How to make the foundation

Fill the formwork with fittings with concrete of a grade not lower than 300. To arrange the foundation, we will need several cubic meters of mortar, therefore we should either rent a concrete mixer or order ready-made concrete from the manufacturer.

It is advisable to fill in at once, in order to avoid cold bridges. Immediately after pouring, we gut the concrete (pierce with a metal bar) or treat it with a vibrating compactor to remove air.

  How to make the foundation

Pouring mortar from concrete mixer

For complete drying, the strip foundation requires at least 30 days. All this time, it is advisable to cover the surface of concrete with polyethylene to slow down evaporation and more efficient strength building. When the surface under polyethylene starts to crack, it should be moistened additionally.

Block foundation

Preparation for laying

If you do not want to mess around with the construction of the formwork and its subsequent casting, you can build a prefabricated foundation of building blocks. To date, several varieties of structural elements are available, ranging from traditional reinforced concrete products, to reinforced panels and slabs.

Note! When choosing which foundation to make from foam concrete blocks for a house, quite often they propose using the same foam blocks as a base. This should not be done, since the foam concrete is hygroscopic and vapor-permeable, and therefore such a foundation will become entangled with moisture over time and will be deformed when it freezes.

It is worth remembering that the erection of the block foundation necessarily requires the involvement of construction equipment, since the mass of the elements does not imply manual handling

The installation instructions for the block base imply the following sequence of actions:

  • We dig a trench under all bearing elements – as in the previous case.
  • At the bottom of the trench lay a gravel-sand pillow with a thickness of at least 40 cm. Carefully level and tamp the base.
  • For greater strength, the pillow can be replaced with footing or even reinforced concrete slabs.

Foundation pit with footing

After completing the preparation, you can begin to mount the base itself.

Mounting base

Concrete blocks are laid in a trench on the brickwork principle:

  • First, apply a layer of cement mortar on the base.
  • Then with the help of a crane we place the first corner block, precisely positioning it and aligning it on the plane and vertical.
  • We continue laying along the entire perimeter, carefully controlling the geometry of our base.
  • After laying all the elements and setting the solution perform waterproofing. To protect against moisture, you can use bitumen mastic, roll materials, etc.
  • Also at this stage it is possible to carry out heat insulation, pasting the outer surface of the blocks with foam plates based on polystyrene.

After completion of waterproofing and thermal insulation works we fill trenches or pits. The denser the soil is compacted, the more reliably the foundation will be protected from leakage.

Screw foundation

Schematic diagram

The technologies described above have one rather serious drawback – a large amount of earthworks. That is why, alone, or even with a few assistants, it is rather difficult to implement such projects – you need to involve a brigade of workers.

However, if you are looking for, from which to make a foundation for a house with minimal labor costs, then you should consider the arrangement of the screw pile foundation.

  • The key element of such a support structure is metal screw piles. They are buried in the ground under the main bearing walls and partitions.
  • The pile consists of two elements – a trunk and a tip. The barrel is a hollow tube with a wall thickness of up to 5 mm, in the upper part of which there are holes for attaching handles.

Ground support pattern

  • The tips of most supports are made of hardened steel. The conical nozzle is equipped with a screw blade, which provides burial in the ground during rotation.
  • The cavities of the installed piles are poured with concrete, after which the tip with a metal platform is put on the top of each support.
  • All heads are aligned on a plane, and a horizontal frame of bars or metal beams is trampled on them – the so-called grillage.

Screw foundations are indispensable in those cases when you are looking for how to make a foundation for a house from foam blocks or other light materials, or try to place the structure on a section with a slope.

An important factor in favor of this design is its reasonable price: yes, the piles themselves are not cheap, but their installation does not provide for laying trenches and large pits.

Piling

The foundation of the screw type is assembled quite quickly – in less than a day.

The sequence of works is as follows:

  • Using the yamobur, we make shallow starting holes in the places of the planned installation.
  • In the hole we start the tip of the pile, align it vertically, and then insert it into the grooves on the shaft of the handle.

Depth support in the ground with the help of scrap and ingenuity: two piles play the role of levers

  • To facilitate the work, you can use the machine for screwing supports. It will also help to quickly penetrate the pile using capstan – pipes with special eyelets for long handles.
  • We begin the rotation of the handles, gradually deepening the tip of the support into the ground.

Tip! If the support has to be screwed into a dense clay soil, it is worthwhile to pre-do a well in it, the diameter of which will be less than the diameter of the stem. This will weaken the structure somewhat, but will allow the pile to be lowered to the design depth.

  • All screwed support pruned level with a saw for metal, then fill with cast concrete to the level of the cut.
  • We put on caps on sections and weld them, making sure that the pads are in the same plane.

Base with welded tips

The above-ground part of the pile foundation is treated with a composition that protects the metal from corrosion. Particular attention is paid to weld seams.

On recessed supports we mount a horizontal grillage of beams, rails or channels.

As can be seen from the description, the main advantage is the highest speed of work: no need to wait until the concrete is dry, and you can immediately proceed to the next stage of construction.

We hope that having studied this article, you have understood for yourself how to properly make the foundation for the house in your situation. As you can see, there are several options, and each of them has its own unique features. That is why it is worthwhile to carefully examine all the initial data, decide on priorities – and only then get down to work. In the presented video in this article you will find additional information on this topic.

How to make a foundation for the house

When it comes to building a house, you need a very competent and responsible approach to the device carrying the foundation, as the foundation is the most important constructive element of the entire structure.

Scheme of pile and slab foundations.

If the foundation is initially made incorrectly, then global consequences are inevitable, the house can be skewed, and cracks will go along the walls.

Saving on the foundation will entail an overrun of the material, horizontal and vertical deformations of the whole house. To make the foundation right, you need to familiarize yourself with the types of foundation and choose the most suitable option for your future construction.

Types and characteristics

If the foundation is viewed by design features, it can be divided into the main types:

The scheme of the tape foundation.

Each of these types has its own characteristics in the application. For example, some of the foundations can be made by hand without the involvement of special equipment. The most common type of carrier is a strip foundation. This type is most often used in construction due to the fact that it is done quite simply.

Ribbon foundation is made in the form of solid strips buried in the ground. All the load from the bearing elements (walls, columns) is transferred to them. Tapes are based on evenly distributed pillows (base plates), which makes it possible to transfer the force to a large area of ​​soil from the supporting columns or walls. This will allow the use of a soil base without special preparatory work.

The strip foundation is suitable for the construction of a one-story or multi-storey building with or without a basement. This base can be safely made for walls of brick and reinforced concrete, load-bearing walls can have a multilayer coating. The strip foundation maintains the pressure under the pillow from 10 tons per sq.m. This carrier can be divided into two types according to the type of execution:

  • monolithic foundation, which can be made directly on the construction site under the house;
  • prefabricated, which is made of prefabricated reinforced concrete blocks (FBS), which are manufactured at the factory. The assembly is performed at the construction site using a crane and consists of several block rows, the lower row has a grazing extension, that is, it is trapezoidal.

Tape carrier base

According to the type of material, the strip foundation can be divided into the following types:

The scheme of reinforcement strip foundation.

  1. Concrete foundations, which are made of concrete with aggregates (rubble, stones, gravel, crushed brick).
  2. Reinforced concrete, made of concrete (B15-B30) and reinforcement. This strip foundation correctly applied under the house with massive load-bearing walls, a thickness of 380 mm.
  3. Brick, which are made of solid clay brick (M100 and M200). They are used under the house up to 5 floors and in cases when it is not possible to make formwork and solid works.

In order to make a strip foundation, you will need the following materials and tools:

Installation scheme reinforced foundation.

  • fittings;
  • cement;
  • sand;
  • knitting wire or welding tools;
  • rolled material for waterproofing;
  • pliers;
  • roulette;
  • special hooks;
  • mating gun;
  • cord;
  • building level;
  • marking pegs;
  • shovel, if you have to make a trench with your own hands;
  • boards, 50 mm thick for formwork.

In frequent cases, butobeton and reinforced concrete are used for tape material, this is due to the high demand for the construction of private houses. Given that the technology of the device is somewhat more complicated than the precast strip foundation. as an example, consider it.

Preparatory work

Scheme of the drainage system of the foundation.

One of the advantages of this foundation is that you can do it yourself without much effort, but you will need helpers to build quickly. Initially, the construction site is cleared and the material is imported. On the site is the marking of the perimeter of the house and fixed the location of the elements for the supporting base. For this you will need a tape measure, a cord and pegs. At this stage it is necessary to do everything correctly.

If the building site with a difficult terrain, then you need a level and slats. The angles of the rectangular and square support should be strictly at right angles. The construction site should be about 0.5 m more than the overall dimensions of the house. Next, you need to dig a trench, you can do it yourself with a shovel or an excavator.

When using the technique, the bottom of the trench will still have to be leveled manually, cleaned and strengthened the pit. For the construction of the house to be carried out correctly, it is necessary to lay a pillow of sand or gravel, which is 150 mm thick, on the trench. Next, you need to pour it with water and carefully tamped. A waterproofing layer is laid on the pillow, then it is poured with cement mortar. This is necessary so that moisture does not penetrate from the ground and does not violate the performance characteristics of the foundation.

See also: The device strip foundation on heaving soils

Installation of formwork and installation of fittings

The scheme of slab foundation.

  • the formwork device can be made correctly without your own hands from planks 50 mm thick, planed on one side. They are installed inside the trench. Perfect fit collapsible iron formwork. The installed structure is thoroughly cleaned of dirt and debris, and is wetted with plenty of water. To make everything right, the formwork must be rigidly fixed with struts;
  • it is necessary to carefully approach the verticalization of the walls of the trench under the house, depends on how durable the strip foundation will be. The formwork must be brought 30 cm above the ground surface. Height above ground will be the base for the future home. It is immediately necessary to make holes for plumbing, sewage and other utilities, if this is left for later, you will have to break the integrity of the monolith. After the construction of the monolith, another waterproofing layer is made to protect the walls of the house from moisture;
  • simultaneously with the formwork around the perimeter mounted valves, assembled with their own hands in the frame product. The diameter of the bars of the fittings and the number provided by the project. If not, then do it yourself 2 rows of reinforcement vertically and 1 horizontally (fastening). The number of rods depends on the depth of the base. The fittings are installed in 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 25 cm increments;
  • when the reinforcement is poured with concrete, the structure gets very strong properties. The frame is laid on the entire height of the supporting base and binds very rigidly the upper and lower parts. Thus, the reinforcement cage for a strip foundation is produced by welding or tying with wire. The connection of the reinforcement by welding is performed outside the trench. Then the sections are installed at the bottom of the trench and are fastened together with a wire. Installation of valves is carried out with strict observance of steps, diameter and material class, according to the project.

Pouring concrete into formwork

Pile foundation layout.

To complete the strip foundation, it is necessary to correctly cast the foundation into the formwork. To do this, concrete must be poured gradually, in layers, each layer should have about 20 cm. Each layer for the house is carefully pressed with its own hands using wooden tampers to subsequently eliminate voids in the concrete composition. You also need to knock out the walls of the formwork.

For these purposes, it is recommended to use a concrete vibrator. It is very important to ensure that the concrete is of the same consistency. If the solution is kneaded with your own hands, it is necessary to ensure that the solution is not too liquid. If it is made like this, the aggregate can settle on the bottom, then the solution will stratify and its quality will decrease, which will greatly affect the house.

In order to obtain high-strength concrete, and hence a high-quality strip foundation, it is necessary to make it rigid, with maximum effort applied when mixing with a shovel. If construction is carried out in the winter, which is undesirable, concrete requires warming when setting. This is done with straw, sawdust, glass wool, or you can simply warm up. It is impossible to pour concrete from a height of more than 1.5 m, otherwise the mixture will separate.

If butobeton is used as a mixture, it is necessary to follow the joining of rubble stones, they should fit tightly to each other. This choice will take considerable time, especially if done with your own hands, as the stones are precisely selected and adjusted. This technology is reduced to the alternation of operations for laying layers and their compaction, and between them is poured concrete binder, which should be finely filled.

Waterproofing device

Diagram of the columnar foundation.

After the concrete completely hardens (at least 10 days), the formwork can be removed. For waterproofing it is recommended to use bitumen mastic. She coat the outer walls and then install waterproofing material. As a waterproofing perfectly suitable roofing material. At this stage, it is necessary to carefully monitor the quality of the installation so that the waterproofing material does not depart from the walls of the foundation.

If holes and detachments are found, they must be removed. There is another way, more simple, to provide waterproofing. Sinuses carrying the base are filled with clay, which is well compacted. After that, it is recommended to treat the soil, which is adjacent to the foundation, with polymer mixtures, then you can be sure of the strength of the base.

Scheme drainage stepped foundation.

After a layer of waterproofing is made, backfilling of the sinuses of the supporting base is performed. For this we need medium sand. Each layer is carefully rammed and watered. This operation must be done carefully with your own hands so as not to damage the waterproofing layer. Waterproofing is protected by a drainage membrane or geotextile. If there is a basement in the project and it is necessary to warm it, then it is recommended to use a layer of insulation over the waterproofing. Then the waterproofing layer will be reliably protected from mechanical impact during backfilling.

See also: Construction of aerated concrete partitions

Column Foundation

This category of carrier is a pillar, which is immersed to the required depth provided by the project. On top of the pillars connect the foundation beams of reinforced concrete. Pillar foundation foundation is used for individual construction of houses (no more than 2 floors), which are built from wood or other lightweight material. Most often, the column foundation is used for the construction of a frame house or a light country cottage.

According to the type of performance, they can be divided into:

  • national teams;
  • monolithic concrete (B10 and B20).

The following materials are used for the pillars:

  1. Tree. It can be treated oak or pine. It is used for small buildings.
  2. Brick made of clay on a solution of cement and bricks. It is used for 2-storey brick buildings.
  3. Natural stone of high strength. It is used for heavy brick buildings.
  4. Concrete (B15, B25) with reinforcing cages. It is used for heavy premises without a basement or industrial structures.

The order of construction of this type of foundation begins with the markup, for this you need tools:

  • construction cord;
  • level;
  • roulette;
  • wooden pegs (50 cm long);
  • gon.

The marking starts from the anchor point or from an arbitrarily selected one of the corners along the internal contour, it is there that the first peg clogs. Then the outer sides of the foundation are measured. On the one hand, the size is equal to the longitudinal wall (length), and on the other – transverse. At the intersection of the axes set the remaining pegs. Diagonal measurements are achieved keeping right angles.

After that, digging the pits of the columnar foundation at a distance of 3-4 meters, installing formwork and pouring concrete. This will require the following materials:

For formwork will need boards with a thickness of 20 mm, from which to create a shield. A box is made of shields and inserted into prepared pits in the ground at the support site. Reinforcement is produced by fittings with a diameter of 14 mm, it is inserted inside the box, so that the edges do not reach the formwork of 5 mm. The longitudinal rods are mounted to the horizontal with a step of 40 cm. At the final stage they make the pouring of concrete and grouting.

Slab base

Foundation fill pattern.

The bearing base has the appearance of a reinforced concrete slab laid on the ground. It should be from 30 to 10 cm. This plate is reinforced with fittings with a diameter of 12 to 25 mm. For leveling the soil used lightweight concrete (V7, 5) or sand. This type of foundation allows you to redistribute the load of the building over the entire area of ​​the plate.

Such a bearing base is used for weak soils, where sand, bulk dumps and uneven compressibility. The foundation is applicable for 2 or 3-storey buildings with a high load under the sheet set. The foundation is also suitable if the building has a complex shape or a large length, then expansion joints are applied. These seams cut each slab into smaller sizes.

At the finish all parts of the plate will work as one unit. Even with an uneven draft on the plate, no cracks will arise, and the carrying capacity remains reliable. The only disadvantage of this type of foundation is its high cost, but the costs will be blocked by long-term operation.

Pile foundation device

The construction of strip foundations.

This carrier is made from a whole group of piles. Often use individual piles, which are interconnected on top of reinforced concrete or concrete slab, or grillage (beam). Pile carrier base is used in cases when it is necessary to transfer a large load to very weak soil or to support the building on a more durable one by piercing the upper layer. When weak soils (water-saturated, subsiding, loose, sandy) are deposited at great depths, a pile bearing foundation comes to the rescue.

Piles are used for powerful buildings up to 25 tons per square meter, but it is possible to use them in individual construction, where the soil base is very weak and, except for piles, nothing fits. If we take into account the material, we can distinguish the following types of foundation:

  1. Reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete for heavy structures made of reinforced concrete.
  2. The tree from the processed pine is applied to an easy 2-storeyed design.
  3. Metal pipes are used for heavy structures, where it is inconvenient to use reinforced concrete piles.
  4. Combined piles of concrete and metal are used in difficult geodesic conditions for high-rise buildings.

Piles are of the following types:

Drift piles are used in the case when the site is not fully investigated. And indented and printed are designed for very cramped conditions. Screws are used for the supports of towers, masts, bridges and are laid in any soils. The disadvantage is the high cost, it is virtually impossible to do it yourself, it is necessary to attract special equipment.

How to make the foundation?

  • Selection of foundation type
    • Strip foundation
    • Pillar foundation
    • Slab foundation
    • Pile foundation
  • General recommendations for foundations
  • Good foundation – a pledge of durability
  • Estimation of the depth of freezing and the type of soil, the presence of groundwater
  • How to fill the foundation?

Having decided to build your own house, you need to be as clear as possible how to begin construction.

The strip foundation can be used for the construction of a one- or two-storey building, with or without a basement.

And the correct answer to this: all must begin with the construction of the foundation. The foundation for the house is not only the most expensive, but also the most time-consuming element for any of the buildings. Therefore, information on the correct pouring of the foundation will be very important.

To properly build the foundation. It is necessary to pay attention to all stages of work and pay great attention to the preparation. The more thoroughly the calculations are made, the more time and finances can be saved, the less labor will be required to build a foundation for the house.

It is necessary to approach the device of the basis for a country house both competently, and responsibly. This important component will not tolerate blunders. Any inaccuracy made at the very beginning of the construction process (for example, because of savings or incorrectly designed foundations) can have global consequences for the whole house. These can be base misalignments and waste of materials necessary for it, horizontal or vertical deformations, uneven distribution of sediments, cracks in the structure.

Selection of foundation type

In accordance with the design features distinguish these types of bases.

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Strip foundation

Scheme of the device of the tape monolithic base.

The bases of the tape type are made in the form of tapes, buried in the ground, onto which the load is distributed from the supporting elements of the house structure: columns, walls. Tapes are based on distribution cushions, that is, base plates. Due to this, it becomes possible to transfer the forces from the walls and columns to a large area of ​​soil, which can be used without enhanced preparation for further work.

The tape base can be used as a foundation for a one- or two-story building, with or without a basement, with load-bearing walls in several layers, brick walls and reinforced concrete floors. Under the base of the foundation pressure of 10 t / m².

According to the type of execution strip foundations are of 2 types:

  • monolithic – they are performed directly on construction sites;
  • prefabricated – made of standard blocks of reinforced concrete, made by the factory, which must be mounted with a crane at the construction site. Composed of several rows, the bottom row of blocks has a trapezoid shape.

According to the type of base material are divided as follows:

Scheme of the device tape precast foundation.

  • concrete, made of concrete with aggregate in the form of coarse gravel, small boulders, brick battle;
  • reinforced concrete, made of concrete and reinforcement. They are considered the most used because the building stone, reinforcement and concrete are considered as running goods, the purchase of which does not pose a problem. These types of bases can be used under heavy buildings with massive brick walls or walls in several layers with a thickness of 40 cm;
  • brick – they must be made of clay solid brick. The application is justified in the event that there is no possibility of doing monolithic formwork work, for buildings with walls built of ceramic bricks, up to 5 floors high.

The technology of tape foundations is quite simple. The advantage of this type of foundation for the house is also in the fact that it can be used as a wall for a basement, and its carrying capacity is very high.

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Pillar foundation

The base is a construction of the pillars, immersed to a depth necessary for engineering reasons. Upstairs, the pillars are connected by razbalbalka – foundation reinforced concrete beams. This type of foundation is typical for small private houses up to 2 floors high, which are built from wood or materials with a volume weight of not more than 1000kg / m³.

Column foundation is convenient to use for frame objects or as the base of a small country house. This type of foundation is used on soils that are not subject to heaving.

The material for the posts can be selected:

Layout of the column foundation: prefabricated and monolithic.

  • wood – pine, processed, or oak class 1-2, they are used for country houses, small wooden buildings, baths;
  • clay brick on a solution of sand and cement is used for buildings made of bricks up to 2 floors high;
  • natural stone with high strength;
  • concrete reinforced with reinforcing cage, this type is considered the most massive and is used for heavy buildings, structures without a basement, industrial buildings.

Due to the reduction of consumables and labor costs, the cost of this type of foundation is quite democratic. Additional erection of the walls between the pillars helps to improve the strength characteristics.

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Slab foundation

Reinforced and laid on the ground reinforced slab of reinforced concrete is the basis for the structure of the slab type. The thickness of the slab can be 30-100 cm; reinforcement with a diameter of 12-25 mm is used for reinforcement. For such a slab, it is necessary to do the preparation of concrete with little strength or arrange a sand pad to level the underlying soil. The foundation of the slab type makes it possible to distribute the load over the entire area of ​​the slab, which helps to perceive both horizontal and vertical deformations, it is convenient to apply it on weak soils (floats, water-saturated sands, bulk soils, unevenly compressible soil, etc.).

Diagram of the slab foundation device.

If the building has a complex shape or a large length, it is necessary to use expansion joints, which “cut” the slab into separate pieces of small size. All parts of the plate work as one, and with an uneven draft, no cracks are formed in it and the carrying capacity is not reduced.

The lack of a foundation for arranging such for an ordinary house can be considered its considerable cost: the cost of materials and the cost of the device itself will require considerable. The foundation is convenient because the building will stand on a single slab with good stiffness, which eliminates the possibility of deformations and cracks.

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Pile foundation

The execution of the pile foundation is made from the group of piles or individual elements that are combined from above by a slab of concrete or reinforced concrete, with a beam grillage. Pile-type foundations are recommended in cases where significant loads are placed on weak ground or when weak ground needs to be pierced and supported on stronger ground. It is advisable to use pile foundations when weak soils lie at great depths: loose sandy, subsiding soils, water-saturated sands. Used piles for large powerful buildings, where the load on the edge of the foundation of 15-25 m². In private construction, they can be made in the form of short piles of reinforced concrete or wood, if the device of another type of foundation is not possible.

According to the material foundation is divided into the following types:

The scheme of the device pile foundation of stuffed combined piles.

  • reinforced concrete, which must be made of reinforced concrete, are used for heavy buildings with reinforced concrete construction;
  • wooden pine, processed and protected in accordance with the technology used for lightweight buildings made of wood up to 2 floors;
  • metal, where metal pipes are used, are suitable for heavy buildings, if it is inconvenient or impossible to use reinforced concrete piles;
  • combined – metal and concrete, used for bulky heavy buildings with a height of more than 3 floors under difficult engineering and geological conditions.

Piles by type of production:

  • Driving – they are hammered by a special machine (pile driver). Such constructions are justified to be done only in the case when construction is carried out on undeveloped territory, in the absence of buildings nearby: impact loads when knocking in piles can cause the destruction of the structures of those buildings that are located in the neighborhood;
  • ramming, when the drilled well is filled with concrete;
  • pressed in when a pile is pushed into the ground with the help of hydraulic pumps.

The latter types of piles are designed to be carried out in cramped conditions, they can be made if there are buildings of an older building nearby, this type is used for heavy and large buildings with structures made of brick and reinforced concrete.

You can also mention the screw piles: at their end there is a thread in the form of a blade, they are screwed into the ground with the help of a special machine like a screw. Such piles are used for the support of bridges, power lines, foundations of towers and masts. Screw-type piles can be laid in any soil. But the need to attract special equipment makes it quite expensive.

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General recommendations for foundations

The scheme of the correct laying of the foundation in relation to the level of soil freezing.

It is necessary to begin work on preparing the foundation for the house by carrying out engineering and geological surveys of the site on which the building will be located. The choice of the type of foundation for a house under construction is influenced by multiple factors.

  1. Type and condition of the soil on the prepared site.
  2. The depth of soil freezing.
  3. Presence of groundwater.
  4. The expected load from the supporting structures of the building.
  5. Materials for the foundation device.
  6. The presence on the site of underground communications.

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Good foundation – a pledge of durability

Soils located under the edge of the foundation, can be deformed by the load that creates the building. The better their bearing capacity, the greater the chance of building a good foundation with a long service life. When the soil with a weak bearing capacity to make a better pile or slab foundation cost comes out a lot, but not to do otherwise.

It is impossible to make a ribbon or column foundation on silty, heaving or subsiding soils, in the areas to be washed. You can pass these soils with piles to provide support for a more durable soil.

Sand pillow device diagram.

On such soils it is possible to make a slab foundation. so the load from the building turns into a load distributed on a rectangular section. This reduces the cost of replacing or improving the base. It turns out that the building is located on a solid large pillow.

You should not overuse such type of foundations as pile. With good soil with sufficient design resistance, it is better to make a simple strip foundation.

The zero cycle of building construction in the form of preparation of the foundation, the construction of the foundation itself is a rather expensive process. It is best to order a project where an engineer will reasonably and competently select the type of foundation and material, prove the project’s feasibility economically and generate a need for materials.

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Estimation of the depth of freezing and the type of soil, the presence of groundwater

Such an assessment can be made on the basis of the results of geological studies available in survey organizations. If they are not available, independent research can be carried out: to do this, a hole must be dug or a well must be drilled in the area. It is possible to build a foundation correctly only when you carefully make basic calculations and draw up a competent plan. When inspecting production, the height of the bulk or soil layer should be measured: as a rule, they are not used as a base because of the heterogeneity and small bearing capacity. Before construction, it is often simply removed. The basis will be the bearing layers of soil, which are under the bulk of the soil or soil-plant layer.

Foundation layout with and without drainage.

In winter, as a rule, ground swelling occurs. It should be the same across the entire foundation: in winter, the foundation should rise evenly with the house, in the spring it should also fall evenly. Better, of course, if the foundation does not rise. Dry soil will swell less than wet. Due to the structure, clayey soil will swell less than sandy. Loose soils, with a small amount of them, can be replaced with medium-sized sand or gravel bedding.

So, before starting construction, it is necessary to determine the type of soil on the site. So it will be much easier to choose and build a foundation. Properly chosen foundation helps save both time and financial resources that need to be spent on pouring the foundation.

If finances do not allow to determine the nature of the soil with the help of specialists, you can try to conduct an independent study. To do this, in spring you have to wait until the snow comes down from the site and look at the access roads. When the asphalt road is necessary to pay attention to the failures under the asphalt, cracks – this suggests that the soil is heterogeneous, when it freezes the soil swells. Soils fail due to areas that are strongly compressed at low temperature, the probable reason for this is underground water flows, the soil is uneven in composition.

Of course, such a definition cannot be considered sufficient. Nevertheless, you should try to get an assessment of good specialists.

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How to fill the foundation?

When choosing any type of foundation, one should remember that all communications should be foreseen in advance. When constructing a base of a monolithic type or a concrete grillage, you will need to make “air holes” – holes for ventilation of the space under the house. The operation helps to avoid the occurrence of dampness in this space.

In order to properly build the foundation, the most important thing is the correct execution of the marking, the assembly of the formwork, the framework of the reinforcement. A prerequisite – when marking should be strictly observed right angles.

The scheme of the phased construction of the foundation.

It is necessary to ensure that all the diagonals are equal. Installing the formwork, it is necessary to prop it up with shields, and fasten it together with bars. It is necessary to do this so that when the concrete is poured under the pressure of the mass, the formwork will not collapse.

The frame of the reinforcement must be assembled in advance. When installed in the formwork frame should not be laid directly on the ground it. Much better off if you install it on the stones. In order to prevent the concrete from sticking to the formwork, its walls are upholstered with tar or glass asphalt. After the concrete has been poured into the formwork, air must be removed from it. To do this, the uncured mass in several places is pierced with a piece of reinforcement or a metal pin. After the concrete has set, waterproofing is performed.

To create the foundation of the building waterproofing is a very important stage. It is necessary to treat its implementation carefully: it will help to get a good result. The life of the foundation will depend mainly on this. To reduce the effect of heaving forces on the side walls of the building support, it is necessary to carry out the treatment with waterproofing materials. The top of the base or grillage must also be processed: this helps to prevent the transfer of moisture from the base to the walls so that they do not collapse.

When the house is built, you should certainly perform the blind area. It is best made of concrete, having determined the width of about 0.5 m. At its structure, temperature joints should be provided. It is necessary to attend to the device of storm channels through which water will be drained from the house. Only after this can the foundation filling be considered complete.

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

October 20, 2015

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

A few additions: 1. If you need to perform high-quality waterproofing liquid rubber, it is desirable to apply geotextiles over the entire surface. Consumption.

September 23, 2015

How and what to make the top border of the foundation lining (natural stone. Plitnyak)?

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Sources: http://ofundamentah.com/stroit/201-kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom, http://1pobetonu.ru/montazh/kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom.html, http: // moifundament.ru/montazh/pravilno-sdelat-fundament-dlya-doma.html

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