Thermal insulation of the apartment wall inside the apartment
In such cases, sound insulation is no less relevant issue than insulation. Moreover, modern insulation usually combines these qualities – finishing the wall of the house at the same time and warms the structure, and reduces the indoor noise level as warming from the inside of wooden walls.
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1.1 Why is it really necessary to insulate the walls?
Most often, in apartments, only one “side” of the structure is insulated – walls. In most cases, this is quite enough to significantly improve the indoor climate.
On the insulation of the floor and ceiling, you can think of the inhabitants of the extreme (first and last) floors. If your floor and ceiling are adjacent to the next apartment – their thermal insulation is not a mandatory issue, unless you want to achieve the best possible result.
To carry out the insulation of these surfaces inside the apartments is not too important for the following reasons:
- Thermal insulation “takes away” at least 5 (and more often – more) cm of free space. With an apartment ceiling height of 2.30 (on average), the extra 5–15 cm will be noticeable.
- The floor of the apartment is unlikely to be cold, since the heat will rise from the neighbors living under you.
- Warming the floor will create a drop in the height of the surface, which is not always convenient.
- Floor insulation is a much more complicated procedure than wall insulation, and not every person can cope with their own hands here.
Works on the insulation of the ceiling inside the apartments are of greater relevance than the insulation of the floor – due to the fact that the heated air always rises. In the absence of an effective “barrier” (which is the insulation), he will freely leave the room, “warming up” the floor to your neighbors from above. So if the walls you have already warmed, and the temperature of the house is still not comfortable enough – you can think about the ceiling finishing with insulation of the hangar with the help of polyurethane foam.
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1.2 On the pros and cons of internal insulation
Compared to the exterior, the work inside the panel house has a number of differences – both positive and negative. Consider the advantages of this method:
- it is possible to warm the wall with your own hands, without the use of climbing equipment;
- work can be carried out at any time of the year (whereas outside it can only warm the surface in warm, dry and calm weather);
- if necessary, the insulation can be dismantled / repaired at any time.
The disadvantages of insulating the apartments from the inside have already been mentioned above, but just in case we make a specific list of them:
Thermal insulation foam walls of the corner room from the inside
- reduction of free space inside the room;
- low efficiency in the absence of external insulation;
- the need for a complete reworking of repairs in the room (whereas insulation, mounted outside, does not require dismantling of finishing materials in the house).
2 About the choice of material
Internal heat and sound insulation can be performed using several technologies. The selected heater (or rather, its type) differs from each other. It can be:
- Sheet materials: foam plastic, extruded polystyrene foam (EPS), mineral wool plates.
- Rolled materials: mineral wool, polyethylene foam.
- Spray (liquid) materials: foamed polyurethane foam (PPU), insulation to protect the walls of the house.
However, each heater from the list above has a number of features – so we will consider them separately.
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2.1 Use of foam and extruded polystyrene foam (EPS)
These materials can be combined into one category, since the differences between them are insignificant, and consist only in a number of characteristics that practically do not affect the efficiency of the work. We give a brief description of these insulators: light plates of white (foam) or orange (EPPS) granules, which enclose the air.
They are supplied in the form of slabs of various sizes (most often in the range of about 1 x 2 m) and with different thicknesses — efficiency actually depends on it: the thicker the layer, the warmer it will be in the room.
The following points can be distinguished from the drawbacks of insulation by Penoplex (brand EPS) or foam plastic:
- the presence of joints between the sheets (and each joint is an extra chance of penetration of cold and moisture);
- sound insulation when using the material is far from ideal (except when using a layer thickness of 10+ cm);
- the need to level the surface to a perfectly flat level.
Wall insulation foam from the inside
Separately, it should be said about such a disadvantage as a significant reduction in space in the room. The insulation layer can be at least 5 cm (and this is just the insulation itself), the loss of which will be noticeable, especially considering that the majority of apartments already have a small area.
Now let’s look at what needs to be done to insulate the surface with Penoplex (foam) with your own hands:
- The surface is cleaned from finishing materials to the “bare” wall, even liquid insulation is removed.
- The evenness of the surface is checked – a level is applied for this. If there are serious drops, bumps, depressions – they should be removed using plaster.
- The surface is inspected for cracks and holes. If available, they should be removed using plaster.
- Sheets of material are cut into more convenient parts (but not too small – the size of about 1 x 1.5 m is optimal).
- The resulting segments are “trying on” to the wall.
- Segment fitting is in progress.
- Prepared adhesive mixture.
- The mixture is evenly distributed on the surface of the insulation.
- The segment is pressed tightly against the wall, starting at the bottom corner.
- For fixing, the material can be additionally fixed with dowels (optimally – 5 pieces: 4 in the corners, 10-15 cm from the edge, and 1 in the center).
Be careful with this: dowels should not damage the wiring and should not be too long – if the partition is too thin.
- Installation of insulation continues, moving sideways.
- Each next row is placed with an offset from the previous one.
- After installation of all segments and complete drying of the mixture – the joints are coated with plaster / polyurethane / sealed with construction tape.
- A vapor barrier film is applied (optional, but desirable).
- Further finishing work is carried out.
2.2 Stages of work when using polyfoam (video)
2.3 Use of mineral wool (plates and rolls)
This material is poorly suited for this type of work. They choose it now extremely rarely, mostly – chasing cheapness. According to its characteristics, it is close to the foam, but the properties of mineral wool make it a less relevant option. The list of deficiencies is the following:
- material tends to accumulate moisture;
- the material is crumpled and caked like Aststrak insulants;
- wadding cotton is harmful to human health (especially if children or allergies live in the house);
- sound insulation – not better than foam (and even worse);
- increased complexity at work (it is especially difficult to warm the surface with a roll of mineral wool);
- the presence of joints between the segments.
Tangible benefits compared with other materials can not be distinguished, except, perhaps, low cost and lack of need for a perfectly flat surface. And the difference in cost, compared with the same foam, will be minimal.
Consider the steps that will allow to insulate the wall with the help of this material with your own hands:
- The surface is cleaned from finishing materials to the “bare” wall.
- The surface is checked for holes, cracks. If available – they are plastered over with plaster.
- The material is cut into segments convenient for mounting values.
- Installation of the batten is in progress.
- The material is placed between the slats.
- Additionally, the material is fastened with dowels.
- The vapor barrier is glued on top of the rails.
- Further finishing work is carried out.
2.4 Foamed polyethylene application
Of the existing heaters, this option is perfect for work on the insulation of apartments in the panel house from the inside. It is a hard roll of material, on the one hand of which there is a foil layer, on the other hand – foamed polyethylene.
Sound insulation is also carried out with its help – in this respect, the material is superior to the above options. Its significant advantage is the thickness: a few millimeters (4-5) Penofola in efficiency equal to several centimeters (3-4) of foam. Thus, it will minimize space in the room.
In addition, the foil side (turned into apartments) enhances the “thermos effect”, shielding (reflecting) heat and not letting it out of the room. And in terms of work, it is ten times simpler than both foam and minvata – with its help, you can insulate the wall of the corner (or any other) apartment simply and quickly.
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At the same time, its use does not require leveling the surface and creating a multilayer “cake”.
- The surface is cleaned from dirt, old finishing materials.
- Cracks and holes (if available) – filled with plaster.
- The material is glued to the surface with a special glue.
Everything – this is the end of the process of warming the apartments in the panel building, and you can proceed to further finishing.
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2.6 Work steps when using polyethylene foam (video)
2.7 Application of foamed polyurethane foam (PUF)
By the effectiveness of this material ranks first in the list of modern insulators. It has the best quality characteristics and is almost devoid of flaws. The advantages of PPU spraying technology include:
- lack of joints;
- absolute moisture resistance;
- small layer thickness with high efficiency (where 5-10 cm of foam or mineral wool is required, 2-3 cm of foam can be used, and the result will be better);
- high coverage speed (for 1 work shift – 8 hours – about 100 “squares” of the surface can be processed, that is, all external walls in any of the average apartments).
Its use is especially important for the corner room – since the corners themselves very often create a problem during insulation, and it is not always possible even to get them to isolate them correctly and accurately. PPU is used for insulation of apartments both from the inside and outside.
From the minuses of such isolation of apartments the following factors can be identified:
- relatively high cost;
- the inability to perform their own hands (this requires special installation).
The stages of work with the use of technology are the following:
- The surface is cleaned from old materials.
- Cracks and holes are sealed with plaster (however, when using polyurethane foam, this item is not indispensable).
- PU foam is prepared (from two components that are stirred right on the spot, in the installation tank).
- The material is sprayed onto the wall.
The material, which is a liquid suspension, solidifies upon contact with air for several seconds, and a dense monolithic crust forms on the wall surface, tightly glued to the surface.
Insulation for the walls of the house indoors and especially the choice of materials
Properties of insulation for walls from the inside: the main characteristics
When choosing materials in the first place should be based on the properties and characteristics of insulation.
The most important characteristics to determine which insulation is better for the walls of a wooden house inside are:
- thermal conductivity – the most important indicator for the choice of insulating materials. The less insulation is able to keep the heat in the room, the greater the need to install a warming material. This indicator is directly dependent on the level of hygroscopicity;
- density is another indicator that affects the level of thermal conductivity. It largely determines the characteristics of surfaces with different types of placement. The higher the density, the greater the level of thermal conductivity;
- hygroscopicity – materials with a low index are characterized by poor absorbing properties, which reduces the level of thermal conductivity. The durability of the insulation and the choice of the material itself for these works depend on the hygroscopicity.
Before installing insulation it is important to correctly calculate the required amount of material.
Helpful advice! Wall insulation is recommended to do in the warm season. The walls should be well dried.
In addition to the physical properties of the insulation also have mechanical characteristics. Within this feature, 4 classes of materials are distinguished:
- Cotton wool – a heater of rolled type and other products which are made with its use.
- Bulk – granulated foam substance or materials in the form of crumbs, having different size fractions.
- Foam blocks – glass, foamed concrete and other materials with suitable properties are used as raw materials for manufacturing.
- Plates – products in the form of plates, obtained by pressing and gluing (may have different dimensional parameters).
When working with mineral wool, respirators are used to protect the respiratory organs, and special clothes and gloves are used to protect the skin.
Thermal insulation properties of materials for walls
Despite the wide range of materials for wall insulation, presented on the construction market, there is no insulation that could offer universal characteristics and properties.
Helpful advice! If you are thinking about how to insulate walls in a corner apartment from the inside, or premises in a wooden house, in each case the choice of material will be different. It is worthwhile to dwell on the most important characteristics.
Comparative table of material properties:
The parameters of hygroscopicity and thermal conductivity:
Installation of insulation for walls inside the house in the country. Types and installation of insulation for walls inside the house. Detailed characteristics of materials for warming. Installation of various insulation on the interior walls.
Types of insulation for indoor walls: polystyrene foam materials
The most common material is polystyrene foam, which has excellent thermal performance and relatively low cost. In addition to the affordable price and a small indicator of thermal conductivity, this material has a lot of other qualities, both positive and negative.
Expanded polystyrene sheets are attached to the wall with dowels or glue
Expanded polystyrene: advantages and disadvantages of the material
Advantages of polystyrene foam insulation:
- The low price in the purchase – the cost of the material is directly affected by its density, but when compared with other types of heaters, these products are much cheaper.
- Low level of thermal conductivity – due to the poor bandwidth of the plates, you can save on their thickness, as a result you get to save space in the room.
- Simple installation system – products are lightweight, so do not cause difficulties in the installation process.
The popularity of expanded polystyrene has grown due to the fact that its sheets have a low specific weight and, unlike cotton wool, have a greater moisture resistance
Helpful advice! Despite the fact that the foam is widely used for insulation, it can not be called the best eco-friendly insulation for the walls of the house or the most suitable because of its flammability. Moreover, in the process of burning the material emits toxic substances.
Disadvantages of polystyrene foam insulation:
- The material burns quite well – this process is accompanied by the release of hazardous and toxic substances. Especially serious consequences arise if the insulation is performed from the inside.
- Due to the fragility of the plates, which can break during installation, costs and the amount of construction debris increase.
- Rodents can damage the insulation by gnawing their moves in it.
- Low vapor permeability – improvement of the ventilation system will be needed, otherwise condensation may form on the walls.
The correct choice of insulation will provide warm in winter and cool in summer
Extruded polystyrene foam: the advantages of insulation
An alternative version of expanded polystyrene is an extruded version of this material – EPS. Due to the improved characteristics, its area of application is much wider than that of conventional foam.
Strengths of the material:
- Very low thermal conductivity, so that the material is widely used in construction (insulation of almost all structural elements of the building, including the floor and roof).
- The flammability index has been significantly improved, but this only applies to high-quality material, which is manufactured in compliance with all the technological subtleties in production.
- High strength – installation of EPPS is possible in those areas where other types of materials do not cope with the task of insulation, for example, under a floor screed.
- Low water absorption – in some situations there is no need to apply additional hydro and vapor barrier layers.
- Durability – compliance with the technology of installation allows you to make the life of the material long enough.
- Simple installation system – regardless of whether internal or facade insulation is carried out, material installation is quick and easy.
Extruded polystyrene foam, due to its resistance to heat transfer, reduces heat loss by up to 90%
Helpful advice! Use EPS for warming the base part of the house, as well as the basement and basement.
Extruded polystyrene foam: lack of insulation
In comparison with foam plastic, there are significantly fewer deficiencies in EPPS, but they exist.
Disadvantages of EPPS insulation:
- Poor vapor permeability – installation of a good ventilation system is required, since the walls of the room after insulation do not breathe.
- Despite the fact that the flammability index has significantly decreased, there are a large number of products manufactured in violation of production technology on the market.
- Due to the unfair attitude of some manufacturers towards compliance with the requirements for the production process and raw materials, the issue of the release of toxic substances remains unclear. When choosing a material, you should carefully study the information about the manufacturer and its products.
- Higher price in comparison with polyfoam.
Characteristics of extruded polystyrene foam
If it is not possible to perform facade insulation, the use of EPPS as a thermal insulation material is much safer than in the case of foam plastic. The main thing is to establish a high-quality and efficient ventilation system.
Penoplex – one of types of expanded polystyrene
Penoplex is available in the form of expanded polystyrene plates manufactured using special extrusion technology. The material is obtained by forcing a plastic mass that has been foamed and heated. The punching is done through a molding nozzle called a nozzle.
Due to the interaction of high temperatures and high pressure when frozen, the penoplex becomes finely porous. Its structure consists of small air cells 100-200 microns in size, isolated from each other.
Note! Due to the unusual structure, expanded polystyrene provides excellent insulating qualities and high strength (especially in front of mechanical factors).
Foam block wall insulation scheme
The modern range offers several varieties of this material, intended for various purposes:
- Dense products with markings -45 for paving.
- “Penoplex foundation” for insulating the basement elements of a building (protects the foundation part of the structure from freezing, prevents the formation of cold bridges, which usually occur between the ground and the rooms).
- “Penoplex-wall” for facade insulation works with thermal and sound insulation properties.
- “Penoplex roof” for processing slopes of the roof and insulation of attic floors.
- “Penoplex comfort” for internal insulation works.
It is better to carry out works on warming in the warm season, in the period without precipitation and high humidity.
Advantages and disadvantages of insulation for walls Penoplex
- low water absorption (0.6% per month);
- a small coefficient of thermal conductivity (0.03 W / mh ° C);
- resistance to mechanical properties (lack of forcing and any other structural changes from pressing, provided they are placed on a flat surface);
- low vapor permeability (physical and technical characteristics do not allow the material to absorb evaporation, so penoplex can be used to insulate rooms with high humidity levels, such as saunas or baths);
- small weight;
- simple installation and processing system;
- long service life (up to 50 years);
- resistance to chemical attack factors (salt solutions, alcoholic compounds, alkalis, water-based coloring compositions, carbon dioxide, etc.).
Penoplex has a low thermal conductivity, waterproof, and resistant to fire.
There are a number of substances that can damage the penoplex or deprive it of its beneficial properties. These substances include:
- diesel fuel;
- oil based paint formulations;
- enamel dyes;
- ethyl acetate or methyl acetate solvents;
- acetone and formaldehyde;
- other active substances.
Installation of each type of insulation is carried out in accordance with certain requirements and standards.
Types of insulation for walls from the inside on the basis of wool
Mineral wool is present in the sale in the form of plates with different levels of density, as well as roll products. It is used for insulation of wall surfaces, roof and attic floors. Use of material for internal works on warming of rooms is allowed.
Note! For mineral wool insulation for walls inside the house, the price depends on the density (as well as other types of thermal insulation materials). The higher this figure, the higher the cost of products.
The advantages of mineral wool insulation:
- low flammability index (when burning, the material is accompanied by smoldering with gradual attenuation without the release of smoke and harmful substances);
- excellent air and vapor permeability;
- favorable thermal performance;
- resistance to insects and rodents;
- sound insulation properties.
Glass wool is used for heat and sound insulation of floors, basements, facades, interior and exterior walls
- moisture vulnerability and high absorption with loss of beneficial properties;
- installation work requires the use of clothing, which complicates the process of installing insulation;
- the cost of purchasing protective materials (waterproofing and vapor barrier);
- over time, mineral wool shrinks.
There are two more types of wool-based insulation on the market: glass wool and eco wool.
Glass wool has almost the same properties as mineral wool insulation, but it is more elastic and resistant to vibration. Its main drawback – a dangerous effect on the human body, which complicates the installation process.
Ecowool on the contrary is considered one of the most environmentally friendly insulation, but the cost of this material is appropriate.
Ecowool is not recommended to be used for thermal insulation of the basement and floors above basements, in which the humidity level is consistently high.
Features of foiled and liquid insulation for building walls
Insulation for liquid wall insulation is considered the thinnest. According to the external characteristics, it is similar to the usual coloring composition. The only thing that distinguishes it is the structure consisting of microscopic vacuum spheres that form the insulating effect.
This type of material appeared on the market relatively recently, but due to its high cost, it is not yet as popular among consumers as other types of heaters that were previously considered.
Note! According to information from manufacturers, 1 mm of the interlayer of a heat-insulating heat-insulating material has the same capabilities as mineral wool, the thickness of which does not exceed 5 cm. This advantage largely justifies the high cost of the material in comparison with others.
Foil insulation is a multilayer material consisting of a polyethylene foam of a closed-pore structure of various thickness and aluminum foil
Often used insulation with foil for the walls inside the house in the country. Due to the reflective coating of such a material prevents the heat from the room. As a rule, foiled substrate manufacturers complement mineral wool or foamed products in slabs and rolls.
Average prices for various types of insulation materials
Comparative table of the cost of organic, reflective and inorganic insulation:
Sources: http://sovets.net/7052-uteplitel-dlya-sten-vnutri-doma-na-dache.html, http://uteplimvse.ru/dlya/sten/kvartiri-iznutri.html, http: // remoo.ru/steny/uteplitel-dlya-sten-doma-vnutri/