But in order not to deal with such a complex work, it is better to immediately fill the strip foundation under the house with your own hands.
Before installing the formwork, you need to think about waterproofing the walls, which will not allow water to penetrate into the concrete monolith.
On top of the sand cushion put a special film, working only in one direction.
Many are wondering how to concrete pour the foundation of the house. You can use the solution brand M-200.
It is perfect for lightweight buildings of timber, frame panels, etc. However, when building more heavyweight brick buildings, cottages of 2 or more floors, it is necessary to purchase cold-resistant compounds of the brand M400.
They are much more expensive, but stronger, more resistant to aggressive factors, less hygroscopic.
We work with formwork and pour concrete
Any scheme for pouring the foundation under the house implies the presence of a reinforcing frame and tightly-formed formwork. The latter is often made of planks, but if possible take sheets of plywood, flat slate, etc.
Installing the formwork on the waterproofing film, it is attached to the trench. Inside, the surface is oiled or moistened with water so that the solution lags better.
Before pouring the foundation for the house, it should be provided for the presence of holes for communication systems.
To fill the foundation under the house with a basement, it is necessary to provide a more reliable and dense reinforcing frame.
From the outside, the ground pressure will act on the base, which will not be compensated by anything from the inside.
In order to fill the strip foundation under the house, it is recommended to install special plastic distancers along the bottom of the trench to form a protective layer.
Sometimes they are replaced with a ceramic or clay battle, pieces of concrete or brick chips.
Having completed all the preparatory work, you can ask yourself when to fill the foundation for the house.
This stage cannot be carried out if the environment is heated less than +4 degrees. To harden the solution should be at an even higher temperature. But it shouldn’t be too hot either – it will start to crack.
The calculation is also carried out to fill the foundation for the house. Having calculated the approximate amount of the solution, it is bought by 5-10% more. What for?
In order to avoid situations when almost all the formwork was filled, however, some had to be disturbed with their hands.
Choosing ways to fill the foundation with concrete, often stop at the option when they bring the finished solution to the site.
You can knead it yourself, but in this way the formwork will be filled unevenly, during breaks the previous layer will solidify, seams are formed and the strength of the entire base decreases significantly.
It is necessary to choose which foundation to pour under the house, taking into account the geological features of the terrain (heaving of the soil, level of water, ability to crumble arbitrarily, etc.)
For slab and columnar base, you can follow the described plan and advice.
It remains to consider the question of how much it costs to pour the foundation under the house?
In this or that case, the prices will differ significantly, because the construction of the plate requires more labor and materials than the installation of piles. Therefore, it will cost much more expensive.
Today, the average price for pouring a foundation for a house of various types is as follows:
- A cubic meter of tape base – 15-16 thousand
- Cubic meter of monolithic slab – 15-17 thousand
- Columnar bored foundation – 25-28 thousand per pile.
These prices include the whole range of operations: from the purchase of the material to the dismantling of the formwork. Independent work will cost much less.
Foundation types for foundation
Sandy soils, which include coarse-grained sand, are considered the most reliable. The foundation must be set up correctly, its existence depends on it in the future, its uniform draft does not warp and does not feel strong loads from the ground. The most important factor is the construction of the house, there is no need to have special knowledge in order to determine a heavy brick house or frame light construction – these types require a different approach to laying the foundations. But it all depends on the financial situation, you can close all the powerful reinforced concrete slab, which does not falter even during a seven-point earthquake.
Fill the foundation yourself
At the same time, the most economical and laborious solution is to fill the foundation with your own hands when the concrete solution is prepared directly on the site in a compact concrete mixer. The volume of such equipment may be different: the smallest installation – 50 liters. Accordingly, the number of cycles that will have to be carried out for the preparation of the estimated volume of the concrete mix depends on the choice of productivity of a household concrete mixer.
Such work with one pair of hands is problematic, especially for foundations that involve the use of more than one cube of concrete solution. It is better to attract at least three people, using the concrete mixer with the maximum possible volume – so the work cycles will be less and, accordingly, the filling will take less time. On average, the preparation of one portion of the concrete mix takes 5-8 minutes.
The mixer is placed in the immediate vicinity of the place of pouring. Is it possible to fill the foundation with parts? Provided that for the construction of a monolithic foundation you need more than one cube, the fill can be stretched for two days. If the gap between the two stages does not exceed half a day, you can pour the first layer over the entire formwork area, cover the filled part of the basement with plastic wrap and the next day, wash the concrete milk and continue working. This is the optimal pouring mode in two stages, often referred to as the “hot seam.”
We do not recommend going the other way and doing a “cold joint”, but if there is no other possibility, you can pour the next layer of mortar only after the first one has completely hardened (the intermediate variant is not allowed when the concrete has already grabbed but has not yet reached its design strength).
Important! The seam between the layers must be at least 50 mm from the longitudinal elements of the reinforcement cage!
It is desirable that the number of layers in the foundation does not exceed two. If this is not possible, it is better to pour the foundation in parts to the height of the formwork. For this it is necessary to make intermediate partitions, again – additional labor costs. We advise you to make a hot seam between two horizontal layers of the foundation – the best of the two-day base construction options, if it is impossible to carry out the work “at a time”.
Each layer of concrete is compacted to get rid of cavities that form around the reinforcement cords. For this procedure, you can use the tools at hand, for example, a piece of reinforcement bar, which needs to bayonet the solution, or you can rent a deep vibrator, which significantly reduces the amount of work and allows you to achieve an excellent result.
After the last layer of concrete mortar has been laid, the foundation is covered with a protective layer of film or roofing material, saving it from exposure to the sun and precipitation. It is desirable to carry out the casting in warm weather (at an air temperature of 20-25 degrees), keeping the humidity above the foundation (under the film) within 90%. With a frequency of every 4 hours during the first three days after pouring, and then – with an interval of 8 hours, the surface of the monolith is moistened. The foundation is considered ready to load 4 weeks after it has been poured.
Call the mixer truck
Of course, this option will be more expensive than the above. But on the other hand, in one “sitting” you can qualitatively pour the foundation for your house. One truck mixer can deliver from 4 to 8 cubes of concrete, if necessary, you can order several machines at once – depending on your project and the estimated need for concrete mix. Preparing to fill the foundation is reduced to the manufacture of special gutters. Thanks to them, you will be able to fill in the most secluded parts of the formwork (in the absence of access roads). If you yourself knocked down formwork shields with your own hands, then knocking down a trough of 30×20 cm will not be particularly difficult.
Important! Be sure to pour the concrete solution in several points of formwork. You should not count on the fact that the concrete will spread evenly over the required volume: it will stratify at the same time, which will lead to a difference in the composition of the mixture in different parts of the monolith. In addition, pouring in at one point, you doom yourself to ungrateful work – you have to manually distribute the concrete throughout the volume of the formwork! How much does it cost to fill the foundation in this way? Everything is individual and depends on the supplier, as well as the distance over which you plan to transport the solution. Be sure to add a couple of thousand rubles here if you fill the foundation with your own hands – a lot depends on the quality of cooperation with the driver.
Pouring with a concrete pump
This option is advisable to use only in the case when it is impossible to drive up to the construction site, and a chute several tens of meters in length is irrelevant. True, one must be prepared for the fact that the work of a concrete pump is not a cheap pleasure. Only for the call of such a machine will have to pay about 15,000 rubles.
The only thing that is good, using it is to fill the foundation very simply, and the solution evenly “lays down” over the entire area of the prepared formwork.
How to fill the foundation for the house
The first, and probably the most crucial stage of general construction work is the creation of the foundation. With rare exceptions, this stage performs during the construction of virtually any structures: light summer kitchens and reputable multi-storey cottages.
The foundation is the pillar of the building, its backbone. It protects its integrity during any soil movements and temperature changes in the soil. Proper pouring of the foundation is particularly relevant in the harsh Russian conditions with their sharp temperature drops.
Main types of foundations
At the design stage of your construction you need to decide on the planned type of foundation.
The most popular, widely used and relatively simple in construction is a strip foundation. It is ideal for the construction of low-cost houses, garages, outbuildings in the middle Russian strip.
Belt foundation – a strip (or tape) of concrete (or reinforced concrete), which is located on the ground around the perimeter of the bearing and exterior walls of your future building. This type of foundation can effectively prevent building distortions in the unstable state of the soil.
The procedure for creating a strip foundation
Designing and casting strip foundations is a fairly simple matter. Of course, if you are starting construction for the first time, then when pouring the foundation, you would be best to first practice on some small structure, for example, on an economic shed. So let’s get started.
Any construction work must begin with the project. First, take a sheet of graph paper and build on it the project of the foundation of your future structure. In determining the desired tape thickness of your foundation, you must use the advice of professional builders to help you calculate the required construction. Also remember that the depth of the foundation should usually lie below the freezing line of the soil. This is done to ensure that the future structure does not “float” in the spring.
Designing the foundation on a sheet of paper photo
After calculating the foundation and drawing up its project, the lines of the future filler foundation should be marked on the spot. To do this, you can use ordinary pegs, tape measure and cord. Especially carefully follow the geometry of the corners of your future structure. In order to make sure that the angle is straight it is necessary to use the Pythagorean theorem and measure not only the future walls, but also the diagonal of the building.
We dig a trench for the future foundation
After marking, proceed to digging ditches for the future foundation. It is possible to use both a usual shovel, and services of various mechanical means. Consider that the ditch for the foundation in some cases must be deeper and wider than the planned foundation. This is due to the fact that to fill the concrete foundation may need a wooden formwork, and she “eat” a few inches ditch.
Making holes for reinforcement
To improve traction at the bottom of the ditch, you can dig holes about one and a half meters deep. These will be the peculiar “legs-supports” on which your concrete concrete foundation will be supported.
Sources: http://stoydiz.ru/stroitelstvo-kottedzhej/kak-pravilno-zalit-fundament-pod-dom.html, http://strofix.ru/fundam/752-kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom. html, http://fundamentt.com/kak-zalit-fundament-pod-dom/
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How to pour the foundation with your own hands under the house.
Self-pouring the foundation for a house does not constitute any difficulties, even those who have never come across construction have to cope with it. To do this, it is enough to observe the order and sequence of all stages of laying any foundation, which we will discuss in this article.
Everyone has probably heard the phrase “They do not save on the foundation!” So I will say with great confidence that you can save money by pouring the foundation for a house, of course within reasonable limits, and later in this article I will tell you how.
The process of laying any foundation involves several steps:
- Site preparation and foundation marking
- Excavation, trenching, pillar drilling
- Preparation of a pillow for the foundation
- Installation of reinforcement cage and construction formwork
- Pouring concrete and leveling
- Councils for the construction of the foundation.
Foundation Casting Technology
In this article, I will talk in detail and step by step about the casting of the most popular strip strip foundation today and the distinctive features of the casting stages of other types.
Doing the foundation with your own hands
There are several types of strip foundations, but the technology for doing their own hands is almost the same for everyone.
Layout for the foundation with their own hands.
The process of preparing the site presents no difficulty. First of all, you need to clean the site, or at least the place where you are going to build a house, from excess vegetation, debris, large roots, etc.
When the site is clean, we are marking the future foundation tape according to the project.
If you do not have a level or other special devices, do not despair; for qualitative marking we need only a tape measure, pegs, a cord and, possibly, a sheet of paper.
We mark all external walls by installing pegs in the corners of the future house. After installing the pegs – measure the diagonals of each rectangle. You should have so that the opposite sides of the rectangle and its diagonal are equal. If this does not happen, then we draw on paper a sketch of the house, affix the resulting dimensions and think where and which peg to move. After corrections, we surely repeat the measurements. And so on until all sizes fit together.
Try to make the layout of the future structure as accurately as possible; this will further help to avoid some difficulties with leveling the corners when building the walls of the house. And for those who want to learn more about the layout of the foundation under the house, read my article about it, where the weight of the layout process with examples is described in detail.
Trench for monolithic strip foundations.
It is possible to dig a trench for the tape base in the manual or mechanized way.
It is fast and cheap to dig with an excavator, but it doesn’t really adhere to the size, it can get a little wider somewhere, a little deeper somewhere, which will affect the volume of concrete poured. Savings in this case is very doubtful.
If you don’t want to dig yourself, it’s better to hire workers and make sure that all sizes are observed, this will help you save on the amount of concrete you order.
Calculate the depth of foundation of the strip foundation from the calculation of the depth of soil freezing in your area. You can see on the map of Russia soil freezing.
Sand bedding under the foundation.
Sand pillow under the foundation base.
The foundation cushion is laid out of washed sand, without various clay impurities, etc.
Sand, in contrast to the soil in which the foundation is laid, is much less prone to swelling and evenly distribute the water under the foundation, which will eliminate the uneven shrinkage of the foundation.
Sand is poured into a trench and rammed. A layer of such a sand pillow should be at least 20 cm.
If you do not have special tools for tamping sand, then you must at least shed it well with water before pouring.
Construct the formwork and reinforce the future foundation.
Construct the formwork under the foundation and reinforce the future foundation.
For the reinforcement cage, reinforcement with a diameter of 8-14 mm is used, and in order to more accurately determine the diameter and number of reinforcement, you can use the reinforcement calculation for the strip footing. With it, you will select the correct diameter and amount of reinforcement for your foundation.
As a rule, vertically laid rods with a diameter of 8-10mm, and horizontal longitudinal 12-14mm. Rods along the trench are always thicker, because they will have a large load, and they, in turn, must cope with it.
How to knit the reinforcement cage, in a trench or near the trench, and after lowering the finished framework into it, you have to decide for yourself how you feel more comfortable. The minus of knitting fittings in the trench is that if the trench is not wide enough, you will sprinkle it with your body.
Use a thick knitting wire to join the solid reinforcement cage. To give a good softness, the steel wire can be kept on fire for about 30 minutes and cooled. After that, it will become softer.
Formwork for the foundation, if necessary, is constructed with the help of planks, 10-20 cm wide, and 2.5 – 4.0 cm thick.
Constructing the formwork it is necessary to eliminate the large holes in the formwork, and rigidly fix it. The opposing formwork panels must be tied together by studs, thus preventing the formwork from being pushed in when pouring concrete.
The corners of the formwork also need to be firmly fixed, because these are the weakest points.
Fill with concrete the future foundation.
Fill the foundation with high-quality concrete.
Filling of concrete for any type of foundation is the same. As a rule, at large volumes concrete purchased is poured, as it is possible to achieve a monolithic reinforced concrete tape only in case of pouring the foundation at a time.
And so, all the preparatory work carried out, it is now necessary to pour concrete with a future foundation for the house.
For pouring, concrete M200 – M400 is used, which depends on the composition of the concrete.
Pouring concrete into a trench always starts from the corners, and after that the remaining voids are filled.
The ideal conditions for pouring the foundation for the house is that the automixer has access to all corners of the house.
The mixer approaches the corner and the pouring process begins. At this time, one person should hold the gutter, guiding it, and the other (preferably two) – to help the concrete evenly distributed over the trench with a shovel, for example.
In order to drive the air out of concrete, it is necessary to use a deep vibrator, if there is none, then it is necessary to vibrate with improvised means. You can vibrate with a bayonet spade, such a vibration is called the method of splicing. A good result can be obtained by tapping with a hammer on the frame of the reinforcement, or on formwork (not much!).
After the trench is filled with concrete, it is necessary to trim the concrete in the right places until the concrete has “set”. After the concrete began to “crumble” – it is not desirable to touch it.
As I said, it will not be difficult to pour the foundation for the house, at this stage we have considered in detail the filling of the strip foundation, the stages of which in most cases are suitable for filling any type of foundation.
Important points in the construction of the foundation for the house.
Important points in the construction of the foundation
A distinctive feature of the columnar foundation is that the foundation does not consist of a monolithic ribbon, but of pillars that are connected by a monolithic ribbon.
In this regard, after marking, the pillars are drilled using an auto-drill or a manual drill, the pillars are reinforced with fittings with a diameter of 10-12 mm, with the release of fittings 15-20 cm above the level of the pole.
After casting the pillars, a formwork for the grillage is constructed, connecting all the pillars, a reinforcement cage is created and the concrete is poured into the formwork.
It should be recalled that the columnar foundation is constructed for light buildings and in “good” ground.
Features pouring slab foundation
A distinctive feature of the monolithic slab is that such a slab is located under the entire structure, and not just under the walls of the house.
In general, building a slab foundation with your own hands is not a complicated process, but it requires a responsible approach, and I believe that it can be transferred to a separate article.
One type of monolithic slab is a slab foundation with stiffeners, the technology of pouring this type of foundation is not much different from the usual.
The markings are made around the perimeter of the house, then the soil is removed under the future house, to the depth of the future slab + thickness of the sand pillow.
Then it is necessary to build a sand or sand-gravel pad with subsequent tamping.
The reinforcement cage is knitted in two rows in the form of a grid.
Filling is about the same as with any other type of foundation.
Ways of pouring and saving house foundation
Depending on the use of your own labor, you can pour the foundation in three ways:
- Lay the foundation yourself, using only your own work. This, of course, is a laborious process, but not so much that you cannot cope with it yourself. Ideally, 2-3 people will cope with all stages without much effort.
- To use partly alien labor for some stages of foundation filling. This method is most common in the construction of houses independently, it involves the use of hired workers at particularly difficult stages of work. This will save on their own labor, but in financial terms it will be a little more expensive.
- To entrust the pouring of the foundation under the house to a professional worker. This is the most expensive method of pouring, but in this case you don’t have to do anything except to come to the site and control the process of laying the foundation, because even professionals sometimes do not adhere to strict technology for their own benefit.
Foundation Savings Tips
- If you hire workers to perform individual stages of pouring the foundation for a house, then it should be noted that the most expensive step is digging and pouring concrete. If we talk about digging, then you decide, this is a laborious process and whether to save on it. Well, on pouring the foundation you can save a decent amount if you invite a friend to help. In fact, pouring concrete is a dirty, but not very complicated process, with which two or three people in half a day can easily cope, saving about 500 rubles. with a cube of concrete.
- On the tape foundation, you can save on the deepening, if you do not have a heavy and small house (wooden for example), then you can make a shallow-tape foundation instead of a recessed one.
- On a slab foundation, you can save money by making it thinner, but with stiffeners. I talked about slab foundation with stiffeners in my previous articles.
- When laying the columnar foundation, you can save only on labor, because it is already the least stable compared to its counterparts.
- In some cases, fiberglass reinforcement and its application will save a little on the foundation.
How to pour the foundation for the house: pouring concrete in winter and summer
Among all existing types of basement, the strip foundation is considered the most common for the construction of private houses up to two floors high.
Filling strip foundation: technology and order of execution
This choice is due to the fact that pouring the strip foundation does not require large financial costs and can be carried out independently without the use of large construction equipment.
To build it is not necessary to have special construction skills. Everyone can cope with this work independently, having previously studied the sequence of actions and the technology of pouring concrete.
In order for the work to be carried out promptly and quickly, the whole process should be divided into several main stages:
- marking the future of the foundation on the ground;
- excavation and trenching;
- construction and installation of formwork;
- installation and installation of the reinforcing frame;
- pouring concrete.
Perform work in this sequence and do not proceed to the next item unless you have completed the previous one.
Trenching and digging
Before starting the markup, you need to clean the entire area from debris, vegetation and other foreign objects. Draw a diagram of the future foundation on paper with the designation of all sizes, then transfer these dimensions to the terrain.
The correct technology for pouring the foundation requires a clear preliminary marking and to indicate the contours of the foundation on the ground, you will need:
- building tape measure not less than 10 meters;
- wooden stakes or metal rods to mark the corners;
- durable and thick thread (string) to mark the contour;
Transfer dimensions to the surface at a scale of 1: 1 and check the correctness of the angles with the help of a construction square. To create the correct geometric shapes, use the size check on the diagonal between the outer and inner corners of the markup. After that, you can begin to dig a trench according to the established marking.
Installation of formwork and reinforcement
To create the base of a small private house, a trench depth of 50-60 cm is sufficient. Before installing the formwork and reinforcement, it is necessary to create a compensating cushion at the bottom of the trench in order to reduce the foundation pressure on the ground by distributing the load.
To create a pillow, it is necessary to cover a layer of sand on the bottom, 10 cm thick and carefully tamp it down, pre-moistened with water. Then lay a layer of gravel, 5-10 cm thick and also tamped.
If the foundation is being poured with concrete at sub-zero temperatures, it is not necessary to wet the sand.
If there is a dense soil on your site, which allows you to create a trench with perfectly smooth edges clearly in size, the installation of formwork is not required. If the ground is loose, then to create the desired shape mounted formwork of wooden boards or plywood. It is important to remember that the formwork should protrude at least 20-30 cm above the surface.
In the next step, it is necessary to make a metal frame of the reinforcement – steel rods with a diameter of 10-12 mm. The frame of the reinforcement is used to strengthen the strip foundation and prevent its deformation during the displacement of the soil or seasonal expansion. The frame is laid inside the formwork and secured with metal wire.
It is important to bear in mind that the size of the reinforcing frame should be slightly smaller than the size of the foundation, about 5-8 cm in order for the reinforcement elements to be completely filled with concrete and not protruding beyond it.
Filling the foundation with concrete
To calculate the required amount of concrete, you need to multiply the width of the foundation, the height and the total length between each other, so that we obtain the required volume of the solution. You can order a ready-made mixture in a construction organization or prepare it yourself by mixing 1 part of cement, 3 parts of sand and 5 parts of crushed stone or gravel with the necessary amount of water to the consistency of liquid sour cream.
If the foundation is poured in winter, some of the water is replaced by special modifiers that do not allow the solution to freeze quickly and ensure uniform drying.
It is advisable to order a ready-made mixture, since the entire solution must be poured over with short intervals in time so that the layers of concrete do not have time to harden and form cold seams through which moisture can penetrate. You can rent one or more stationary concrete mixers to speed up the process or order a concrete mixer (mixer).
In the presence of concrete mix, the work takes place according to the following algorithm:
- The solution is poured into the formwork in layers of 20 cm.
- Each layer should be tamped and processed, if possible, with a submerged building vibrator to eliminate voids.
- In the absence of a building vibrator, it is necessary to tap with a hammer on the formwork creating a vibration of the flooded mass.
- Upon reaching the specified zero level, the top layer is maximally leveled and smoothed by a trowel.
It is important to remember that if sewer or ventilation openings are provided at the base of the strip foundation, it is necessary to install plastic pipes in these places in advance, only after that the foundation for the house is poured.
It takes 3-4 weeks to completely dry the solution. In the hot season, the concrete must be moistened with water for even drying, and covered with film at night.
PS And for dessert, I propose to watch the video: Filling the foundation
Sources: http://restart24.ru/fundament/kak-pravilno-zalivat-fundament-pod-dom-2.html, http://moydomovovoy.com/kak-zalit-fundament-svoimi-rukami-pod-dom, http://stroyusnulya.ru/stroitelstvo/kak-pravilno-zalit-lentochnyj-fundament-pod-dom-svoimi-rukami.html