On non-heaving or weakly heaving soils for a private house, a shallowly recessed foundation is arranged. For these conditions, it is sufficient to perform horizontal reinforcement of the masonry rows.
Foundation construction from masonry materials on poorly heaving and frost-protected soils: 1 – foundation laying; 2 – masonry base; 3 – blind area; 4 – horizontal waterproofing; 5 – filling the floor on the ground; 6 – reinforcing masonry mesh every 20 cm masonry;
Masonry foundation reinforced masonry mesh with a wire diameter of 4-5 mm. and cell size 100x100mm. The width of the base of the foundation (size B in the figure) is calculated on the basis of the bearing properties of the soil and the weight of the building — find out here.
The width of the basement footing for a house with light wood walls, or frame walls, for most poorly heaving soils is usually sufficient in the range of 20 to 40 cm. (The larger size refers to three-story buildings). For these houses, the width of the sole is made equal to the thickness of the basement wall.
For stone houses with heavy brick walls or blocks, the width of the base of the foundation on weakly heaving soils is increased to 0.6 – 0.8 m. (larger size applies to three-story buildings with reinforced concrete floors). Here the foundation walls are smaller than the width of the sole.
If the width of the sole exceeds the thickness of the foundation walls, the walls of the precast foundation of blocks install a monolithic reinforced concrete pillow of the required width on the tape . In the lower part of the cushion before pouring concrete lay reinforcing mesh.
The bottom of the foundation trench is leveled by sprinkling a layer of sand and gravel. The total thickness of the leveling sand pad is not more than 600 mm. It is only necessary to tamp carefully each layer of bulk soil. The thinner the soil layer, the easier it is to ram it.
If the walls of the house of aerated concrete blocks, then on top of the base you should definitely perform a solid reinforced belt.
Cheap shallowly embedded foundation on medium heaving soils
On soils of a moderate degree of heaving, two monolithic reinforced concrete belts are added to the construction of the foundation from masonry materials . One belt is a monolithic reinforced base pillow. The second belt is arranged on top of the foundation or plinth laying.
In addition, under the base of the foundation they make an anti-sandy pillow.
Not submerged foundation for a wooden or frame house on medium heaving soils: 1 – sand-gravel anti-tuft pillow; 8 – laying the foundation and basement; 10 – soil backfill on the ground; 11 – monolithic reinforced concrete belt on top of the base; 13 – monolithic foundation cushion.
In areas without a strong inclination, it is sufficient to deepen the base of the foundation 0.3 m from the ground, as in the figure in the previous section.
For lightweight wooden and frame buildings, a non-buried foundation will be more economical (as in the last figure) . Due to the lack of a lateral surface buried in the ground, the tangential forces of frost heaving of the soil do not act on such a foundation.
To reduce the effect of frost heaving forces, a anti-sand-gravel pad is arranged under the foundation. The height of the sand pillow (size h in the figure) is determined by calculation. For most of the average heaving soils, the thickness of the sand cushion is in the range of 0.3-0.5 m. Sand-gravel mix is laid in layers of a thickness not exceeding 20 cm. Each layer is carefully tamped.
For a non-buried basement (in the figure), the thickness of the anti-tuber cushion is increased on medium heaving soils to 0.6 m. The width of the sand cushion should be at least 200 mm wide than the base of the foundation (size b). from each side. The width of the monolithic foundation cushion (size b in the figure) is determined by calculation. The width of the pad may be greater than the thickness of the foundation wall.
In monolithic belts and cushions of the foundation, reinforcement meshes of 2 – 3 longitudinal rods of working reinforcement with a diameter of 10 – 12 mm are laid.
The scheme of reinforcement of monolithic areas of the foundation. a – reinforcing mesh with two rods of working reinforcement; b – the same, but with three rods. 1 – longitudinal rods of working reinforcement A-III, with a diameter of 10-12 mm; 2 – auxiliary armature BP-I, 4 mm in diameter.
In monolithic basement tapes, the distance between adjacent rods of working reinforcement should not be more than 300 mm. If necessary, the number of rods increase. In addition, a wide monolithic pillow is also reinforced in the transverse direction, laying the rods of the working reinforcement every 600 mm.
Finely buried foundations are not allowed to leave for the winter without load. If such a foundation is left unloaded for winter – the house is not built, then the soil near the foundation must be protected from freezing. The soil around the foundation is covered with heat insulating material – sawdust, straw, etc.
The choice of a specific design of the foundation for the house is safer and more profitable to entrust specialists Independent decision is likely to lead to an excessive increase in the cost of construction as a result of reinsurance, or to the weakness of the structure, which will cost even more.
It is convenient to lay out small-format concrete blocks along with the foundation and the walls of the basement. Learn all about the size, waterproofing and insulation of the basement of the house.
DIY monolithic strip foundation – Cheap and angry
Monolithic ribbon foundation do it yourself
The monolithic ribbon foundation is one of the most popular types of foundation in the construction of private houses, since its construction is simple, it is not complicated in execution. In addition, the monolithic strip foundation is suitable for the construction of houses with a basement, cellar, basement floor. This is a great option for the construction of frame houses, garages, baths and barns.
Materials for monolithic strip foundations and their cost, you can calculate in a free construction calculator
With proper work, taking into account the norms and requirements of a monolithic strip foundation will provide a reliable support for the building for many years, as it is a monolithic type of foundation. When pouring monolithic strip foundations, you need to take into account the type of building, the local climate, soil and norms for the construction of strip foundations. If you comply with all of the above, you can make a monolithic strip foundation with your own hands, thereby saving a considerable sum of money. In addition, where is the guarantee that the brigade of builders will comply with all standards? And you will, as you make the foundation for your house. Monolithic l entochny foundation is most often used in dry, nepuchinistom ground, so if you have a weak ground, it is best to use a columnar – strip foundation for the house. Also, financial costs can greatly increase if you pour a monolithic strip foundation with a depth of more than 0.6 meters.
L entochny monolithic foundation with his hands – the tools and materials to fill.
• fishing line to mark the strip foundation with his own hands;
• laser tape or protractor;
• trench digging shovel;
• water level;
• materials for formwork: boards, plywood, etc.;
• fasteners for mounting the formwork system;
• manual or electric tamper;
• Master OK;
• knitting wire.
used mixer or trough for mixing the solution, well, respectively, sand, gravel and cement.
Laying out a tape foundation with your own hands
We make an approximate marking of the future foundation on the ground, we determine the external angles using a protractor or a laser tape measure, they must be strictly 90 degrees. In the places of external corners we drive in pegs or pieces of reinforcement and stretch a fishing line or rope on them. So we extinct and noted the outer perimeter of the strip foundation.
To mark the inner perimeter of the monolithic strip foundation, the required distance (thickness of the walls of the building + approximately 40-100 mm) recedes from the outer perimeter into the future building. The reinforcement is also driven into the inner corners and the fishing line stretches between them.
We dig a trench for a monolithic strip foundation with our own hands
Before digging a trench for a monolithic strip foundation, it is necessary to find the lowest angle. This can be done using the water level. In this lowest corner, we dig a hole to an average depth of 40-50 cm and then dig a trench in any direction. When digging a trench, it is necessary to ensure that its bottom is evenly horizontal with the help of a water level. The walls of the trench should also be straight vertically, in accordance with the building level or plumb. Observance of these rules will subsequently give us a quality stable monolithic strip foundation made with our own hands for our building.
After we dug a trench, a layer of sand of at least 150 mm is poured at its bottom, moistened with water and compacted with a rammer. During this operation, it is necessary to check the horizontal flatness of the bottom using a water level. Thus, we made a sand pillow for the strip foundation with our own hands. In order to increase the strength and reliability of the foundation, a layer of rubble can be poured onto the sand and waterproofed with polyethylene film or roofing material.
Formwork for monolithic strip foundation with your own hands.
Formwork for monolithic strip foundations can be made from improvised means: plywood, old boards, corrugated board, etc. thereby saving on the purchase of new materials. The formwork is assembled with the help of nails or screws, the latter is better, since with the help of screws it is easy and trouble-free to dismantle the formwork afterwards. It is necessary that the formwork walls rise above the ground by at least 300mm. With the help of the stretched fishing line, the level to which the concrete solution for the monolithic strip foundation will be poured is marked.
In the process of self-installation of formwork for monolithic strip foundations immediately need to provide various kinds of communication openings, for example, for plumbing, sewage, ventilation, etc. If you ignore this on the process of creating the formwork for the foundation, then after the foundation is poured out of concrete, you will have to break its solidity with the help of jackhammers and perforators, which will adversely affect its strength, plus additional labor and financial waste. In places where communication holes are provided, pipe cuts are installed, protected from the penetration of concrete into them. After the monolithic strip foundation is poured, these pieces of pipes will be communication holes in which various kinds of communications will be laid.
Reinforcement monolithic strip foundation with your own hands.
Most often, monolithic strip foundations for the construction of private houses use reinforcing bars 12 mm in diameter. The reinforcement rods are interconnected by knitting wire so that square cells of about 30 cm are formed. Also, the reinforcement can be welded together or combined. When mounting reinforcement for monolithic strip foundations, it is necessary to have a distance from all sides (bottom of the trench and formwork walls) of the order of 40 – 60 mm. This will protect the reinforcement from corrosion.
Pouring monolithic strip foundation with your own hands
Before pouring a monolithic strip foundation, you need to calculate how much concrete is needed for this. First, calculate the volume of the base: multiply the height, length and width.
Prepare a solution for a monolithic strip foundation with your own hands. We mix sand, crushed stone and cement in the ratio 3: 5: 1 and dilute with water. If you have the opportunity to use concrete prefabricated, you can use it, while saving time, as it is quite difficult to mix all the constituents of concrete in large quantities.
When pouring concrete monolithic strip foundation with your own hands you need to follow some rules:
• Concrete is poured into the formwork in layers of 20 cm.
• Each layer is rammed with wooden rammers in order to avoid voids in the concrete.
• The walls of the formwork also knock.
• Concrete is poured up to a restrictive fishing line, which we previously pulled.
• At the end of the casting operation, the concrete in the formwork periodically we pierce the reinforcement to eliminate air bubbles in the concrete, level the surface of the monolithic strip foundation in the formwork with a trowel and tap a mallet.
With the casting of a monolithic base figured out, now we wait about 28 days for it to dry and gain strength. The formwork can be removed after 4 – 7 days. A monolithic ribbon foundation should be covered at night with plastic wrap, and during the day, especially in extreme heat, water it abundantly, then no cracks will appear on it.
Materials for monolithic strip foundations and their cost, you can calculate in a free construction calculator
Here is a video on how to make a monolithic ribbon filler foundation with your own hands. In this video you will see how instead of standard reinforcement electric poles of power lines (power lines) are used, they simply fit into a trench for the foundation and are poured with concrete. Electric poles already contain non-stiff fittings in their construction. For strength in the corners of the foundation pillars are placed on each other. I think that enhanced power and durability of such a foundation is provided!
DIY foundation building
Another video of the monolithic strip foundation, made by my crew, is offered to your attention. I hope it will be useful for you!
Construction of an economical foundation
Competent design calculation of the foundation, taking into account the characteristics of the soil on the site, the selected wall material, the constructive solution of the building, as well as strict adherence to building technologies and project requirements – is a guarantee of creating a reliable, strong and durable foundation of a country house
The foundation of any home is the foundation.
A well-designed and well-built foundation in the total construction budget accounts for 15 to 25%. Agree, it is a lot. And when the budget is limited, you have to look for the most economical options. We will talk about them
Any competent specialist, having heard the question of which foundation is better to choose for a particular house, will answer that it is impossible to simply choose a foundation as a product in a supermarket. The choice of the foundation is influenced by a number of factors: the weight of the walls, the design features of the building, the types of pounds on the site, the groundwater level (GWL), the depth of soil freezing, etc. This is at least. Accurately determine the type of soil and groundwater table can only specialists in carrying out engineering and geological surveys. On the basis of these studies, one or another type of foundation will be chosen in each specific case.
However, today we would like to consider the impact on the choice of the foundation of the first of these factors and offer readers the most economical options for each type of house – wood, frame, stone. The final cost of the foundation depends largely on the weight of the walls: the heavier they are, the greater the area and strength it should have. If the weight of the walls is relatively small, then the options for budgetary foundations are much more.
5 most economical types of foundation for a country house
- Finely tapered
- The foundation created by technology “TISE”
- Pile screw
The easiest and most economical foundation
The most economical of all types of foundations is columnar. It is a system of unrelated pillars, which are installed in all corners, intersections of walls and other points with increased load. Columns can be industrial manufacturing (concrete) or construction (brick, rubble, of foundation blocks).
The bar foundation is recommended for houses without a basement with light walls. Its advantages include efficiency (in terms of material consumption and labor costs, it is 1.5–2 times more economical than tape), speed of production (moreover, without the use of heavy machinery at the construction site), durability: a foundation built in compliance with all requirements can withstand over 50 years. Pillar foundations are less susceptible to the negative effects of frost heaving forces. The simplest option for a columnar foundation is a foundation with the use of solid concrete blocks measuring 20 x 20 x 40 cm, of which low erections are erected.
(60 cm) posts.After marking the base of the future building, they make indentations under the supports (150-200 mm), put a sand cushion in them, pour water on them and ram. Install the blocks in a column so that in each row there were two blocks, and each row is laid with ligation. Blocks fasten among themselves by means of masonry solution. The thickness of the pillars should be equal to the thickness of the walls plus 10-12 cm. The distance between the pillars (1.5-2.5 m) depends on the size of the load on them. On top of the pillars covered with waterproofing material, which will be the bottom piping buildings. The depth of such a foundation is not less than 0.5-0.7 m, that is, it is above the depth of frost penetration, and the light structure (wooden or frame house) will rise and fall in winter along with the foundation.
However, since each column “walks” up and down individually, some of them cease to “work” in the spring. This is the main disadvantage of the columnar foundation. Another disadvantage of it is the absence of a socle. To keep warm in the underground space and protect it from moisture, dust, rodents, make a zabirku.
A fence is a wall connecting the posts.
In fact, this is the simplest type of base. For its construction, you can use brick, concrete, rubble stone (masonry thickness of 10-20 cm), sheets of TsSP. If the ground is heaving, then a sand cushion of 15-20 cm is arranged under the fence. The very same hole is deepened into the soil by 10-20 cm. For ventilation of the underfloor space, ventilation holes are provided in it. If the fence is made of stone or brick, then it is not connected with the posts, since the unevenness of the precipitation is fraught with cracks. However, a brick baler (especially from reinforced concrete) may be more expensive than the foundation itself. Therefore, from the point of view of reasonable economy, it is better to use DSP.
As mentioned above, the columnar foundations are only suitable for wooden and frame houses without basements. There are restrictions on their use and depending on the characteristics of the soil on the site. So, it is not recommended to put columnar foundations on weakly bearing soils (peat, subsidence, water-saturated clay), in areas with a sharp drop in height (2.0 m and more). It is impossible to build a columnar foundation with a high level of groundwater, since its foundation will rest on a soil saturated with moisture and having a low bearing capacity, because of which the pillars will unevenly sag under the weight of the house.
Scheme of the device shallow foundation:
1. Sand-gravel cushion
2. Vertical dumping
4. Vertical layout 5- Waterproofing
6. Beam section 200 * 100 mm
From expensive foundation to budget
The traditional recessed strip foundation is one of the most expensive today. An excellent alternative to it is a low-lying strip foundation. It is much easier to manufacture and at least 35-40% cheaper than the buried one. And this is understandable: with a depth of 0.3-0.5 m, rather than 1.5-1.8 m
significantly reduced labor costs and the cost of building materials. Reliability of such a foundation is not inferior to the traditional. The main feature of the construction of a shallow foundation is the replacement of a part of the soil under the sole with a sand cushion of such a height that would guarantee the allowable deformation of the foundation, but no more. Shallow foundation allows you to arrange a basement or a small cellar. It is used on almost all types of soil. Exception – excessive heaving.
The construction of this type of foundation is as follows: according to the project, trenches are digged to the calculated depth (usually 0.7 m). The thickness of the anti-cushion cushion is -0.3 m. Its lower part (0.2 m) is made of coarse sand, the upper part (0.1 m) is made of a mixture of sand and rubble.
Each layer is carefully rammed. Then a plastic film is laid on the base so that the cement milk from concrete does not go into the sand pillow. At installation of boards of a timbering panels of roofing material fasten to them. Their purpose is to prevent the cement milk from flowing out of the fresh concrete mix through the gaps between the boards, to facilitate the dismantling of the formwork, and also to save the lumber for further use. Then the reinforcement cage is knitted and concrete is fed into the trenches. In two weeks you can start building the walls of the building. This type of foundation is suitable for the construction of wooden, frame houses, cottages of foam concrete, gas silicate blocks. It should be borne in mind that it is not recommended to leave the shallow basement unloaded in the winter time.
Another type of economical and reliable foundation – pile. In parts of the house building the most widely used are two of its variants – bored and pile-screw.
The rammer (bored piles) is made in the ground for the foundation of the future structure. In the places determined by the project, boreholes are drilled; a metal reinforcement cage is installed in them, and then it is poured with concrete. In loose soils, a ruberoid facing or casing is used to maintain the stability of the borehole walls (after casting, it is removed or left to increase the strength of the pile).
Drilling wells under the piles can be either manually or with the help of special equipment. In the first case, apply the well-known technology “TISE” (Technology of individual construction and ecology), developed by a team of designers under the leadership of R. N. Yakovlev.
Its main feature is that the pillars at the base have an extension, which increases the footprint, and also contributes to the resistance of the pillar to bulging by the ground forces. Wells under the pillars are made by means of a special hand drill, equipped with a sliding rod, a soil collector and a folding plow controlled by a cord. The plow is lowered under its own weight, securely held in intermediate positions by a two-stage locking mechanism, and rises vertically by the cord. When folded, the length of the drill is 125 cm, in the extended -225 cm. The width of the handle is 55 cm. The length of the rod is fixed by a screw stopper.
The process of drilling a well using the TISE technology is as follows. The plow is removed, after which the drill is rotated clockwise. As it is deepened, it is lifted and cleaned from trapped soil. The expansion of the lower part of the well produced by the plow, while the drill is rotated counterclockwise. Then the reinforcement is inserted into the body of the well and the expanded part is filled with concrete. Then, in the cylindrical part, they put a role jacket, which protects the pole from destruction by axial forces, caused by heaving soil. Next, complete the process of concreting.
If the foundation is not created on its own, but with the involvement of a construction company, it, as a rule, uses special equipment for drilling wells. For example, such as a multifunctional compact tractor. It is mobile, exerts a slight pressure on the ground and several times increases the speed of construction of the foundation. After drilling, a layer of sand and rubble is poured to the bottom of the well so that the bottom of the concrete column dampens ground movements. Then the reinforcement cage is placed in the well and the concrete mix is poured.
The last stage of work (both in the first and in the second case) is the creation of a grillage (the upper part of the pile foundation, which is a reinforced concrete or metal beam or tape). The task of the grillage is to tie together the underground part of the foundation, thus ensuring a uniform distribution of the weight of the house on the piles and their identical vertical movement.
Rostverk is high (it is well above ground level) and low (underground). It should be taken into account that when using the column-rost foundation it is impossible to connect the terrace, the veranda, the porch attached to the house into a single constructive whole. Under them you need to build your own foundations and divide the buildings with an expansion joint, since the load from the porch (terrace) is not comparable with the load from the walls of the house, and therefore the draft will be different.
The bored foundation is able to withstand the load not only of light wooden or frame houses, but also of heavy stone, without letting down. At the same time, it is possible not to take into account the level of groundwater and build it on virtually all types of soil, without fear of negative consequences. The foundation of the foundation pillars below the level of soil freezing will provide the finished structure with durability and protection from frost heaving forces.
Reinforcement and pile casting:
1. Sand. 2. Reinforcing bars. 3. Drilled well. 4. Soil. 5. Concrete pump. 6. Cross section of the reinforcement cage
Foundation on screw piles
And finally, another type of foundation, which can be attributed to economical, is a foundation on screw piles. The cost reduction in this case is due to the lack of a large amount of earthworks, which saves time and labor. There is no need to use heavy machinery. This type of foundation costs 30-40% less than traditional tape or slab.
Screw piles are made of steel pipes. The lower part of the pile is equipped with a cutting blade of a certain shape, so that it is screwed into the ground at almost any depth. To the opposite end of the pile the head is welded on which the grillage is fixed. The small area of contact of the screw pile with the pound in combination with the cutting blades does not allow the foundation to move even with deep freezing of the pound. When screwing in, the inter-turn gaps of the soil are not loosened, but, on the contrary, compacted by the blade of the pile. Screw piles provide high strength support. For example, with a length of 2.5 m, a barrel diameter of 108 mm, a barrel wall thickness of 4 mm, a blade diameter of 300 mm and a blade thickness of 5 mm, the screw pile will withstand a vertical load of at least 5 tons (for wooden buildings, 2-3 tons is enough).
When installing, the piles are screwed into the calculated depth, the central cavity of the pile is concreted (concrete M300 is enough). To create a single and complete design, screw piles are fastened together by a channel, timber, reinforced concrete grillage or monolithic reinforced concrete slab, depending on the type of construction. Immediately after screwing, the piles are ready for the perception of the design load.
The pile-screw foundation perfectly copes with the tasks assigned to it not only on weak soils, but also in difficult conditions: on a slope, in the coastal strip, on a forest plot (at the same time the natural landscape is preserved). In cases where the ground has a non-uniform structure, the screw piles are installed at different depths, and then the above-ground parts are leveled. The pile-screw foundation is suitable not only for wooden and frame houses, but also for stone and cellular blocks, but in the latter two cases there will be a slightly different construct – in addition to the reinforced concrete grillage, a monolithic slab on piles is cast. Thus, immediately turns the draft floor. Work on the creation of pile-screw foundation can be carried out year-round.
Concluding the conversation about the economical types of foundations, I would like to offer our readers to familiarize themselves with the estimates for their construction prepared by Russian construction companies.
The shallow foundations are among the most attractive for a private developer. They are built faster than traditional belts and are cheaper. We have already described the technology of their creation in our publication. However, in addition to the widespread option (only tape), there are others.
So, some companies, for example, “INSTALLER”, was one of the first in the Russian market to offer developers shallow-buried foundations with a warmed floor slab (FEP). Over the 15 years of construction of this type of construction, a lot of experience has been gained, and the operation of buildings erected on them proved the reliability of these foundations. What is the difference between them and ordinary shallow ones?
Scheme of shallow foundation:
1. Mainland soil. 2. Sand preparation (150 mm). 3. EPPS (70 mm).
4. Concrete blind area (100 mm).
5. Reinforced concrete foundation wall (300 mm).
6. Reinforced plate (150 mm).
7. Compacted non-pileable soil
In the latter, according to the technology, a sand cushion is supposed to be installed, which replaces part of the heaving soils under the belt. It performs the function of depreciation and protection of the soles from freezing. In MFP, due to its insulation with extruded polystyrene foam, it is possible to make a sand pillow minimal (only to level the base) and at the same time to completely eliminate any risks from the effects of frost heaving forces. This is the first feature. The second is that the basement ribbon has a variable cross section (in a section it resembles an inverted “T” letter). This design makes the base much lighter, but, moreover, it is resistant to ground movement. In each of the sections, the thickness of the monolith and the method of reinforcement are determined by careful calculation. And finally, the third peculiarity is the presence of insulated paving and floor slabs.
And now we will consider, how exactly is the construction of MFP. After removing the fertile layer, digging trenches with a depth of 450 mm and a width of 1 m make a sandy bedding with a thickness of 100-150 mm and tamping. Then assemble the formwork, knit reinforcing cage and pour concrete. The lower part of the tape (sole) has a width of 600 mm and a height of 150-300 mm (determined by calculation), the upper one is 300 mm. Above the ground surface, the tape rises 500 mm.
Next, proceed to the insulation of the foundation. Outside, they are filled with sand (with obligatory tamping) to level the base on which extruded polystyrene plates 70–100 mm thick (under the blind area) are laid with a slight inclination to drain water from the house. Insulate the outer side of the foundation tape.
From the inside of the MUPP, the sinuses are backfilled with the ground taken out earlier and tamped down. The surface of the cells formed by the basement tape is flattened with sand, insulation is placed over the entire area, a slab 100-120 mm thick is reinforced on top of it, and concrete is poured over it. The result is a single monolithic rigid structure. It is possible to build not only light wooden and frame houses on such a foundation, but also stone ones up to three floors high.
“The advantages of the FEP are obvious: firstly, such a design together with a floor slab makes the entire belt work as a whole and participate in the foundation force scheme. Secondly, you get an already insulated monolithic floor. MUPP – energy-efficient type of foundation. Those who want to make their home as warm as possible and significantly reduce the cost of heating a building during the cold season should pay attention to it. ”
The foundation with their own hands – note:
- The foundation pillars can have a constant cross section (simple cylinder or parallelepiped) or variable transverse (with widening at the bottom of the pillar)
- The height of the fence is about 30 cm. At a lower height, the ventilation of the subfloor will be difficult, leading to decay of the wooden structures.
- Non-buried – these are foundations, the depth of which (40-50 cm) is on average half or a third of the depth of soil freezing
- The use of composite reinforcement will reduce the cost of slab foundation by 35-40%
The foundation with their own hands: the Gulf – video
Sources: http://domekonom.su/kak-sdelat-deshevyi-blochnyi-fundament.html, http://shapovalov5.ru/lentochnyj-fundament-svoimi-rukami.html, http: // kak-svoimi-rukami. com / 2015/06 / ekonomichnyj-fundament-svoimi-rukami-dlya-chastnogo-doma /