Typical wiring diagram of a private house: groups can be many different
If the calculated load is less than 15 kW, the input automat is set to 25 A. The counter is also selected accordingly. At higher power consumption, the installation of a transformer will be necessary, its parameters and parameters of all equipment will be indicated in the project.
Recently, when connecting a private house to the power grid, they require the installation of a meter and automatic switch on the street. This requirement is not legally confirmed, it is easier for the electric service to control consumption. If you want, you can fight; if not, choose a counter and a machine in a case with high dust and moisture protection – protection class not lower than IP-55. For installation inside the building, the protection should be less – IP-44, respectively, and the price will be lower.
For wiring in a private house is better to use cables, not wires. They have insulation, at least two times better, and therefore the requirements for laying are not so rigid, and it is safer to use them. All internal wiring in a private house should be made with protective grounding. Previously, there were no such requirements, but now many electrical appliances have three-prong plugs and require grounding for safe operation. Because the cable must be three-core.
In electrical cables, conductors are made of copper or aluminum. Although aluminum is cheaper, it is used less frequently: it is tough, it breaks more often, it is harder to work with it. When self-wiring wiring in a private home and lack of experience this can be a problem. Moreover, in wooden houses inside it cannot be used at all.
The definition of the cross section lived
Once you have decided on the material, you can choose the diameter of the cable cores. This is done depending on the planned load on the line on the table.
Calculation of electrical wiring – the choice of cross-section of cable cores is carried out according to this table
The cross section of the conductor is selected by current or power of all consumers connected to one machine. Here you will once again come in handy a plan for electrification of the house, where you have drawn groups of consumers. You consider the sum of the currents or powers of all the instruments and select the desired cross-section of the lived according to the table
How to use the table? If you decide to lay copper wires, the input voltage is 220 V, then for internal wiring, its left part, the corresponding column, is suitable. Compared will be the found power of all connected to a group of consumers (it is easier to find and calculate). In the part where we are talking about copper wires laid in trays, voids, channels, the column “220 V” find the nearest larger value. On this line, move to the right to the column “Section, square. mm. ” The number indicated here will be the required size of the cores. From conductors of this diameter will need to do electrical wiring from the machine to outlets or switches.
In order not to get confused when counting and laying, the conductors of the same diameter should be marked on the plan with a certain color (write it down so as not to forget what color you designated). After the diameter is determined for all groups of consumers, consider the length of the required cables for each size, a margin of 20-25% is added to the numbers found. You calculated the wiring for your home.
Shell type selection
Specific requirements for the type of sheath are only when laying electricians in wooden houses: it is recommended to use triple (NYM) or double (VVG) cable insulation. In the homes of their less flammable materials, you can use any insulation. The main thing is that it should be intact, without cracks, flows and other damage. If you want to be safe, you can use the conductors with enhanced protection. It makes sense in rooms with high humidity (kitchen, bathroom, pool, bath, etc.).
Choice of sockets and switches
Under some powerful devices sockets are selected by the maximum (starting) current. For the rest of low-power consumers, they are standard. You need to know what they are:
- Outdoor – when the case sticks out of the wall. It is easier to install them: a substrate is attached to the wall, and an outlet on top of it. But few people use such models now, even at summer cottages. The reason is aesthetic: not the most attractive sight.
- Internal. A recess in the wall is made under the electrical part, an installation box is installed and embedded in it. An electrical outlet or switch is inserted inside this box.
It is internal electrical outlets and switches that are most often used today. They are decorated in a different style, painted in different colors. They are selected mainly in the tone of the finish, and if this is not possible, put white.
How to connect loop-through switches (turn on / off the light from two or more places), read here.
Do it yourself
Current construction trends include hidden wiring. It can be laid in grooves specially made in the walls – grooves. After laying and fixing the cables, they are plastered with putty, comparing with the surface of the rest of the wall. If the erected walls are then reveted with sheet materials – plasterboard, gypsum plasterboard, etc. then the grooves are not needed. The cables fit into the gap between the wall and the finish, but in this case only in corrugated sleeves. The sheath with the laid cables is fastened with clamps to the structural elements.
How should the internal wiring be laid? In a private house with a device with your own hands, you must follow all the rules.
When laying it is necessary to remember that the internal electrical wiring of a private house is done according to all the rules and recommendations. This is the only way to guarantee security. The basic rules are:
- wiring only vertically and horizontally, no rounded corners or sloping tracks;
- all connections must be made in installation junction boxes;
- horizontal transitions should be at a height of at least 2.5 meters, from them down the cable to the outlet or to the switch.
A detailed plan for the passage of the route, similar to the one in the photo above, must be maintained. It is useful during repair or upgrade wiring. With him you will need to be checked, if somewhere close you need to make a hole or make a hole, hammer a nail. The main task is not to get into the cable.
A large percentage of wiring problems result from poor wire connections. They can be done in several ways:
- Twist. Only homogeneous metals, or not entering into a chemical reaction, can be connected in this way. Twist copper and aluminum can not be categorically. In other cases, the length of the bare conductors must be at least 40 mm. The two wires are interconnected as tightly as possible, the coils are stacked one next to the other. On top of the connection is wrapped with tape and / or shrink-wrapped packaging. If you want the contact to be 100%, and the loss is minimal, do not be too lazy to disappear twist. In general, according to modern standards, this type of wire connection is considered unreliable.
The rules for the installation of electrical wiring in private ohm prohibit twisting in the walls (walling them). If they can be, then only in the installation boxes, where their condition can be checked
Connection via screw terminal box. In the case of heat-resistant plastic, metal terminals are sealed, which are tightened with screws. The conductor, cleared from isolation, is inserted into the socket, fixed with a screw, using a screwdriver. This kind of connection is the most reliable.
Connecting wiring with terminal boxes – it is fast, convenient, reliable, safe
Connecting pads with springs. In these devices, the contact is provided with a spring. A bare conductor is inserted into the socket, which is clamped by a spring.
And still, the most reliable methods of joining are welding and brazing. If there is an opportunity to make the connection so, we can assume that you will not have problems. Anyway with connections.
Installation of electrical wiring in the house with your hands requires careful implementation of all requirements. This is a guarantee of your private security and the security of your private property.
After the wires from the circuit breaker to the outlet point of the socket or switch are laid, they are checked for integrity by a tester – they ring the wires together, checking the integrity of the conductors, and each one to the ground – checking that the insulation is not damaged anywhere. If the cable is not damaged, proceed to the installation of the outlet or switch. Connecting, still check the tester. Then they can start on the appropriate machine. Moreover, it is advisable to sign the machine immediately: it will be easier to navigate.
Having finished electrical wiring throughout the house, having checked everything on their own, they call specialists of the electrical laboratory. They check the condition of conductors and insulation, measure the ground and zero, and by the results give you an act (protocol) of tests. Without it, you will not be given permission for commissioning.
Electrician in the house with their own hands: the scheme. Electrician in the apartment and the house with their own hands
In the article we will talk about how an electrician is done in the house with his own hands, wiring schemes will also be considered. If a couple of decades ago, the electric networks of cities and even villages were insignificant loads, today the picture is the opposite. A lot of high-power household appliances – washing machines, multicookers, split-systems and more.
The load on the electrical network has increased many times. And if the city has some stock, then in the wiring of a private house there is no such, therefore, an increase in load leads to the fact that the wires do not withstand and begin to collapse. Consequently, there is a question that the electrician in the apartment and house with his own hands should not only be repaired, but also completely changed.
In the past, wiring was done in homes according to the simplest scheme – a switch and a socket for each room, but in modern conditions this turns out to be too little – I want to turn on three chargers, a laptop, a TV, and so on. To do the wiring in the house yourself, you need to know certain rules and standards that should be followed during installation. You will also learn how the wiring diagram is done, how to make it right with your hands and the requirements for it.
Building materials and all activities of builders are governed by certain rules and requirements, they are called GOST and SNiP. Electrical wiring rules for electrical installations (hereinafter EIR) are also applied to electrical wiring in homes and buildings. It is this regulatory document that specifies all requirements for electrical equipment, thoroughly indicating what to do with it and how. All electrics in the apartment and house do it with their own hands on the voltage only after all the checks for the presence of a short circuit have been carried out.
Requirements for wiring in private homes and apartments
In the event that you decide to make your own electrical wiring in your home, you must carefully examine all the requirements for it. But the focus should be on the following points:
- The main components of electrical wiring (distribution boxes, switches, sockets, counters) must be made easily accessible. Quite simply mounted wiring in the house with his own hands. Electricity, however, is demanding in terms of safety. But all the rules can be easily observed.
- Circuit breakers for PUE should be performed at the level of 0.6-1.5 meters from the floor surface. And you need to pay attention to the fact that when you open the door, they should not create an obstacle. For example, if the door opens to the right, then the switch should be placed on the left. And if the door opens to the left, the switch is mounted on the right. The cable must be laid to the switch on top.
- Sockets are mounted at a level of 0.5-0.8 meters from the floor surface. The fact is that at this level you need to have it in order to be safe when flooding the house. And from the gas or electric stoves, heating radiators, pipes (and other objects with grounding) must be maintained at a distance of not less than 0.5 m. To all sockets, the wires go from the bottom up. That is how the installation of electrical wiring in the apartment with their own hands. Wiring diagrams are given in the article.
- For every 6 square meters. m. square room should be one outlet. The exception is the kitchen, in which there are as many outlets as needed (based on the number of home appliances located in it). Installation of sockets is prohibited in the toilet, but in the bathroom is allowed, provided that there is a junction through the transformer (220 volts are supplied to the primary winding, the same amount is removed from the secondary winding). Installation of the transformer is made outside the bathroom.
- Before starting work, you need to make an electrical plan, clearly indicate its location in the walls. Please note that all wires must be placed either horizontally or vertically – but not diagonally or along a broken line. This should not be done in the house with his own hands. The wiring diagram of all devices must take into account this feature.
- There must be a certain distance from ceilings, pipes and other obstacles. For example, from beams you need to maintain a distance of 5-10 cm, from the eaves – the same. About 15 cm from the ceiling should be kept from the floor, 15-20 cm from the floor. If we are talking about vertical surfaces, then there should be at least 10 cm from the door and window openings. But between the gas pipe and the wiring you need to maintain a distance of over 0.4 m.
- External or hidden wiring should not touch the metal parts of any structures.
- If several wires run in parallel, the distance must be maintained between them over three millimeters. An alternative is to hide each wire in a protective box or corrugation. So mounted electrician in the house with his own hands. Schemes should be made with this in mind.
- Connect and dilute the wires should be in special distribution boxes. All joints must be carefully insulated, and one thing must be taken into account – it is prohibited to connect copper and aluminum wires. If you make wiring from copper wire, then you make it all of it, there should be no sections of aluminum.
- Grounding (including zero wires) must be fastened to all devices using bolted joints.
These are the requirements requested all electrics. With your own hands, you can create connection diagrams only if you take into account all these rules and regulations.
House wiring project
The first thing you need to create a project wiring, it is with him that everything begins. From it will be repelled in the future during installation. Of course, it will be much better if it is made to you by experienced technicians who have been engaged in this business for more than one year. But if you have experience, go for it.
But keep in mind that your security depends on how the project is made. You need to know what conventions are used in the preparation of schemes and projects. It is worth noting that the Russian standards are quite different from European or American, so you should not use foreign schemes in the conditions of our country. Designed all the electrics in the house with their own hands (the diagrams are given in the article) at the initial stage.
Draw a plan of a house or apartment, mark on it the places where sockets, switches, chandeliers, etc. will be installed. The number of electrical appliances was mentioned a little lower. At this stage, the main goal is to create a scheme in which all the places of installation of devices will be marked. The second part is to outline the locations of wiring in the apartment. Of course, you need to know in what places there will be household appliances.
Then make the wiring of all wires. And if the creation of a scheme with the location of consumers is a simple matter, at this stage of work it is worthwhile to stop in more detail. Three types of connections and wiring can be used:
The most attractive from the point of view of saving materials is the third.
An electrician is doing in the house with his own hands (mixed type schemes) with the highest possible efficiency. To facilitate your work, ungroup it:
- Lighting corridors, living rooms, kitchen.
- Bathroom and toilet (lighting).
- Sockets in living rooms, corridors.
- Outlets in the kitchen.
- Electric cooker socket (if necessary).
Please note that this is the simplest option for grouping electricity consumers. The smaller the groups, the less materials will be spent. The above example is the easiest and most economical. It can be difficult: literally to each outlet, for example, to bring electrical wiring. About how to hold an electrician in a private house with your own hands, you begin to realize a little.
To simplify the wiring, it can be mounted under the floor (for sockets). In the case of overhead lighting can be mounted in the floor slabs. Ideal for the “lazy” way – there is no need to grouse the walls and ceiling. And on the plan-scheme this type of wiring should be marked with dashed lines.
Calculation of current consumption
Be sure to take into account the current that will flow through the network. To do this, there is a simple formula: the current strength is the ratio of the total power of all consumers to voltage (we can say that this is a constant, since the voltage standard in our country is 220 volts). Suppose you have the following consumers:
- 2000 watt electric kettle.
- A dozen incandescent bulbs, each of 60 watts (total 600 watts).
- 1000 Watt microwave oven.
- 400 watt refrigerator.
The voltage in the network is 220 V, the total power is 2000 + 600 + 1000 + 400, that is, 4000 W. Dividing this value by the voltage in the network, we get 16.5 A. But if you look at the practical data, then in apartments and houses the maximum current consumption is rare when it reaches 25 Amperes.
By this parameter it is necessary to select all materials for installation. In particular, the wire size depends on the current strength. Please note that you must always take a stock of 25%. In other words, if you calculated the current consumption of 16 A, you cannot install a fuse with the same value of the operation current. It is necessary to choose a standard value more than the calculated one.
Wire Marks for Home Use
Now how electrician is mounted in the house. The cable (the rules of the OLC regulate all its parameters) must be selected on the basis of current characteristics. It is desirable that in the house or apartment wiring was made of such materials:
- Wire brand VVG-5H6. This wire consists of five wires, each has a cross section of 6 square meters. mm It is widely used for houses with a three-phase network to connect the lighting shield with the main one.
- VVG-2H6 has two conductors with a section of 6 square meters. mm It is widely used for single-phase houses in order to connect the lighting shield and the main one.
- Wire brand VVG-3H2, 5 has three wires, each section of 2.5 square meters. mm It is used to connect lighting panels with distribution boxes. Also from boxes to outlets.
- Mark VVG-3H1,5 has three cores, each section of 1.5 square meters. mm It is used to connect switches and lighting lamps.
- Mark wires VVG-3H4 three-core, the cross section of each core 4 square. mm It is used to connect electric cookers.
Counting the number of materials
Now consider what of the components (including small) consists of electrical wiring in the house. The project, wiring, installation is done quickly enough by own hands. True, you have to try pretty hard to count the number of wires as accurately as possible. To do this, according to the plan, pass through the apartment with a tape measure. After measuring, add four meters on top – the stock will not be superfluous.
A lighting panel is placed at the entrance to the house, all the wires from the house approach it. It installs circuit breakers. Note that automata must have a maximum operating current of 16 or 20 Amps. The hotplate must be connected via a separate circuit breaker. With a power of up to 7 kW, an automat on 32 A is used, with a larger one – on 63 A.
After you count the number of junction boxes and sockets, there is nothing difficult in this matter, it is produced according to the scheme drawn up earlier. In the future, you will need various “little things”, for example, insulation tape, tips, tubes, cable channels, boxes, thermal insulation, and others. Now we should talk about what tools do the wiring in the house with your own hands. The scheme is considered in some detail.
Always follow safety guidelines when carrying out. In order not to get confused, it is better to do it yourself, but if you have a partner, then help should be minimal – feed, bring, do not bother. You will need the following tool:
- Figured and flat screwdrivers.
If you carry out repairs in the old apartment and in parallel change the wiring, you need to pull out all the cables so that they do not interfere. For this work useful special sensor detection wiring.
On the wall, put labels on which you will lay the wires. Pay attention to whether the position of the wires. After you have marked the places where electric cables will pass, you can mark sockets, boxes, shields and switches. Please note that the new apartments for the installation of the shield has a niche. And in old houses, the boards are simply attached to the wall.
First of all, you install a special nozzle on the perforator and drill holes for the installation of distribution boxes, switches and sockets. To lay the wires, it is necessary to make grooves in the walls – grooves. They are made using grinders or perforators. Whatever method is chosen, there will be enough dirt and dust. The groove should have a depth of 2 cm. As for the width, it should be enough to lay all the wires. As you understand, wiring the wiring with your own hands is a simple matter, it is more difficult from a physical point of view to do the installation.
Separate story with a ceiling. If you plan to do mounted, then just install all the wires on the ceiling. This is the easiest way. A little harder is to make shallow strobing. And one more – hide in the ceiling. For example, in panel houses, overlaps are used in which there are internal voids. Therefore, enough of two holes to lay the wires. And the last thing is punching holes in the corners of rooms in order to bring the wires to the central panel. After proceeding to the installation of electrical wiring closed (it is necessary to shtabirovat walls) or open ways.
The most important thing in the installation of electrical wiring in homes and apartments is to adhere to all the norms and rules according to GOST, SNiP, PUE. So you can not only achieve maximum efficiency from electrical wiring, but also reliability, durability, and most importantly – safety. And try to use when installing only quality materials. For example, it is desirable to use copper wires – they have a much longer service life (better conductivity, less heat).
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DIY wiring: from the schematic to the installation
Another 15 – 20 years ago, the load on the grid was relatively small, today the presence of a large number of household appliances has provoked an increase in loads at times. Old wires are not always able to withstand a large load and over time there is a need to replace them. Laying electrical wiring in a house or apartment is a matter that requires a certain knowledge and skills from the master. First of all, it concerns the knowledge of wiring rules, the ability to read and create wiring diagrams, as well as wiring skills. Of course, you can do the wiring with your own hands, but for this you need to adhere to the rules and recommendations set out below.
Electrical wiring rules
All construction activities and construction materials are strictly regulated by a set of rules and requirements – SNiP and GOST. With regard to the installation of electrical wiring and everything related to electricity, then you should pay attention to the Rules of the Device Electrical Installations (abbreviated as PUE). This document prescribes what and how to do when working with electrical equipment. And if we want to lay the wiring, we will need to examine it, especially the part that relates to the installation and selection of electrical equipment. Below are the basic rules that should be followed when installing electrical wiring in a house or apartment:
- key elements of electrical wiring, such as distribution boxes, meters, sockets and switches must be easily accessible;
- installation of switches is performed at a height of 60-150 cm from the floor. The switches themselves are located in places where the open door does not prevent access to them. This means that if the door opens to the right, the switch is on the left side and vice versa. The wire to the switches is laid from top to bottom;
- sockets should be installed at a height of 50 – 80 cm from the floor. This approach is dictated by the safety of flooding. Also sockets are installed at a distance of more than 50 cm from gas and electric stoves, as well as radiators, pipes and other grounded objects. The wire to the outlet is laid upwards;
- the number of sockets in the room should correspond to 1 pc. on 6 m2. Kitchen is an exception. It sets the number of outlets as needed to connect household appliances. Installing outlets in the toilet is prohibited. For outlets in the bathroom outside it, a separate transformer settles down;
- wiring inside or outside walls is performed only vertically or horizontally, and the location of the wiring is displayed on the wiring plan;
- wires are laid at a certain distance from pipes, floors and other things. For horizontal, a distance of 5 to 10 cm from the floor and eaves and 15 cm from the ceiling is required. From the floor, the height is 15–20 cm. Vertical wires are placed at a distance of more than 10 cm from the edge of the door or window opening. The distance from the gas pipes should be at least 40 cm;
- when laying external or hidden wiring it is necessary to ensure that it does not come into contact with the metal parts of building structures;
- when laying several parallel wires, the distance between them should be at least 3 mm or each wire should be hidden in a protective box or corrugation;
- wiring and connection of wires is carried out inside special distribution boxes. The junctions are carefully insulated. The connection of copper and aluminum wires between them is strictly prohibited;
- grounding and neutral wires are bolted to the devices.
Design and wiring plan
Work on the wiring begins with the creation of the project and wiring diagram. This document is the basis for future house wiring. Creating a project and a scheme is quite a serious matter and it is better to entrust it to experienced specialists. The reason is simple – it depends on the safety of living in a house or apartment. Project creation services will cost a certain amount, but it is worth it.
Those who are used to doing everything with their own hands, will have to adhere to the rules described above, as well as having studied the fundamentals of electrical engineering, independently make a drawing and calculations for the loads on the network. There are no particular difficulties in this, especially if there is at least some understanding of what electric current is and what the consequences of inaccurate handling are. The first thing you need is a legend. They are shown in the photo below:
Using them, we make a drawing of the apartment and plan the points of lighting, the installation location of switches and sockets. How much and where they are installed is described above in the rules. The main objective of such a scheme is an indication of the installation location of the devices and the laying of wires. When creating a wiring diagram, it is important to think in advance where, how much and what kind of household appliances will stand.
The next step in creating the circuit will be the wiring to the connection points on the circuit. At this point, you need to stop in more detail. The reason is in the type of wiring and connection. There are several such types – parallel, sequential and mixed. The latter is the most attractive due to the economical use of materials and maximum efficiency. To facilitate wiring, all connection points are divided into several groups:
- lighting of the kitchen, corridor and living rooms;
- toilet and bathroom lighting;
- power supply outlets living rooms and corridor;
- power supply of kitchen outlets;
- power supply sockets for electric stoves.
The above example is just one of many options for lighting groups. The main thing that needs to be understood is that if you group connection points, the amount of materials used is reduced and the circuit itself is simplified.
Important! To simplify the wiring to the outlets of the wire can be laid under the floor. Wires for overhead lighting are laid inside the floor slabs. These two methods are good to use if you do not want to make walls. On the diagram such wiring is marked by a dotted line.
Also in the project wiring indicates the calculation of the estimated current in the network and the materials used. The calculation is performed according to the formula:
where P is the total power of all the devices used (Watts), U is the mains voltage (Volt).
For example, a kettle of 2 kW, 10 60 W bulbs, a microwave of 1 kW, a 400 W refrigerator. Current 220 volts. As a result (2000+ (10×60) + 1000 + 400) / 220 = 16.5 Ampere.
In practice, the current strength in the network for modern apartments rarely exceeds 25 A. On the basis of this, all materials are selected. First of all, it concerns the wiring section. To facilitate the selection, the table below lists the main parameters of wire and cable:
The table shows extremely accurate values, and since quite often the strength of the current can fluctuate, a small margin is required for the wire or cable itself. Therefore, all wiring in an apartment or house is recommended to use the following materials:
- wire VVG-5 * 6 (five cores and a cross section of 6 mm2) is used in houses with three-phase power supply to connect the lighting panel with the main board;
- wire VVG-2 * 6 (two wires and a cross section of 6 mm2) is used in houses with two-phase power to connect the lighting shield with the main board;
- wire VVG-3 * 2.5 (three cores and a cross section of 2.5 mm2) is used for most of the wiring from the lighting panel to the junction boxes and from them to the outlets;
- wire VVG-3 * 1.5 (three wires and a cross section of 1.5 mm2) is used for wiring from junction boxes to lighting points and switches;
- wire VVG-3 * 4 (three wires and a cross section of 4 mm2) is used for electric stoves.
To find out the exact length of the wire, you have to run a little with the tape measure around the house, and add another 3-4 meters of margin to the result. All wires are connected to the lighting panel, which is installed at the entrance. In a guard automatic machines of protection are mounted. Usually this is a 16 A and 20 A RCD. The first are used for lighting and switches, the second for sockets. For an electric cooker, a separate RCD of 32 A is installed, but if the power of the plate exceeds 7 kW, then the RCD is set at 63 A.
Now you need to calculate how much you need sockets and distribution boxes. It’s all pretty simple. Just look at the diagram and make a simple calculation. In addition to the materials described above, various consumables will be required, such as electrical tape and PPE caps for connecting the wires, as well as pipes, cable channels or conduits for electrical wiring, podrozetniki.
In the works on the installation of electrical wiring is nothing too complicated. The main thing during installation to adhere to safety regulations and follow the instructions. All work can be done alone. From the tool for installation, you will need a tester, a hammer drill or a grinder, a drill or screwdriver, wire cutters, pliers and a cross and slotted screwdriver. Not be superfluous laser level. Since without it is quite difficult to make vertical and horizontal markup.
Important! Performing repairs with the replacement of wiring in an old house or apartment with hidden wiring, you must first find and if necessary remove the old wires. For these purposes, use the sensor wiring.
Layout and preparation of wiring channels
Begin installation with markup. To do this, use a marker or pencil to put a label on the wall where the wire will be laid. At the same time we follow the rules for placement of wires. The next step is to mark the places for the installation of lighting fixtures, outlets and switches and lighting panel.
Important! In new homes, a special niche is provided for the lighting panel. In the old such flap just hung on the wall.
Having finished with the marking, we proceed either to the installation of the wiring in an open way, or to the breaking of the walls for concealed wiring. First, using a perforator and a special nozzle crowns cut holes for the installation of sockets, switches and junction boxes. For the wires themselves are done with the help of grinders or perforator. In any case, there will be a lot of dust and dirt. The depth of the groove of the grooves should be about 20 mm, and the width should be such that all wires can be easily placed in the groove.
As for the ceiling, there are several options for solving the issue with the placement and fixing wiring. The first is if the ceiling is mounted or tensioned, then all wiring is simply fastened to the ceiling. The second – is a shallow strobe for wiring. Third – wiring hiding in the ceiling ceiling. The first two options are extremely simple in execution. But for the third it is necessary to make some explanations. In panel houses, overlaps with internal voids are used; it is enough to make two holes and stretch the wires inside the overlap.
Having finished with the shaving, we proceed to the final stage of preparation for the installation of wiring. Wires to get them into the room, you need to stretch through the walls. Therefore, it is necessary to punch through the hole punch. Usually such holes are made in the corner of the room. We also make a hole for the plant wires from the distribution panel to the lighting panel. Having finished the wall breaking, we begin installation.
Installation of open electrical wiring
We start the installation with the installation of the lighting panel. If a special niche was created for it, then we place it there, but if not, then we just hang it on the wall. Inside the shield set the RCD. Their number depends on the number of lighting groups. The shield assembled and ready for connection looks like this: in the upper part there are zero terminals, grounding below, automatic machines are installed between the terminals.
Now we get inside the wire VVG-5 * 6 or VVG-2 * 6. On the side of the distribution board, the electrician performs the wiring, so for the time being we will leave it unconnected. Inside the lighting panel, the lead wire is connected as follows: the blue wire is connected to zero, the white to the upper contact of the RCD, and the yellow wire with a green stripe is connected to ground. RCDs are connected to each other in series at the top with a jumper from white wire. Now go to the wiring open way.
We fix the duct or cable channels for electrical wiring along the lines outlined earlier. Often with open wiring, the cable channels themselves are trying to be placed near the baseboard, or vice versa, almost under the ceiling itself. We fix the conduit box with self-tapping screws with a 50 cm step. The first and last hole in the box is made at a distance of 5 – 10 cm from the edge. To do this, we drill holes in the wall using a perforator, hammer the dowel inside, and fix the cable channel with self-tapping screws.
Another distinctive feature of open wiring are sockets, switches and distribution boxes. All of them are hung on the wall, instead of being stuck inside. Therefore, the next step is to install them in place. It is enough to attach them to the wall, mark the places for fasteners, drill holes and fix them in place.
Next, proceed to the wiring. We start with the laying of the main line and from the sockets to the lighting panel. As already noted, we use for this wire VVG-3 * 2.5. For convenience, we start from the connection point in the direction of the panel. At the end of the wire hang a label indicating what kind of wire and where it comes from. Next, lay the wires VVG-3 * 1.5 from the switches and lighting fixtures to the junction boxes.
Inside the distribution boxes we connect the wires using PPE or carefully isolate it. Inside the lighting panel, the main wire VVG-3 * 2.5 is connected as follows: brown or red core – phase, connected to the bottom of the RCD, blue – zero, connected to the zero bus at the top, yellow with a green stripe – ground to the bus below. Using the tester, we “call” all the wires in order to eliminate possible errors. If everything is in order, we call the electrician and connect to the switchboard.
Installation of hidden wiring
Performing hidden wiring is quite simple. Significant difference from the open only in the way to hide the wires from the eyes. The rest of the action is almost the same. First, we install the lighting panel and the UZO automats, then we start and connect the input cable from the side of the distribution panel. Also leave it without connection. An electrician will do it. Next, install inside distribution boxes and flush-mounted niches inside.
Now go to the wiring. The first to lay the main line from the wire VVG-3 * 2.5. If planned, then lay the wires to the outlets in the floor. To do this, wire VVG-3 * 2.5 we start in a pipe for electrical wiring or a special corrugation and run it to the point where the wire is brought to the outlets. There we place the wire inside the grooves and wind it up into the underside. The next step is to lay the wire VVG-3 * 1.5 from the switches and lighting points to the junction boxes, where they are connected to the main wire. All compounds are insulated with PPE or tape.
At the end, we “call” the entire network with the help of a tester for possible errors and connect to the lighting panel. Connection method is similar to that described for open wiring. Upon completion, we close up the grooves with a gypsum putty and invite an electrician to connect it to the switchboard.
Laying electricians in a house or apartment for an experienced master – it is quite easy. But for those who are poorly versed in electrics, you should take the help of experienced professionals from beginning to end. This, of course, will cost money, but this way you can be protected from mistakes that can lead to a fire.
Anonymous from March 16, caps are put on constantly because they protect the twist, I put them for a long time and nothing else has happened, I still put them in the distant 78 year of the last century. They were a little bit not the ones who then worked on construction sites and remember, but there was one sense of twisting, so here, yes, there are some inaccuracies in the article, but for an amateur it will go, and the ceiling will be shattered if it is monolithic, which is now universally made, but if it is a stove, then there is a loss of time, there are specially made channels, and for a man a little with hands growing from there from where it is necessary, to lay the wiring is not a problem, the main thing is to first estimate your knowledge and capabilities and then dare
Sources: http://stroychik.ru/elektrika/elektroprovodka-v-dome-svoimi-rukami, http://fb.ru/article/246312/elektrika-v-dome-svoimi-rukami-shemyi-elektrika-v- kvartire-i-dome-svoimi-rukami, http://strport.ru/elektrooborudovanie-svet-osveshchenie/razvodka-elektroprovodki-svoimi-rukami-ot-skhemy-do-montazha