When installing this material, you need to remember that there should be some distance between it and the roof. This air gap is necessary to ensure high-quality ventilation in the place of installation of insulation. The thickness of the air gap depends on the coating material of your roof. If the material has a wavy shape (metal tile, tile), then the air gap must be at least 25 mm. In cases of the use of a “flat” format (sheets of steel, rolled materials, asbestos cement), the distance between the heater and the roof should be doubled.
Another important point – the thickness of the plates of the insulator and the rafters may be different. In case the slabs are thinner, the first layer is placed between the rafters, and the second one must be laid on the rafters. If the plates are thicker, it is necessary to fill the wooden slats on the rafters.
To protect the thermal insulation material from excessive moisture, a vapor barrier must be applied on top. As it is known, warm air tends upwards and condenses there. That is why the device of such protection is mandatory. The material for the vapor barrier layer is polyethylene film, glassine, foiled materials, roofing material. You need to know that the vapor barrier material overlaps, and the places of such joints must be sealed (most conveniently with adhesive tape). Fastening, as a rule, is made with the help of thin wooden slats.
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The walls of the attic are insulated in case the roof of your house does not reach the floor of the attic. First, on the walls you need to fix the slats for laying the insulating and vapor barrier layers. The method of performing work is similar to that described above, but here you must first lay the waterproofing material. For decorating the walls of the attic as sheets of fiberboard, fiberboard sheets proved to be very good. It’s quite simple to work with them. they can be fixed with screws or nails.
High-quality insulation of the attic of the house, made by hand, can significantly reduce heating costs, creates a favorable microclimate in the house and increases the service life of the structural elements.
Attic insulation from the inside: technology and options
Warming the attic from the inside with your own hands allows you to make the room under the roof suitable for living in any season. It is important to choose the right heat-insulating material and comply with the technology of work so that a favorable microclimate is maintained in the attic and the roof system is not exposed to negative influences.
Attic insulation with mineral wool
Why attic insulation?
If the room under the roof is used only for storing unnecessary things and rare overnight stays during the summer period, there is little point in taking care of the insulation of its walls and roof. But if you want to turn the attic into a full-fledged residential floor, you will have to invest money, spend time and energy to mount high-quality insulation.
Insulated attic will not only stop freezing through the roof and walls in the winter. In the summertime, the attic room will be protected from overheating, as in the heat the air under the unheated roof gets very hot, especially if the roofing is metal roofing or corrugated flooring.
Insulation may have an additional function for sound insulation of the house, but in this case it is necessary to use fibrous material – mineral wool, glass wool, eco wool. Plates of foam and expanded polystyrene do not dampen sound and mechanical vibrations; therefore, it is not rational to use such material in homes with a noisy metal roof.
Preparing the room for insulation
The choice of insulation and installation technology
Warming of a residential attic from the inside can be performed using materials with different performance properties. However, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of internal warming not only of the roof, but also of the walls – the two walls of the attic are usually the gables of the house, moreover, in some cases the floor of the attic is located below the trussing system.
Insulation of the walls from the inside has its own peculiarity: the dew point moves from the middle of the wall towards the heat-insulating layer. That is, moisture condenses in the space between the building structure and insulation. If you use fibrous material as a heat insulator (miniwatu), you will have to try to protect it from moisture, as wetting leads to a noticeable loss of thermal insulation properties and the appearance of cold bridges.
Definition of the dew point concept
It is important to isolate the fibrous insulation from moisture on both sides, because steam will penetrate into the room from it. Since the vapor barrier cannot be made completely tight around the perimeter, over time such insulation will lose its properties and will need to be replaced.
A more functional solution for the attic can be the use of a heat insulator made of foamed polymer – foam or expanded polystyrene. Vapor-proof insulation does not allow the wet air of the room to contact the wall structure, respectively, there is no condensation from its inside, despite the dew point shifted.
So, the insulation of the walls of the attic from the inside will be as reliable and durable as possible if:
- the material for thermal insulation does not pick up moisture and does not allow steam;
- the joints of the elements of insulation between themselves and the junction to the crate walls, the truss frame of the roof are hermetically sealed;
- when decorating the walls and ceiling of the attic, the integrity of the heat-insulating layer was not affected (that is, the conditions for contact of steam with the wall structures were not created).
Proper installation of a heat insulator made of foamed polymer makes it possible to solve the problem with warming the attic room for many years.
Thermal insulation of the attic floor. Installation of internal insulation inevitably requires the creation of a system in which there is no natural air exchange through the walls, so it is important to consider a ventilation system and use breathing materials for interior decoration – drywall or natural wood.
Consider the pros and cons of the most affordable heat insulators – foam and polystyrene foam.
Thermal insulation foam is a popular variant of attic insulation, which is explained by the low cost of the material and ease of installation. It can be equally used for roofing and wall construction.
The positive operational properties of the material include:
- low thermal conductivity;
- moisture resistance;
- low vapor permeability (depends on the quality of the material);
- not susceptible to rotting, mold spread;
- low weight (the truss system will not need to be further strengthened);
- ease of processing (cut with a construction knife, hacksaw with a small tooth spacing);
- ease of installation (do-it-yourself accessibility);
- low price
However, you should pay attention to a number of disadvantages:
- when insulating with foam plastic it is necessary to exclude the ingress of solar ultraviolet radiation on the material in order to avoid its destruction;
- mice and other rodents easily damage the insulation, gnawing in it moves and making nests;
- This heat insulator melts under the influence of open fire with the release of toxic substances.
When planning foam insulation, pay attention to the quality, density and thickness of the sheet material – its operational properties and durability depend on it. Sheets or plates whose density is 15/25/35 kg / m3 are used as a heat insulator for building structures. To create an internal insulation layer in the attic room, it is recommended to choose a foam with a density of 35 kg / m3.
Sheet thickness must be at least 100 mm. Before you buy, be sure to check the structure of the material. Polyfoam consists of small spheres, each of which has a closed cellular structure. The cells are filled with gas or air, which ensures a low thermal conductivity. In the manufacture of sheet material, such granules of foamed suspension polymer are sintered into a monolith.
High-quality foam plastic granule adhesion is quite high, there are practically no microscopic gaps between them. If the sheet material is easily broken and crumbled into individual balls, it means that it has a large number of technological pores between the granules and does not have the necessary vapor-tightness. Such a heat insulator requires the creation of a waterproofing barrier between it and the wall and the installation of a vapor barrier on the premises side. Otherwise, wooden structures of walls and roofs will suffer from moisture.
An alternative to insulation foam is the use of extruded sheet polystyrene foam. It compares favorably with fellow absolute moisture resistance and vapor resistance – closed-cell material has no technological pores. This allows you to equip the insulation layer without installing a vapor barrier membrane.
The advantages of polystyrene foam also include low weight and ease of installation, excellent thermal insulation properties. Another important plus is that rodents are indifferent to it, they do not gnaw at it and do not settle in the insulating layer.
Wall thickness comparison for different materials
The degree of fire resistance of foam plastic depends on the type of material, but in general, this insulation is more resistant to the effects of open fire compared with foam.
Expanded polystyrene is stronger and more rigid than polyfoam, it is produced in slabs with smooth edges or sheets with tongue-and-groove joints. For insulating the attic, a cheaper first option is suitable, since pieces of heat insulator are placed between the rafter legs or the sheathing on the walls. Penoplex thickness should be at least 100 mm.
Tools and materials
To perform attic insulation with your own hands, using polystyrene foam or polystyrene foam as a heat insulator, you will need:
- construction knife / hacksaw with a small tooth for cutting insulation sheets;
- polyurethane foam;
- reinforced adhesive tape;
- self-adhesive tape;
- construction steppler;
- hammer and nails with umbrella hats;
- wooden block;
- electric drill with wood drills;
- screwdriver and screws on wood;
- waterproofing film;
- drywall or wooden lining for interior plating.
If you want to save as much as possible, the waterproofing barrier during insulation with foam plastic can be performed using ordinary high-density polyethylene film. However, proper insulation dictates the choice of special membrane materials. In this case, the system will last much longer without losing its performance.
The thickness of the sheet foam or polystyrene should correspond to the size of the timber from which the rafters are made, so that the insulation can be laid flush in one or two layers. When laying in two layers, the total thickness of the heat insulator should be 150-200 mm.
Installation of a waterproofing barrier
To eliminate the risk of condensation of moisture from the inside of the rafters and wall structures when using foam plastic, the waterproof barrier should be installed first. The rolled material (film or membrane) must be laid in such a way that it envelopes the rafters and lies on the back side of the batten. It can be fastened with brackets using a construction steppler, but double-sided tape is also allowed.
The waterproofing layer should be a seamless canvas without seams. If you have to dock pieces of film or membrane, you need to perform an overlap of at least 15 cm wide and carefully glue the joints with reinforced tape.
Installation of a waterproofing barrier
If the end walls of the attic (gables) are made of timber or building blocks, you must choose one of two mounting options:
- waterproofing film is attached with a double-sided tape on a flat surface of the wall, after which the sheet heat insulator will need to be fixed with nails with umbrella-caps;
- a crate of bars is installed on the walls, the width of which is equal to the thickness of the selected heater; a waterproofing barrier is mounted on top of them according to the same principle as on the rafters.
Particular attention should be paid to the mounting of the waterproofing membrane in the ridge of the pitched roof, at the base of the walls, around the skylights. Glue all joints around the perimeter with reinforced or aluminum tape.
In the case when polystyrene foam is chosen as a heat insulator, there is no special need for waterproofing – the insulation will not allow moisture from the room to the wooden structures, if you take care of the tightness of the seams when laying insulation.
Mansard roof is a variant of a broken truss structure; it can have a complex configuration. Light sheet material is convenient for warming such systems, since it can easily be cut into fragments of the required size.
How to warm the attic with your own hands? Using a tape measure, measure each gap between the rafters, so that pieces of sheet foam or polystyrene foam fit into the cell tightly, without gaps. The elements of insulation are adjusted exactly along the width of the cells, they usually have to be joined along the length, trying not to leave even small lye.
In order for the attic to be warm, it is necessary to exclude the occurrence of cold bridges – for this purpose all joints and gaps, junction of the heat insulator to the rafters, are sealed with mounting foam. After it hardens, cut off the excess with a sharp mounting knife.
Attic flooring with foam plastic
If we are talking about insulation foam on top of the waterproofing barrier, the installation of heat insulator is completed.
Thermal insulation of polystyrene foam plates itself serves as a vapor barrier, if you seal the seams, so after curing the foam and removing excess all joints must be glued with reinforced tape.
The attic insulation technology from the inside implies the transformation of the room under the roof into a thermos container – heat should not escape through the walls and roof, and moisture should not have access to wooden roof structures. Otherwise, laborious and complex repair of trusses damaged by rot and crates will be required.
It is important to take care of the effective removal of excess moisture, otherwise the wooden structural elements and finish will be damaged by the fungus. In addition, a surplus of moisture makes the indoor microclimate harmful to human health. In the attic there should be opening windows for airing the room, as well as a good ventilation system.
If the attic is being built and insulated with its own hands, it is not difficult to take care of a suitable inner lining. Standard materials of its manufacture:
- wooden lining;
- wood panels.
Gypsum board, which is available in the form of sheets with a tongue-and-groove joint, makes it possible to quickly mount a flat skin. It is fastened with screws to a wooden frame, the place of fastening on top of the recessed hats and the seams are rubbed with putty. In the future, the skin can be painted or pasted over with wallpaper.
Wooden wall paneling is a beautiful and practical natural material. The lining of the wall panel can be painted or tinted with stain, varnished. Pre-lining should be treated with antifungal and flame retardant.
The lining of the attic wooden clapboard
Wood-based panels, if they are made without the use of resins harmful to human health, can also be considered as a material for covering the ceiling and walls of insulated attic. After sealing the seams, the walls and ceiling are painted or pasted over with wallpaper.
Regardless of the choice of finishing material, if the attic is insulated with foam or polystyrene foam, it is recommended to leave an air gap between the inner lining and the heat insulator – for this, an additional sheathing of small section bars is installed.
Wood and drywall are breathable materials, they absorb excess moisture from the air. Backlash clearance will ensure air circulation and reduce the risk of over-wetting of the material. The lack of direct contact with the moisture-absorbing sheathing with the rafters will save the roof frame from damage by the fungus.
If you build your house, insulate the attic in it, you should not simplify the work technology and use cheap materials of low quality – this will directly affect the quality of life in the house and the durability of the building.
Attic – the favorite home of poets, artists, creative and creative people. Thanks to new construction materials, the attic floor can be used as a room under the roof as a living or utility room (zone) not only in summer but also in winter (for winter living). Abroad, well-designed and decorated attic and at all belong to the category of bohemian housing.
In modern residential construction, an attic is not just an equipped warm attic, it is an effective way to increase the functional space of a residential building. Noteworthy is the fact that, in accordance with city planning standards, the attic is taken into account when determining the number of floors of the building.
The advantages of insulated attic:
- saving on the cost of materials during the construction of a residential building;
- arrangement of functional additional space;
- the original appearance of a private house with an attic;
- reduction of heat loss through the roof space.
Among the shortcomings: sloping ceilings, the need for additional insulation, difficulties with the rational organization of living space.
Most of the minuses of the attic are completely removable and become the advantages with the right approach.
Preparing for attic insulation
A specific feature of the attic is the presence of a sloped ceiling. Moreover, according to the norms of SNiP 2.08.01-89 “Residential buildings”, the height of the attic floor cannot be lower than 2.5 m. It is allowed to reduce the height of an area not exceeding 50% of the total area of the room.
Other features of the attic include:
- dependence of heat loss on the material from which the house is built: wood, cellular concrete, brick, or their combination;
- dependence of the attic engineering systems from the existing ones in the house. This imposes imprints on communications engineering solutions;
- variety of architectural forms of mansard roof. broken, single, dual slope roof;
- variety of design solutions. The material for the manufacture of bearing elements of the attic can serve as wood, metal, reinforced concrete;
- location specifics. The attic can be located within the building area or go beyond its borders with the support on the columns or console extension of the interfloor overlap.
Thus, when deciding how to warm the attic for winter living, you need to proceed from the design features of the attic floor.
Note that the work on the insulation of a residential house or apartment to properly perform outside the room, because This approach provides a shift of the freezing point towards the heater mounted on the outside of the wall.
However, warming the attic from the inside is a ubiquitous option, because All surfaces that are subject to insulation are inside the attic (room) floor – the ceiling, floor and walls. The exception is the gable, which can be warmed in the framework of the attic insulation or at the same time as the warming of the whole house.
Factors affecting attic thermal insulation
Professionals identify two key factors that have a significant impact on the level of heat loss and performance characteristics of the attic after the insulation work has been performed.
- First, it is a thermal insulation material. Taking into account the fact that the attic floor is the coldest room in the house, and it is supposed to carry out the attic warming with your own hands, you need to take a balanced approach to the choice of insulation.
- Secondly, it is a waterproofing film. That it is designed to protect insulation from moisture that enters the premises of the attic from the outside (outside), through the roofing material, and from the inside, through the floor.
What kind of insulation for the attic is better to choose?
To insulate the attic of the house, you can use any insulating material that has worked well in practice.
Among the most popular materials: wool, foam, polyurethane foam and their varieties. It should be remembered that the insulation for the attic is chosen taking into account the factors inherent in a particular house and taking into account the skill level of who will be engaged in the installation of insulation material.
The characteristics that determine the suitability of insulation for use in a particular case are shown in the table.
Stiffness (compressive strength)
The material is prepared for the site www.moydomik.net
How to warm the attic from the inside
Features of application of heaters of different types and types.
Soft thermal insulation materials:
- insulation of the attic of mineral water requires competent selection and use of films. Thus, it is possible to eliminate the main disadvantage of wool – its hygroscopicity. The second, less significant minus – a slight stiffness, is eliminated by reliable fixation of wool, as well as the use of more dense of its varieties. Thus, sagging of cotton wool is excluded. Nevertheless, due to the ecological components, the insulation of the attic of the mineral wool from the inside continues to hold the leading position;
- insulation of the attic with glass wool is rarely performed due to the fact that glass wool is an unsafe material from the point of view of environmental friendliness. Plus, it makes installation difficult;
- Attic insulation penofol. It is used in case it is necessary to insulate without significant losses in the height of the room. In order for Penofol to perform its functions, the material must be oriented with a foil layer inside the room.
Hard heat insulation materials:
- Attic warming foam. An excellent and easy-to-install version that has the disadvantage of incomplete fit of the sheets to the crate. In view of this, a space unfilled with insulation appears and the efficiency of insulation decreases. In addition, the foam is flammable, and when burning emits toxic substances. And finally, tough insulation badly let the steam through. The popularity of the foam is due to its low price;
- attic insulation polystyrene foam (penoplex) is similar to insulation foam. The difference is the presence of a groove-ridge fastening system, which, for the sake of justice, does not play an important role in the attic insulation of the attic. And also in greater density of the material itself.
Note that breathing soft insulation will be a good option, if necessary, perform warming of wooden attic.
Spray heat insulation materials:
- attic insulation ecowool. The material is 80% pulp and 20% wood. It has a natural antiseptic. This is a completely eco-friendly material;
- attic insulation polyurethane foam (PUF).
Warming of a penthouse from within PPU dusting
The widespread distribution of sprayed insulation is hampered by their high price, as well as the need to attract specialists and the use of special equipment. At the same time, according to consumer reviews, the price is justified by the high level of thermal insulation. After all, the sprayed material fills the smallest gaps and eliminates sources of heat loss.
The thickness of the attic insulation depends on: the type of roofing material, the height of the room, the presence of the heating system, the location of the insulation and its type.
Recommendation. If a chimney passes through the roof of the attic, basalt wool should be used. It begins to melt at a temperature of 1000 ° C, and does not smolder as ecowool and does not melt like rigid insulation (foam, penoplex).
Waterproofing and vapor barrier under insulation
Since wool is the leader among the materials for attic insulation, and it is hygroscopic, it becomes necessary to take care of the wool itself, protecting it with hydro and vapor barrier films. Otherwise, cotton wool will get wet and lose its insulating properties.
For insulation of insulation used:
- izospan (20-25 rubles / sq.m.). Vapor barrier film (membrane) has a double layer and surface roughness, thereby retaining condensate;
- polyethylene film (3 rubles / sq.m.). The most affordable waterproofing material in terms of prices. But this film does not have the ability to pass steam;
- waterproofing membrane (30-45 rubles / sq.m.). Many manufacturers offer roofing membranes, which are distinguished by their ability to simultaneously retain moisture and let steam through.
- Penofol (40-50 rubles per square meter). Foil insulation.
Waterproofing under the heater in the attic
Attic insulation technology from the inside with your own hands
Comprehensive insulation provides for the following types of work:
- attic roof insulation;
- attic ceiling insulation;
- attic floor insulation;
- insulation of attic walls.
Each of the stages has its own characteristics, which we dwell on in detail. Warming of the attic from the inside is done if the roof is already covered.
Attic roof insulation
No matter what kind of roofing material covered rafter system. The main thing is that it effectively copes with the task of preventing water from entering the attic room. From the point of view of insulation, the type of roofing material does not matter – their insulating properties approach zero. This means that the most significant heat loss occurs through the roof. Therefore, from the roof of the attic floor begin work on the insulation of the room.
Scheme insulation attic from the inside with their own hands
How to insulate the roof of the attic from the inside – step by step instructions
- installation of waterproofing film or membrane. This is a film that prevents water from entering the insulation, but does not interfere with the release of moisture from it. Due to which the insulation does not get wet. The film is mounted from the ridge to the eaves in such a way that the water, if it gets through the roofing material or condenses on it, flows down the film. Before mounting the film, it is important to treat the wooden parts of the truss system with a deep penetration primer;
- air gap. It turns out by arrangement of an obreshetka. Allows the material to “breathe”;
- installation of insulation. Mineral wool (or hard insulation) is placed between the rafters mansard roof. If the step rafters more than 600 mm. it is necessary to make an additional crate even before the waterproofing film laying stage.
Cotton wool is placed between adjacent bars or a metal profile end-to-end, so that there are no gaps. If any, you need to cut a piece of cotton, and close the gap.
Masters recommend the use of mineral wool mats, rather than rolled material, because they are more dense. It is also recommended to lay cotton wool in two layers with an offset. In order for the wool to sit tightly in the designated place, it can be strengthened with a rope or nails;
Council If you are warming the attic ceiling with a slope length of more than three meters, you need to make wooden lintels between the vertical bars of the sheathing. Since cotton wool can “slip”.
- installation of vapor barrier film. The task of this film is not to pass steam into the insulation. The optimum level of humidity is achieved by airing the room;
Note. To isolate the rafters, some craftsmen install thin insulation between the vapor barrier film and the finishing material.
Laying layers in a given order, it is important to ensure a reliable connection of films and insulation to the ridge, valley, walls, window openings, etc.
- finishing material. Most often for the attic are used sheets of drywall, MDF or wood (board, lining). Facing material is attached to the truss system or the frame of the profiles.
Attic floor insulation
Warming overlapping attic or floor depends on what type of overlap is available. In practice, there may be one of three types:
- reinforced concrete with self-leveling floors. Such overlap requires the most durable and effective heat insulator. Masters recommend giving preference to rigid foam or polystyrene foam;
- reinforced concrete with wooden floors on the logs. It is permissible to use both rigid insulation and basalt fiber;
- wooden floor beams.In this case, the arrangement of the subfloor, on which the insulation will be laid, is necessary, and then the final floor is installed. In this case, any heat-insulating material can be used, incl. granulated material (expanded clay, sawdust).
Regardless of the type of insulation (except for expanded clay), it is mandatory to install the membrane or vapor barrier films (lower layer) and waterproofing (upper layer).
Attic wall insulation
The walls of the attic can be formed by the slopes of the roof. Thus, they do not need warming, since already insulated the roof of the room. Also walls can be built from any other building material. In this case, they need to be warmed. For insulating the attic wall from the inside, the same technology is used as for insulating the ceiling with the obligatory arrangement of the batten. In addition, walls are often insulated with cellular concrete (foam concrete or aerated concrete). This is a convenient option, because no need to use hydro-vapor barrier films, crate, etc. work.
Insulation of the attic gable can be performed from the outside along with the insulation of external walls or from the inside, as part of the work on insulation of the attic from the inside. In the second case, the work is similar to wall insulation.
As you can see, the process of warming is not complicated, but the price of warming the attic can be significantly reduced if you do the work yourself. Note that the labor cost of the professionals involved is almost equal to the cost of all materials. In addition to savings, warming the attic with their own hands ensures that all the stages of thermal insulation are performed correctly and in accordance with the technology.
Properly insulated attic can be used as a game room, office, bedroom, library, recreation area, etc. The design of the attic is selected based on the purpose and preferences of the tenants.
Sources: http://1poteply.ru/montazh/obshhee/uteplenie-mansardy-iznutri.html, http://vseokrovle.com/krysha/205-uteplenie-mansardy-iznutri.html, http://moydomik.net/ krovlya / mansarda-cherdak / 443-uteplenie-mansardy.html