Reinforcement of the tape foundation with your own hands is performed directly in the formwork prepared for pouring or next to the free site. The first method is the most reliable, as it allows you to control the correctness of reinforcement. But the second to make their own will be easier.
Step by step instructions for the assembly of the steel frame:
1. Lay flat stones or bricks at the bottom of the trench to lay the longitudinal bars to lift them 5 cm above the surface.
2. Make cross-webs from a smooth rod of a smaller diameter and lay them in increments of not more than 60 cm.
3. Mount the vertical posts in the same way on the longitudinal reinforcement.
4. Attach the rods of the upper belt and secure transverse rods to them.
5. Lay the finished modules on the bottom of the trench and tie the longitudinal elements overlap.
Points 2 and 3 in the instructions can be replaced using a single clamp. It performs the functions of both vertical ligament and transverse reinforcement. The clamps should not be closer to each other than 25 cm. A more accurate pitch is defined as 3/8 of the foundation height.
How to reinforce corners, we have already told in the theoretical part. Instructions for laying your own hands is:
- Attach reinforcement bent at right angles at the bend point to the vertical upright.
- The ends of the rod, diverging on adjacent walls, connected with straight line segments overlap. The size of the overlap is defined as 40 diameters of the selected rod, that is, for a 12-mm product, it will be at least 48-50 cm.
- Install clamps with a step twice as small as when linking the two belts on straight sections of the foundation.
Only rods labeled with the letter “C” are suitable for welding into a single design. It is better to combine all the others by the mating method, so as not to disturb the structure of the metal at the points of fastening.
The metal reinforcement of the foundation has one major drawback – susceptibility to corrosion. To eliminate the risk of destruction of the reinforcing mesh and weakening of the structure, it is necessary to provide products with reliable isolation from environmental factors.
To this end, at the stage of laying rods, it is necessary to make sure that the edges of the reinforcement do not extend beyond the limits of the future concrete monolith and do not even come closer to the ground and the walls of the formwork closer than 50 mm. Then, when casting, all metal rods will be securely hidden under a layer of concrete.
How to properly reinforce the tape foundation with your own hands: the secrets of installation, step by step video instruction
Reinforcement is the laying of rods of sturdy steel along the foundation strip. Concrete stone has great strength in the case of compression, but under the load on the gaps it is not so durable.
Different soil structures and features of a building can cause uneven loads, which leads to various deformations, including ruptures.
As a result of gaps, the foundation may be covered with cracks. And any of them can lead to the destruction of the house.
To strengthen the structure and compensate for this deficiency, it is necessary to reinforce the foundation of a tape type. Steel reinforcement, which is placed inside the concrete, helps to eliminate its stretching, making it durable and resistant to temperature differences and high weight.
What reinforcement to use?
The following types of reinforcement are commonly used for the framework:
It is necessary to use auxiliary reinforcement. if a foundation with a height of more than 15 cm is concreted. Vertical rods are designed to connect the vertical parts of its structure and to evenly distribute the loads along the entire foundation of the building.
Recommendation! Pay attention to the fiberglass rods. They have higher strength compared to their steel counterparts.
When calculating the reinforcement of the strip footing take into account the following parameters:
The maximum load falls on the longitudinal part of the frame. Therefore, the best option would be to use ribbed pins for frame reinforcement. Thanks to this, the highest quality adhesion to concrete will be achieved.
Laying of the frame is carried out taking into account the difference in soil indicators. The larger it is, the thicker the reinforcement bars should be used in the frame.
Steel rods laid along the perimeter of the foundation should be located at a distance of more than 50 mm from the upper edge of the base, formwork and bottom. Fittings placed in concrete must be protected against corrosion.
The distance between the rods is determined, for example, as follows. Let the width of the foundation is 0.4 m, then the distance between the rods, located along, should be equal to:
- 1-3 dm vertically depending on the depth and load;
- 3 dm horizontally.
Smooth rods that withstand less stress are used for vertical and transverse framework elements. They are located at a distance of 1-3 dm from each other. Sometimes it is possible to arrange the rods at a distance of up to 5 dm.
Important! According to the construction rules, the frame of the strip foundation must be made 2 times smaller in width. After all the calculations, you can begin the installation work.
How to make a reinforcement cage?
There are standard technological operations for the reinforcement of such a foundation, which involve the laying of four rods laid horizontally: two – at the upper edge; two – at the bottom. Between the rods connect clamps.
It should be noted that the protruding reinforcing rods better adhere to the concrete. That is why it is best to cut a little longer than the foundation.
Installation involves the following steps:
After the formwork has been mounted, the support rods of the reinforcement are installed. They are located along the entire length of the trench. Are the rods can be checked using the plumb line.
A layer of broken brick at the bottom of the facade trench is designed for the so-called pillow. Silicate brick is not allowed for this purpose.
The transverse reinforcement can be bent, so that it would go along the trench. A pipe is put on the bars, and with it, the bars are bent as necessary.
The binding is necessary in order to reinforce the foundation was accurate and high quality. It securely fixes the location of the reinforcement. In practice, plastic clamps, welding or knitting wire are used for this purpose.
The most reliable is fixing the reinforcement with knitting wire.
After the reinforcement has been made, it is necessary to fill the foundation with concrete. And what concrete to use for these purposes, you can learn from our article.
Its various options can be found on the Internet. Sometimes even all the necessary calculations are made. Here is an example of such a scheme:
How to reinforce the strip foundation, you can learn from the video below:
How to make shallow foundation tape foundation with your own hands: construction stages, step-by-step video instruction
How to fill the tape foundation with your own hands: technology, errors, video instruction
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Do-it-yourself ribbon basement reinforcement schemes
The foundation is the foundation of the building. And it is difficult to disagree with this axiom, because it is he who holds and evenly distributes the load on the ground, ensures the stability and durability of the structure. But concrete, as is known, is a rather hard material. To give the tape structure plasticity and the ability to withstand various types of loads, so-called reinforcement is used.
What is reinforcement for?
Simplistically, the foundation of the tape type is a closed loop of concrete under all the main walls of the building along the perimeter. This is one of the most popular types of wrecks, because it is simple to erect, it can withstand considerable loads and allows you to additionally equip the basement in use. In the minuses – a high consumption of building materials, the need to use special equipment (concrete pumps, cranes).
The tape view of the foundation is erected for buildings made of heavy piece materials (bricks, blocks, stone) and houses with monolithic or prefabricated floors of large mass. This type of base is optimal on non-uniform soils, where there is a risk of uneven subsidence.
Foundation warping scheme
Concrete construction withstands two types of loads:
- Compression – the weight of the building and its contents (furniture, decoration, etc.).
- Stretching – the influence of frost heaving forces. Wet soil, freezing, increases in volume and compresses the skeleton, pushing it up.
Obviously, these loads are uneven. So that the tape could withstand deformations and, accordingly, cracks, ruptures, the reinforcement of the tape foundation is used. In practice, this means the formation within the concrete core of a single metal frame. According to the rules, it should be located closer to the foundation edges, that is, in areas of maximum compression-tension.
What materials are used for reinforcement
Even if the reinforcement of the tape type foundation with your own hands is intended, it is necessary to choose the right components. The composition of the necessary materials include:
1. Steel or composite reinforcement – rods of metal or fiberglass. They are realized by coils of 50-100 m or sliced metal-roll with a length of 6-12 m. Smooth rods with a cross section up to 10 mm are called assembly and are used for the vertical and transverse part of the frame. Corrugated rods with a diameter of 12-80 mm are designated as working. Of them fit the upper and lower longitudinal part of the “skeleton”.
2. Steel wire for knitting or tie clamps. Welding is less commonly used (metal should be labeled “C”)
3. Tool clamping or special hook for knitting, hacksaw and the like.
The metal frame is most popular among builders, its efficiency and reliability proved by time. Reinforcement of the foundation of fiberglass reinforcement is used for those buildings, which are subject to special requirements in terms of radio interference, non-magnetic, chemical resistance. However, due to the fact that the composite is poorly stretched when bending, that is, it actually does not perform one of the main functions, it is rarely used in private housing construction.
In no case should plastic bottles, metal corners or pipes, coarse netting, iron cables and other similar materials be used as the reinforcement cage of the foundation tape. This is not a skeleton, but extraneous inclusions that only harm the concrete base. The result is sad – the foundation will not withstand the design loads, inevitable damage to both the bearing foundation and the walls, floors, roofing and other elements of the building.
Calculation of reinforcement for strip foundations
Calculate the amount of material for reinforcement is easy. The most commonly used two- or three-row grid-frame. The step between the vertical sections is 40-80 cm, between horizontally located levels is about 30-60 cm. That is, a recessed foundation with a height of more than 90 cm requires 3-4 longitudinal tiers; for a skeleton depth of less than 0.9 m, two are sufficient. Consider an example:
- the parameters of the concrete base (VhSh) – 60h30 cm,
- perimeter of the building – 5×5 m,
- grid step – 50 cm
Obviously, you will need a two-tiered grid. Working valves for 4 longitudinal lines of 20 m each will require 80 pog. m, mounting vertical, taking into account the distance from the surface of 5 cm – 1.4 m * 51 (number of intersections) = 71.4 m. Sellers recommend taking steel with a margin of at least 10%, so the total will be about 170 running meters. m reinforcement. We should not forget about the bundle. At each intersection get about 30 cm of wire. Joints in the section – 4 pieces, so with a stock will require about 70 pog. m knitting metal.
How to independently reinforce strip foundation
Reinforced concrete construction does not tolerate negligence. The armature before use should be checked, cleaned from dirt and rust. Builders often neglect this stage, although it is known that foreign inclusions impair the quality characteristics of the concrete core.
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The strip foundation reinforcement scheme is simple but laborious:
- A 5-cm-thick concrete “sole” is poured onto the sand and rubble “cushion”. It will protect the metal from corrosion and premature destruction. Sometimes in order to save under the frame enclose pieces of bricks or stones.
- Put formwork.
- The required number of transverse mounting rods with an interval of not more than 80 cm is laid on the concrete layer.
- Corrugated rods are superimposed in two rows from above in the longitudinal direction. Intersection sites are linked. It turns out the lower level of the reinforcement cage.
- In joints, smooth steel of a given length is vertically mounted. Observance of the geometry of angles at 90 ° is mandatory.
- The upper tier of transverse mounting rods is attached to them. It turns out the frame, the overlap of the ends of which must be at least 20 cm.
- The upper longitudinal tier of the reinforcing “skeleton” is laid and fastened with knitting wire or clamps.
- With the help of distancers, the finished frame is rigidly fixed relative to the formwork. The gap between them should be at least 3-5 cm.
- Bundles are checked again, all the excess material, the garbage is removed.
Reinforcement of the corner of the strip foundation – the headache of most professionals. It is here that the so-called concentrated stress is formed. Therefore, special techniques are used P-or L-shaped reinforcement, created using clamps.
Schematically it looks like this:
For mating angles less than 160 ° with L-shaped reinforcement:
At the corner anchoring points, the clamps are installed twice as often as the rest of the strip footing. It is these methods of corner reinforcement that create a rigid connection between the structural elements, allowing you to evenly distribute the load.
Let’s try to calculate how much it will cost the reinforcement of the foundation tape 5×5.
Sources: http://stroitel-list.ru/fundament/armatura/poshagovoe-rukovodstvo-po-armirovaniyu-fundamenta-svoimi-silami.html, http://6sotok-dom.com/fundament/lentochnyi/armirovanie.html, http://hardstones.ru/sxemy-armirovaniya-lentochnogo-fundamenta-svoimi-rukami.html