How to build a frame house with your own hands?
The overlap between the floors in a private house: the types and technology of construction
The overlap between the floors in a private house are structures that divide the room height, forming floors. These designs separate the basement and attic rooms from the main ones. They must have sufficient strength to undergo a load of its own weight and a payload that turns out to be furniture, people, and equipment.
The size of the payload per square meter will depend on the purpose of the premises and the nature of the equipment. If we are talking about the attic floor, then this value is not more than 105 kilograms per square meter. For the interfloor overlap of the basement, this value increases to 210 kilograms per square meter. The overlap between the floors in a private house should be durable, under the influence of loads, they should not be bent, the allowable amount of bend for the attic floor is 1/200, whereas in the case of spans between floors this value should be equal to 1/250.
Basic requirements for ceilings
During the construction of floors, it is necessary to ensure a sufficient degree of noise insulation, the value is established by the norms in the design. To do this, close the gap in the dock material, only in this case, the sounds from the neighboring rooms will be minimally distributed. The ceilings that separate the rooms with a certain temperature difference must comply with the requirements of thermal protection. This indicates the need for an additional layer of insulation. Any design, especially made of wood, is not able to withstand the long-term effects of fire. It should be remembered that each material is characterized by a certain value of fire resistance. For reinforced concrete floors it is 60 minutes, if the structure is made of wood with backfill, and has a plastered surface from the bottom, then the fire resistance will last 45 minutes. Hardwood floors, which are protected by a layer of plaster, are able to resist flame for about 15 minutes. In the presence of wooden floors, which were not protected by fireproof materials in the process of construction, it should be noted that their fire resistance is even lower.
Types of floors
The overlap between the floors in a private house can be interfloor, basement, basement or attic. According to the constructive solution, the bearing part of the ceiling can be either beam or non-beam. In the first case, the system consists of beams and filling. In the second structure is made of homogeneous elements of the type of panels or plates.
Beam ceiling features
The overlap between the floors in a private house can be beam, with the individual elements are located at equal distances from each other, and filling elements are placed on the beams. The latter perform the role of fencing. Beams can be metal, reinforced concrete or wood.
Features of the construction of wooden beams
In the construction of private houses, in most cases, wood beam beams are used. For beams there are restrictions on the width of the span, they can be used for attic floors or interfloor structures, in which the width of the span should be 5 meters. Such products are made of softwood or hardwood, and on the upper side is flooring, which is the floor. The design of such overlapping provides beams, a setup, a floor and heat-insulating material.
If you decide to build the ceiling between the floors in a private house with your own hands on the basis of wooden beams, then you should know that the house may have a rectangular plan. At the same time it is necessary to block the spans in the direction along the short wall. In order that under its own weight overlap does not bend, its elements are placed at a certain distance. If it is necessary to construct a ceiling of 3 × 4 meters in size, 6 × 20 beams should be used, which are laid on a 3-meter wall. If the ceiling is interfloor, the beams should be 1.25 meters apart, in the case of attic overlap, the distance increases to 1.85 meters. This indicates that as the span width increases, the distance between the beams becomes larger.
If you will be laying the overlap between the floors in a private house made of wood, then the elements are initially treated with an antiseptic. When they are supported on a concrete or stone wall, the ends are wrapped in two layers of roofing material, and the beam is inserted into the prepared nest. In this case, the element should not reach the rear wall by 3 centimeters, the end of the beam should be made oblique. The remaining free space is filled with thermal insulation, which can be replaced with foam.
On the lateral faces of the beams are reinforced with 4 × 4 or 5 × 5 bars, which are called cranial. On the bars fixed roll forward of wooden shields. The overlap plates are tightly pressed to each other, they are attached to the cranial bar with screws. When overlapping between floors in a private house is performed, it is recommended to consider a photo in advance. This will allow you to understand that the design requires the installation of insulation. It will play the role of sound-absorbing layer, and in the attic floor – the function of heat insulation. The material can be used foam, expanded clay, sawdust, mineral wool, shavings, straw, and woody foliage. After fixing the reel over lay insulation. Between the beams, first lay a layer of roofing, vapor barrier film or glassine, bending the material five centimeters onto the beams. After comes the turn of laying a layer of insulation.
Concrete floor construction
Concrete floors between floors in a private house may have different forms. If we are talking about monolithic structures, they are a continuous plate, the thickness of which is equal to the limit of 8 to 12 centimeters. It uses concrete brand M 200, the plate itself is based on the bearing walls. The mass of a square meter of such overlap can be 490 kilograms, if the thickness is 200 millimeters. The installation is carried out in several stages, the first is the installation of load-bearing beams on the prepared site, then the wooden formwork from unedged board is equipped, and in the next stage the 6-mm reinforcement is laid. At the final stage, concrete is poured. The thickness of the overlap between the floors in a private house can be equal to the above-mentioned limit, however it is also important to correctly construct a formwork, which is sometimes purchased in finished form. It consists of telescopic struts, beams, plywood, and a tripod. If you use a formwork of aluminum or wooden beams, then the master will be able to build a ceiling of any configuration.
The overlap between the floors in a private house of aerated concrete is usually made of wood, since the weight of the material at the base of the walls is not so large as to undergo loads of concrete.
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How to make interfloor hardwood floors in houses of brick and wood
The overlap is one of the elements of the house being built, strongly influencing the strength of the building. Depending on the material, they are wooden and reinforced concrete (monolithic, prefabricated, precast-monolithic). For the manufacture of a structural element in private low-rise construction, wooden bars, boards or logs are often chosen, since the construction of wooden floors is less labor-intensive during installation and can be performed without special skills.
When building a private house, when an interfloor overlap is constructed on the wooden beams with your own hands, the success of the business largely depends on the correct choice of building material. Bars, which are the backbone of the whole structure, not only perceive their own weight – they are pressed by the mass of the flooring, the operational loads are affected.
Overlap in the house
For such purposes, it is recommended to choose softwood or larch wood, since such material has the best strength relative to hardwood. Bars, boards or logs must be dry – humidity not exceeding 14% is allowed. Usually, lumber acquires such moisture in a year when the proper storage conditions are created.
Wood moisture measurement
Beams should not have a large number of knots, it is advisable to reject the forest, which has pronounced obliquity or tiltedness – the fibers should be placed along the bar or board. It is good if the lumber was treated with an antiseptic and a composition that improves the fire resistance of the wood.
Depending on where wooden floors are used, it is necessary to make a choice of bars or boards according to the dimensions of the section, on which the reliability of the structure depends. If an interfloor site is being built, then only certain requirements are imposed on the section, and when the attic is being built, the thickness of the beams may be less. Selecting the material, you can follow the tables, which make it possible to calculate the cross-section of the boards, logs or logs used.
Calculation of the beam section depending on the length of the span with an approximate load of 350-400 kg / m²
Calculation of the diameter of the log, depending on the length of the span with a load of 400 kg / m²
Although you can not take the increased value of the load on the floors, if the room does not plan to place a large amount of furniture or other interior items. In this case, another table will help, which helps to select the cross-section of the beams, taking into account the load on the floor in the room.
The choice of cross-section of the beam depending on the load and width of the span
Competently choosing the material, proceed to the installation of interfloor flooring. Properly made wooden floor in the house provides the strength of the entire frame of the structure, and for this it is necessary to accurately measure the length of the beams and calibrated to arrange them.
From the material selected by the section, beams are prepared with an exact size, including the “stock” distance, which will play the role of supporting the structure on the load-bearing walls. It is necessary to use at least 10 cm of a bar for support, and at least 2/3 of the wall thickness is usually used as a support platform.
The length of the span in which the overlap is laid should not exceed 6 m for safety. The ideal overlap distance should be 4-5 m. buildings.
When calculating the step with which the prepared bars or planks fit, it is necessary to use the data reflected in SNiP 2.01.07-85. According to this document, you need to be guided by the following values of permissible total load:
- for interfloor overlappings, including basement 350-400 kg / m²;
- for a non-loaded attic room 130-150 kg / m²;
- for used attic space up to 250 kg / m².
The calculation of the distribution step bars or boards
In order to properly distribute the legs, you can use the step calculation table, which allows you to make the second floor overlap on the wooden beams sufficiently strong.
Distribution of beams under the floor
Beams must be carefully distributed, having them strictly horizontally and parallel to each other. The spacing of the placement of bars or planks should be the same over the entire area.
The permitted deflection of the flooring shall not exceed 1/350 of the beam length, that is, the length of the deflection shall not exceed 10 mm by 3.5 m of the beam length. If the span is large, and the cross section to create the necessary strength is not enough, you can install vertical columns and build additional bearing walls. At installation of additional columns or bearing walls use special punched fixture.
In places of contact came down with the bearing elements, you need to lay insulating materials, which, for example, include a damper tape. You can use several layers of rubber or sheet rubber, which will also serve as waterproofing.
Perforated bar support
Often they began to use special brackets made of perforated metal, thanks to which the installation of the beams can be performed end-to-end with a supporting wall, assembled joints of crossbars and short bars. For example, it becomes clear how to make the overlap of the second floor with an opening for the location of a flight of stairs or a passage for a chimney.
Such a connection has certain advantages:
- The T-shaped knot differs in reliability;
- installation is done quickly and without cutting down the seat in the beam, which preserves the structural strength;
- in the wall there is no need to create a cavity for the stop beam, which does not violate the insulating properties of the wall;
- it becomes possible to use beams of shorter length than the width of the opening being closed.
Mounting option with supports
Next, attach to the installed floor slabs with the necessary layers of insulation. The number of layers of insulation and the type of materials used depends on the type of overlap.
Types of floors and their device
The houses have a basement and attic space, and often equip the attic. On this depends the type of overlap, to which in different cases different requirements are imposed.
There is the following division of bearing vaults by type:
- Interfloor overlapping, which does not require good insulation, as it separates residential areas. The main requirement is good sound insulation.
- Attic space that separates from the attic. Depending on the heated attic (attic), or in the room under the roof there is no heating, the flooring is made of the necessary insulation material. But it is mandatory to apply a vapor barrier layer that prevents the formation of condensate.
- Basement or basement, serving as the boundary between the basement. Here in the first place is the insulation, cutting off the cold coming from below.
I-beam attic floor
Depending on the requirements for the flooring, layers of insulation, vapor barrier or sound insulation materials are added to a certain thickness.
If the arch is mounted to the stone walls, it is necessary to wrap the ends of the beams with roofing felt or treat them with resin, ensuring waterproofing. The opening in the wall, which is used as a support for the beams that support the wooden floors between the floors in the brick house, is created in such a size that there is a gap for ventilation. This will avoid the formation of condensate and save wood from destruction longer.
The procedure for the installation of their own hands:
- In the process of building a house, not forgetting how to install beams, in the walls at the required height, niches with a depth of 15 cm to 20 cm are arranged.
- Before installation, trim the ends of the logs at an angle of 60 ° -70 ° to improve its ventilation after installation, make additional processing of special compounds.
Cutting the end of the beam
The material of which the building is built depends on how to make the ceiling between the floors in the house. In the construction of the building, which has wooden walls, there are also certain nuances.
The installation of timber from the wood is done by own hands according to the peculiar beacons – the extreme slings are initially mounted, orienting to which then fix the intermediate ones. When fixing the extreme beams take into account that they should be located no closer than 5 cm to the nearest wall. Using this gap, place a layer of insulation.
Niches for support can not be prepared in advance – in the built walls, using an electric or chainsaw, cut the necessary grooves.
The main feature is that aerated with all its positive properties does not have sufficient strength. Because of this, it is not recommended to erect buildings of more than two floors from ordinary aerated concrete.
For the installation of decking between floors, especially when it is necessary to mount the ceiling of the 2nd floor of a house of aerated concrete, prepare a reinforced support from the reinforced concrete belt located around the perimeter of the building or premises.
At the end, lags are laid on top, on which the finishing floor is mounted. The lower part of the roof is also refined, sheathing clapboard, fiberboard, plywood or other finishing material.
Of all the types of floors created from wood are more preferable when building a house on their own – wooden floor structures require less cost and are not very labor intensive. Using timber, you can build floors of any kind – floor, attic or basement (basement). It is only necessary to correctly calculate the load and correctly select the lumber for construction, which will ensure the strength and durability of the structure.
Sources: http://chudesniydom.ru/vnutri/pol/kak-sdelat-v-dome-derevyannye-perekrytiya.html, http://fb.ru/article/251364/perekryitiya-mejdu-etajami-v-chastnom- dome-vidyi-i-tehnologiya-stroitelstva, http://strmnt.com/dom/build/other/mezhetazhnye-derevyannye-perekrytiya.html