance of 0.8-1.5 meters from the outer wall.
The higher the racks and the closer they are to the walls of the house, the greater will be the living space of the attic.
Side (lower) rafters go from the fixing of the attic beam to the mauerlat. Each section of the mansard roof consists of two ridge rafters and two side on each side.
The system of the same rafters forms a slope – ridge or side.
The most used variant of the mansard roof is a broken gable roof. In this case, the ridge and side rafter form an obtuse angle at the connection points.
If they lie on one straight line, then outwardly it looks like a classic gable roof.
When calculating the slope of the slope, the materials of the future roof and climatic conditions are taken into account, it can be from 15 to 45 degrees. The greater the slope, the less snow will linger.
In regions with little snow, the broken roof of a house can be quite flat.
In areas with strong winds, the slope is recommended to be made sufficiently flat and to provide additional reinforcement of rafters from high wind loads.
The standard slope of the slopes is 30-35 degrees.
The roof of the attic type is planned before laying the floor between the first and the attic floor.
If you use wooden beams as an overlap, then you need to provide a section of the beam and the distance between the beams so that they withstand the permissible load for the residential second floor.
Usually these are beams with a cross section of 150 cm and higher with a length of 6 m. Such beams are located with a distance of 80-90 cm from each other.
The system is such that the longer the beam, the greater the load it will experience in the middle. The pressure will be created by the floor itself on the attic floor, furniture and, actually, the tenants.
Even if the attic is planned for unfurnished rest rooms, floor beams with a cross section of less than 120 cm, laid with a distance of 100 cm from each other, are undesirable.
Reliable device will provide the right materials for the mansard roof.
The heavier the roofing materials will be, and the longer the frame of the broken roof, the greater the section needed for the timber, from which it will be possible to build a frame.
Usually, sections 60×120, 60×100 cm are used.
On many photos, there is no device for reinforcing belts on the external bearing walls when a broken roof is planned.
The weight distribution system is such that the entire weight of the roof rests on the floor beams, and they, in turn, carry this and their weight onto the walls.
The double-slope roof of a single-storey building is much lighter than a broken mansard, therefore, there is quite enough mauerlat (wood paneling around the perimeter of the walls below the floor beams).
If the walls are made of timber or brick, then the mauerlat will cope so that the attic roof device is reliable. It is important during the construction phase of the walls to provide for a fixture Mauerlat.
The system must be reliable. In the case when a hollow cinder block or porous foam concrete is used as the material for the walls, it is difficult to secure the wall mount to the wall.
A successful solution will be reinforcing concrete belt, in which at the stage of casting on the level rods are installed to install the power plate.
It is placed on a substrate of roofing material or other insulating material and aligned along the inner edge of the wall.
Before fixing, make sure that the bars forming the mauerlat are strictly parallel. Even a deviation of 2-3 cm will lead to the deflection of the slope.
If the house is up to 6 meters wide (the maximum allowable size of a support-free interfloor beam), then the ceiling beam with both edges rests on the power plate.
If the width of the house is more than 6 meters and there are load-bearing walls perpendicular to the floor bars, the floors are installed according to the following system: one edge of the beam is attached to the power plate, and the second – to the internal load-bearing wall onto which the power plate is already installed.
In continuation of this line, the next beam is laid from the inner wall to the opposite outer mauerlat. The gap between the beams should be no less than 3-4 cm.
If the preliminary work is done correctly, then you have received a completely completed overlap between the first and attic floors. Now is the time to draw the future frame.
Begin to study the theory with a photo of a broken roof and a video on which a montage of a roof was captured.
Draw the house from the front side, stand to the left and to the right, output the rafters and calculate the angles of inclination. To change the slope cut, increase or decrease the height of the posts.
Calculate the length of the rafters (the cosine of the angle of inclination multiplied by the distance from the stand to the projection of the ridge – for the ridge, and the cosine of the angle of inclination of the side slope multiplied by the distance from the power plate to the stand – for the side rafters).
Watch the video of various options for mounting bars between each other. High-quality fastening will provide a reliable frame.
If climatic conditions excessively overload the high sloping roof with winds, and the width of the house does not allow to allocate a lot of space for unused space behind the racks, it is possible to reduce the height of the racks and after the completion of construction to install the built-in cabinets around the perimeter of the side walls of the attic.
The procedure for collecting the frame
Frame the roof only from quality wood. The main feature of a “stale” tree is dark color.
If you can not buy wood dried in a drying chamber, then purchase raw, but still at the stage of building walls.
Fresh wood can not be used for the frame – under the influence of loads, it will lose its shape and bend.
Raw timber can be dried naturally in one and a half to two months.
To do this, we lay it clearly on the level with the distance between the bars up to 5 cm. No two bars should be in contact. After every 75-100 cm, the bar should rest on a flat surface.
As points of support, you can use a cinder block laid out on a flat platform, but in no case can you use another beam designed for the frame.
In sunny and warm weather, the bars dry naturally, and in rainy weather they should be covered. Making the frame is allowed only from fully dried wood.
Begin installation, making sure that even wooden beams are selected for racks and rafters and there are no cracks and knots in them.
Sawed through the template wooden blanks of the same type must be treated with fire-fighting agent and a mixture that prevents the formation of fungus.
Processing should be done twice with an interval of 1-2 days. Installation can begin when the tree has dried after treatments.
The procedure for collecting the frame step by step:
- Installation racks. On top of the overlapping bars, we put 5-6 boards, 5 cm thick, without fixing them. They form a floor on which you can safely move. Equal size bars are installed on the floor level. First put extreme. Be sure to ensure that the opposite distances between the racks are equal. Then between the extreme bars stretched cord. It performs the function of the level at which all others are set. From above on racks the binding is put and fixed. Now we have a rectangle into which all the other supports are mounted. To reduce the precariousness of the construction of the rack, it is necessary to fasten it with truss to the floor bars. It is the rack – the weakest place in the frame system, so we will pay special attention to their fixation. The rack with the ceiling beam must be fixed with a 12-14 size building bracket. When all the racks are installed, peel off them with overlapping with the help of a bar with a section of 50-60 cm. It is worthwhile to additionally fasten them along the outside with the help of a non-cut board;
- Installation of the upper slopes (duo-pitch roof). At the top of the rafter fastened together with brackets. The ridge rafter is based on the trim of the racks and is fixed to the attic floor beam. Installation of the upper triangle of the attic should be made only on the ground and raise the fully finished structure. The triangle is placed on the rack and attached to them with staples. As soon as the installation of the second triangle is completed, it is necessary to connect them in several places among themselves. When all the designs are exposed, you can fix them with a crate;
- At the top of each side rafter, a notch of 3-4 cm in depth is cut out, and the trim of the struts is turned into it. The angle of the groove is equal to the slope of the slope. At the bottom of the side rafter there is also a groove for mounting it on the power plate. Due to these two grooves, the rafter unloaded can stand without fixation. Prior to the application of the load that the crate will carry, it is necessary to fix the side rafter with a shackle to the harness and to the power plate. Additional fixation is to hold the screws, twisted at the points of attachment of the rafter, at an angle;
- The batten – edged or unedged board or OSB plate – is fixed to the rafters with self-tapping screws. The edges of the slopes should be smooth. The distance between the components of the batten depends on the roof. For slate, a distance of 3-4 cm is allowed, and for shingles a continuous crate is required;
- It remains to build gables and insulate chutes and a broken attic roof is ready.
In the process of implementing each step, take photos and videos. This will help to understand the errors in case the result does not satisfy you.
To work you need tools:
- hammers of different sizes;
- a circular saw;
- pliers and small carpentry tools.
You will also need consumables:
- staples size 12 or 14;
- self-tapping screws on a tree with a length of 45-50 cm for the batten and a length of 150 for additional fixation of the rafters;
- construction stapler;
- as an insurance – belt installer.
It is better to call for help 2-3 assistants (it is really possible to make the cut yourself on the ground, but the installation of structures at height cannot be done alone).
The described system allows you to calculate the frame and make the installation of the attic, even without experience and special knowledge. Mansard roof is easily mounted in 2-3 weeks.
Sources: http://svoimi-rykami.ru/stroitelstvo-doma/krysha/mansardnaya-krysha-svoimi-rukami-poshagovo.html, http://stroychik.ru/mansarda/mansardnaya-krysha-svoimi-rukami, http: //stroyremned.ru/stroitelstvo/strojka/401-kak-postroit-mansardnuyu-kryshu-svoimi-rukami.html