How to make the foundation for the house

If there is a deep-freezing heaving soil on the construction site, then creating a strip foundation itself is impractical. He will not be able to withstand all the loads and will be quite expensive. The ideal option here is the construction of the column base. To build it will require the following:

  How to make the foundation for the house

Scheme of the pile monolithic foundation.

  • shovel;
  • asbestos-cement or metal pipes;
  • bars for reinforcement;
  • sand
  • cement;
  • pegs;
  • tank for mixing the solution;
  • roulette;
  • building level;
  • Master OK.

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Stage 1: Marking and Landwork

Here, as in the first case, you must first make a markup of the site according to the project documentation of the house. First of all, its perimeter is outlined, and then pegs are set in those places where it is planned to install supports. They must be at a certain distance. The optimal is 1.5-2 m. At the same time, they should be done not only along the delineated perimeter, but also inside it. Only in this way will it be possible to create a reliable and stable column foundation for your future home.

When the marking is done, you can proceed to the land works. It is required to start them with digging holes for metal or asbestos pipes. Their diameter must be made the same as that of the supports. In this case, it is necessary to correctly calculate the depth. It is required to make it more than the level of soil freezing.

After creating the pits, you should go to the device in them sand pillows. It should have a height of about 10-15 cm. It will need to be thoroughly moistened and tamped. It must be distinguished by high density, since only then it will be possible to reliably place supports on it.

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Stage 2: pipe installation and concreting

The scheme of drilling wells under the piles.

Now you need to knead the concrete. It is made on the basis of sand (3 parts), cement grade 400 (1 part) and water (1/2 part). The consistency of the solution should be approximately as in sour cream. Then you should take the level and the pipe, install the last one into the prepared pit, and pour a little solution into it. After that, the support is slightly raised, so that part of the concrete is distributed over the sand cushion, and then it is leveled vertically. So you need to install all the pipes.

Then you can begin to reinforce the pillars. To do this, take metal rods and installed inside the pipes. Usually each one consumes from 3 to 5 pieces of rods. They should go deep into the ground, and their upper part should rise 20-30 cm above the support. When this work is completed, in turn all the pipes are completely filled with concrete. The resulting space between them and the pit is covered with soil, which is then carefully rammed. After this, the columnar foundation is left for 7-14 days to set. Then you can create a grillage on it.

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How to make a foundation of homemade piles?

On weak soils, the best solution is to build a pile foundation for the house. It is characterized by high strength and durability. It is also important that such a foundation can be organized without land works, which take a long time. He arranges with the help of piles, they are long rods that are immersed in the ground. But it is important to consider that their purchase is quite expensive, so those who wish to save on the construction of this type of foundation for the house make them in place. This option is the most optimal. To build a foundation using improvised piles will require the following:

Scheme of bored pile reinforcement with reinforcement.

  • hand drill;
  • reinforcing rods;
  • ruberoid;
  • roulette;
  • pegs;
  • cement;
  • vibratory plant for compacting concrete;
  • sand;
  • tank for mixing the solution;
  • soft steel wire.

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Stage 1: Well Creation

First of all, you yourself must make wells under the piles. To do this job correctly, you need to make markup. Experts in the field of construction recommend placing piles at a distance of 2-2.5 m. Accordingly, it is necessary to install pegs, where drilling will be carried out in the future, on the basis of these parameters. Then it will be possible to get a reliable and durable foundation.

Next, you need to take a hand drill and use it to create the required number of wells. Their depth should be below the occurrence of groundwater. However, they should go at a slight angle. If after this it turns out that there is water at the bottom, then it will need to be pumped out without fail. You can use a pump for this.

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Stage 2: making concrete and piles

Scheme of bored piles with grillage.

When the wells are ready, they will need to install formwork. Do not need it from the boards, but with the help of roofing material. It rolls up into a pipe, which should have the same diameter and length as the well, and then it is tightened with soft steel wire. Then it is carefully installed in the prepared pit. This formwork will need to do for each well. If you do not use it, then this will lead to further negative results, they will affect the strength of the pile foundation. The fact of the matter is that when concrete is poured into the well in which the pipe made of roofing material is not placed, the cement milk leaves it in the ground. As a result, the piles because of this are not very reliable. In addition, their surface after setting will turn out to be rough, and, as is well known, the forces of frost heaving on it have a negative effect much stronger than on a smooth one. Accordingly, for this reason, cracks and defects will appear on them, this will lead to their rapid destruction.

When pipes of roofing material are placed in all wells, it will be necessary to make a spatial framework of reinforcing rods. It is recommended to use metal rods with a diameter of 6 mm. To create one frame, you will need to take 3-4 cores, which must be fastened every 500 mm with peppered ones. It is necessary to install such a frame into the pipe in such a way that it would rise 40-60 cm above the well.

Now you can proceed to the preparation of concrete. It must be made of high-quality cement (M400), clean river sand (3 parts) and rubble (2 parts). Water is added to these ingredients gradually. It is necessary to ensure that the consistency of the concrete does not become too liquid, otherwise it will lose its strength characteristics.

Table for the preparation of concrete.

Serve the finished solution in the wells must be portioned. Each layer should be equal to approximately 50 cm. It is important to produce during this compaction of concrete. In order to do this as best as possible, you need to use a vibrator setup. In addition, the placed solution will need to be pierced to eliminate the possibility of voids in the piles. This is done with the help of rebar. After that, you will need to wait a few weeks for the concrete to grasp. Then it will be possible to arrange the grillage and build the frame of the house.

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How to make a foundation of ready piles?

If it is decided to use ready-made piles, then during the creation of the foundation for the house, the following tools and materials will be needed:

  • pegs;
  • shovel;
  • roulette;
  • scrap metal;
  • roulette;
  • marker;
  • magnetic and water level;
  • pipes (length 2 meters);
  • Bulgarian;
  • water;
  • sand;
  • cement;
  • head;
  • anti-corrosion coating;
  • metal piles;
  • welding machine.

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Stage 1: marking and setting the perimeter

Table of calculated resistance of subsidence soils.

To start work here is also necessary with the markup. Finished metal piles, as a rule, are installed at a distance of no more than 3 m from each other. If this parameter is not taken into account, then after creating the foundation, it may not gain the required bearing capacity. The marking must be made with the designation of the diagonals of the future perimeter. For this purpose, pegs are set at 4 corners at the required distance in the design documentation. To carry out this work correctly, it is recommended that you first put 2 extreme pegs on 1 line. Then the calculator is taken and the diagonal is calculated on it, and then 3 and 4 pegs are set.

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Stage 2: Pile Installation and Concreting

At this stage, you can start screwing up the piles. This should be done in the center of the timber. Therefore, if the dimensions of the dwelling in the project documentation are given only at the edges, then you will need to subtract half of the width of the beam, first on one side and then on the other.

In order for the pile driving to take place faster, they will need to dig up pits at the site of the installed pegs. Their depth should be about 0.4–0.6 m. It is necessary to screw the piles into the soil by more than 1.6 m, then during the frost heaving they will not bulge out of the ground. Moreover, this parameter is only a guideline. After all, we should not forget that the main rule when screwing piles is that they must be screwed in until the full stop in the ground. Only then can it be considered properly buried.

In order for the pile screwing to take place without unnecessary trouble, it is recommended to use scrap during this. It is inserted into its end, and then pipes are fixed to it from 2 sides. They will play the role of a kind of lever. In addition, a magnetic level will be needed on the pile shaft. It will help to follow the angle of its inclination, which should not exceed more than 2 degrees. After that, you can screw the pile. It should be noted right away that it is rather difficult to do this, so it will not be possible to do this work alone, you will need to enlist the help of several people. Thus, you need to install all the piles in turn, and then trim them in height. She will allow to bring them on one level as they zaklublyutsya unevenly. Trimming should be done at least 15 cm. Then you can rid the piles of technological holes that do not have a bearing capacity.

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Stage 3: concreting and welding tips

Mandatory event is their concreting. To do this, you can use the usual cement mark 200. It is mixed with sand in a 1: 4 ratio. It is necessary that the solution had a not too thick consistency, so you will need to use water in the amount of 1 part. However, if the cement and sand will have high humidity, it is possible to reduce the amount of liquid by 2 times. It is necessary to fill in ready solution in in piles. This is required in order to prevent corrosion.

Next you need to equip the pile heads. They are first installed on them, and then welded. After that, the formed seam is covered with an anti-corrosion compound. It is necessary to apply it with a thick layer to prevent its rapid destruction.

The construction of the pile foundation will be completed on this. Since the finished products were used here, it will not be necessary to allocate time for shrinkage of the finished base. Accordingly, the strapping of your house will be possible the next day. As a result, it will be possible to complete the construction in a short time.

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Summarizing

Summarizing, we can conclude that it is quite possible to create your own foundation for a house. The main methods of construction include the construction of a columnar, tape or pile foundation. It is necessary to choose a specific type, based on the type of soil. Only in this way will it be possible to create a foundation that will last for a long time and provide the necessary support to the house.

Construction should be carried out according to the instructions provided. But it is recommended to prepare all the materials and tools in advance, placing them closer to the construction site. In this case, to carry out the construction of the foundation alone is not recommended, because then it will not be possible to complete such work in a short time. Therefore, find yourself a few partners. They will be able to build the foundation for the house quickly and without unnecessary trouble. Accordingly, the construction of the main part of the dwelling will not be delayed for a long time. Good luck in construction!

Innokentiy Andreevich Vlasov

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

October 20, 2015

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

A few additions: 1. If you need to perform high-quality waterproofing liquid rubber, it is desirable to apply geotextiles over the entire surface. Consumption.

September 23, 2015

How and what to make the top border of the foundation lining (natural stone. Plitnyak)?

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How to make a foundation for a house: requirements for the base, especially tape, block and screw designs

The question of how to make the foundation for the house itself interests many novice builders. And all because the building – the event is not cheap, and it is quite natural desire to minimize the overhead.

Modern technologies give us such an opportunity, and therefore in this article we will describe several ways of independently arranging the foundation.

Every home needs a solid foundation.

Foundation requirements

Before we talk about how to properly make the foundation for the house, let’s try to deal with the requirements that we put forward to it.

So, what should be considered when building a capital foundation for a residential building?

  • The first is, of course, the carrying capacity. The foundation, regardless of its design features, is required to withstand the load of the structure built on it without destruction and deformation, and preferably with a safety margin.

Tip! When calculating the bearing capacity, it is necessary to take into account not only the mass of the structure, but also the weight loads from furniture, communications, decoration, etc.

  • A very important factor is also the environmental friendliness and safety of the capital base. Since the foundation is laid under a residential building, the use of materials containing volatile, toxic or radioactive substances should be avoided.
  • Thermal and waterproofing characteristics of the supporting structure largely determine the comfort in the room. Arrangement of additional waterproofing circuits, external and internal insulation will provide an acceptable microclimate.

Additional heat and waterproofing does not hurt!

  • Also, when choosing the design features of the foundation, you should pay attention to its manufacturability and ease of installation. Since we are going to do all the construction work with our own hands, preference should be given to the most simple technologies.

And finally, when we decide on the methodology, it is worthwhile to calculate how much it costs to make the foundation for the house of the planned area. This should take into account not only the price of materials, but also the cost of related work, such as excavation, delivery of concrete, etc.

Tape technology

Projection

Choosing how best to make the foundation for the house, it is worth considering several different options. This is exactly what we will do, and first of all we will analyze tape technology – one of the most simple and affordable.

The tape basis for the house represents the strip of the reinforced concrete which is placed under all bearing elements. First of all, these are, of course, external walls, as well as internal capital partitions.

The design of the tape base includes the definition of two main parameters – the depth of embedment into the ground and the width of the support.

By depth of embedding tape constructions are divided into:

  • Shallow – up to 60-70 cm.
  • Recessed – to the level of soil freezing, i.e. one and a half meters and deeper.

In most cases, it is enough to equip a shallow base, since the installation of the support part at the level of soil freezing is required only in the most difficult climatic and soil conditions, and also when you are planning to build a basement or a heated basement.

As for the width of the concrete strip, for most private houses 50-60 cm is enough, and light structures like a shield house cottage can be placed on a forty-centimeter base.

Tip! It is worth paying attention to this technology if you are looking for how to make a foundation for a ready-made house from a bar or a wooden shield. Of course, you have to tinker with the excavation, installation of jacks and filling tapes, but you do not have to disassemble and reassemble the structure.

In the following sections, we will describe how to properly make the foundation of a house using tape technology.

Excavation

The beginning of the construction of any foundation associated with the layout of the site. On the surface with cords, we mark the contours of our future foundation.

Note! The markings for the trenches must be made at least 200 mm wider than the planned base – 100 mm on each side will go to the installation of the formwork.

By marking we begin excavation:

  • We dig trenches either manually or with an excavator.
  • The bottom of the trench is lowered 40-50 cm below the design level and carefully leveled.
  • Then we do the bedding: first we lay and tamp down 30 cm of gravel, and then – 20 cm of sand.
  • On top of the bed is laid either thick polyethylene or roofing felt. These materials will play the role of moisture protection circuit.

Base arrangement

  • Formwork boards are made of ogregannye boards with a minimum thickness of 30 mm or plywood boards of 15-18 mm.

Tip! To minimize the leakage of the solution, as well as provide additional waterproofing, in some cases, the entire formwork is lined with polyethylene or a waterproof membrane.

  • The height of the boards should be at least 10 cm more than the planned dimensions of the foundation.
  • We install struts inside the formwork, as well as pipe sections filled with sand. Subsequently, in place of these pipes will be laid technological holes for the establishment of communications through the foundation.

Mandatory requirement for the base of the tape type is its internal reinforcement:

  • We use steel ribbed rods with a diameter of 12 mm as reinforcement.
  • The minimum allowable is the arrangement of the upper and lower belts of two rods connected by transverse elements.
  • For the assembly of reinforcement can be used as knitting wire, and spot welding.

Tip!Metal frame set on the bricks placed on the bottom of the trench. This will allow us to avoid contact of the fittings with soil moisture and reduce the risk of corrosion.

Photo of formwork with reinforcement before pouring

Fill the formwork with fittings with concrete of a grade not lower than 300. To arrange the foundation, we will need several cubic meters of mortar, therefore we should either rent a concrete mixer or order ready-made concrete from the manufacturer.

It is advisable to fill in at once, in order to avoid cold bridges. Immediately after pouring, we gut the concrete (pierce with a metal bar) or treat it with a vibrating compactor to remove air.

Pouring mortar from concrete mixer

For complete drying, the strip foundation requires at least 30 days. All this time, it is advisable to cover the surface of concrete with polyethylene to slow down evaporation and more efficient strength building. When the surface under polyethylene starts to crack, it should be moistened additionally.

Block foundation

Preparation for laying

If you do not want to mess around with the construction of the formwork and its subsequent casting, you can build a prefabricated foundation of building blocks. To date, several varieties of structural elements are available, ranging from traditional reinforced concrete products, to reinforced panels and slabs.

Note!When choosing which foundation to make from foam concrete blocks for a house, quite often they propose using the same foam blocks as a base. This should not be done, since the foam concrete is hygroscopic and vapor-permeable, and therefore such a foundation will become entangled with moisture over time and will be deformed when it freezes.

It is worth remembering that the erection of the block foundation necessarily requires the involvement of construction equipment, since the mass of the elements does not imply manual handling

The installation instructions for the block base imply the following sequence of actions:

  • We dig a trench under all bearing elements – as in the previous case.
  • At the bottom of the trench lay a gravel-sand pillow with a thickness of at least 40 cm. Carefully level and tamp the base.
  • For greater strength, the pillow can be replaced with footing or even reinforced concrete slabs.

Foundation pit with footing

After completing the preparation, you can begin to mount the base itself.

Mounting base

Concrete blocks are laid in a trench on the brickwork principle:

  • First, apply a layer of cement mortar on the base.
  • Then with the help of a crane we place the first corner block, precisely positioning it and aligning it on the plane and vertical.
  • We continue laying along the entire perimeter, carefully controlling the geometry of our base.
  • After laying all the elements and setting the solution perform waterproofing. To protect against moisture, you can use bitumen mastic, roll materials, etc.
  • Also at this stage it is possible to carry out heat insulation, pasting the outer surface of the blocks with foam plates based on polystyrene.

After completion of waterproofing and thermal insulation works we fill trenches or pits. The denser the soil is compacted, the more reliably the foundation will be protected from leakage.

Screw foundation

Schematic diagram

The technologies described above have one rather serious drawback – a large amount of earthworks. That is why, alone, or even with a few assistants, it is rather difficult to implement such projects – you need to involve a brigade of workers.

However, if you are looking for, from which to make a foundation for a house with minimal labor costs, then you should consider the arrangement of the screw pile foundation.

  • The key element of such a support structure is metal screw piles. They are buried in the ground under the main bearing walls and partitions.
  • The pile consists of two elements – a trunk and a tip. The barrel is a hollow tube with a wall thickness of up to 5 mm, in the upper part of which there are holes for attaching handles.

Ground support pattern

  • The tips of most supports are made of hardened steel. The conical nozzle is equipped with a screw blade, which provides burial in the ground during rotation.
  • The cavities of the installed piles are poured with concrete, after which the tip with a metal platform is put on the top of each support.
  • All heads are aligned on a plane, and a horizontal frame of bars or metal beams is trampled on them – the so-called grillage.

Screw foundations are indispensable in those cases when you are looking for how to make a foundation for a house from foam blocks or other light materials, or try to place the structure on a section with a slope.

An important factor in favor of this design is its reasonable price: yes, the piles themselves are not cheap, but their installation does not provide for laying trenches and large pits.

Piling

The foundation of the screw type is assembled quite quickly – in less than a day.

The sequence of works is as follows:

  • Using the yamobur, we make shallow starting holes in the places of the planned installation.
  • In the hole we start the tip of the pile, align it vertically, and then insert it into the grooves on the shaft of the handle.

Depth support in the ground with the help of scrap and ingenuity: two piles play the role of levers

  • To facilitate the work, you can use the machine for screwing supports. It will also help to quickly penetrate the pile using capstan – pipes with special eyelets for long handles.
  • We begin the rotation of the handles, gradually deepening the tip of the support into the ground.

Tip!If the support has to be screwed into a dense clay soil, it is worthwhile to pre-do a well in it, the diameter of which will be less than the diameter of the stem. This will weaken the structure somewhat, but will allow the pile to be lowered to the design depth.

  • All screwed support pruned level with a saw for metal, then fill with cast concrete to the level of the cut.
  • We put on caps on sections and weld them, making sure that the pads are in the same plane.

Base with welded tips

The above-ground part of the pile foundation is treated with a composition that protects the metal from corrosion. Particular attention is paid to weld seams.

On recessed supports we mount a horizontal grillage of beams, rails or channels.

As can be seen from the description, the main advantage is the highest speed of work: no need to wait until the concrete is dry, and you can immediately proceed to the next stage of construction.

We hope that having studied this article, you have understood for yourself how to properly make the foundation for the house in your situation. As you can see, there are several options, and each of them has its own unique features. That is why it is worthwhile to carefully examine all the initial data, decide on priorities – and only then get down to work. In the presented video in this article you will find additional information on this topic.

How to make a tape foundation for the house?

  • Types of strip foundations
  • Marking territory
  • Excavation
  • Trench preparation
  • Monolithic foundation
  • Prefabricated house foundation

Strip foundations are characterized by the same cross-sectional shape along the entire perimeter of the house. Despite the high consumption of materials, considerable labor intensity and a large amount of earthworks, thanks to simple technology, this type of foundation is widespread in individual construction.

The scheme of reinforcement strip foundation.

Types of strip foundations

According to the construction technology, there are 2 types of strip foundations for a house:

  • monolithic – solid reinforced concrete tape, reinforced by a steel bar construction.;
  • prefab – from prefabricated blocks (brick, reinforced concrete blocks) or rubble stone.

The general scheme of construction of this type of foundation for the house:

Diagram of the monolithic strip foundation.

  • earthworks – digging trenches;
  • installation of formwork – removable, non-removable;
  • pouring concrete solution or laying individual elements with mandatory reinforcement;
  • dismantling of formwork, moisture protection.

To make the foundation for the house right, it is better to involve professionals in its design. On the basis of geodetic surveys of the soil, technical characteristics of the house and climatic conditions, specialists will prepare the necessary project documentation, including an estimate of construction work. The cost of services is fully paid off – saving materials, time, no problems during operation.

In the case of self-planning, it is necessary to study the relevant GOSTs, SNiPs: for example, in joint venture 70.13330.2012 it is indicated not only how to make the foundation correctly. but also how to pick up building materials.

Tips “experienced”, the experience of neighbors can be taken into account, but only if the house on the foundation, built according to the recommended technology, operated for at least 5-10 years.

When planning work, all stages of construction should be considered in detail, as well as related activities:

  • transportation and storage of building materials, equipment, tools;
  • the organization of an entrance of special equipment, garbage removal.

It is necessary to consider the possibility of changing weather conditions.

The choice of a particular technology depends on the constructive solution of the house, the available construction equipment.

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Marking territory

If you plan to make a foundation for a small house, you will need:

Laying the strip foundation.

  • pegs;
  • cord;
  • roulette;
  • Rectangle – you can do it yourself.

First, the location of the first corner of the house is outlined and a line is drawn from it perpendicularly to the second, the cord is tensioned onto the pegs. Then the second, third corners are also outlined. The regular rectangle of the diagonal is equal.

Departing from the external markings to the width of the foundation, you need to make internal markings.

For the construction of large foundations is better to use the level (can be rented).

At the same time, a territory is being laid out for storing construction materials, installing a concrete mixer, a communications line (water supply, water disposal).

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Excavation

Types of strip foundations.

You can dig a foundation trench manually or with an excavator. The first option is suitable if you plan to build a small wooden house on a shallow foundation or in the absence of access roads to the construction site for specialized equipment.

First, the whole area is cleared of vegetation: shrubs, trees uprooted, the upper fertile layer of soil is removed. Of great importance is the stability of the soil, the depth of the groundwater. When watering clayey, silty and sandy soils, their bearing properties are significantly lost. Pouring the strip foundation for a house can turn into underwater concreting if water enters the trench through a cut-through waterproof layer or from an underground source.

Clay soil can be deposited for several years, and the volume of porous organic soil (peat) is dramatically reduced during drainage. Therefore, before starting work, it is necessary to estimate the distance to the nearest structures and, during the digging of the trench, organize monitoring of the stability of their structures and soil in the adjacent territories.

The depth of the trench – the depth of the foundation, plus the thickness of the gravel-sand pillow. The countdown should begin at the lowest point on the surface.

When planning the operation of the basement, for example for storing winter billets, in some cases it is more convenient to excavate before making the foundation.

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Trench preparation

Layout scheme under the strip foundation.

Preparing a trench for pouring concrete or laying individual elements is almost the same.

Slopes and bottom are leveled using plummets, building level. Undertakes are removed, the replacement is carried out by rubble, sand, gravel-sand mixture. The bottom is sealed with mechanical or manual rammers. Further the pillow under the foundation keeps within:

  • geotextiles prevent mixing of the sandy layer with the soil, silting of the cushion when the water table rises;
  • sand – coarse or a mixture of large and medium size;
  • gravel, crushed stone – fraction of 20-70 mm;
  • concrete layer of about 5-7 cm – waterproofing.

The thickness of the sand layer is from 20 cm to 3/1 relative to the width of the slightly deeper foundation. The sand is compacted by spilling water, ramming. When walking on a sandy surface should not remain. Carefully aligned.

The thickness of the rubble layer is about 20-30 cm. It is leveled, compacted (rolled, rammed).

Scheme concreting strip foundation.

A layer of concrete should ripen in 10-15 days, then it is coated with bitumen, covered with roofing felt.

After this, the formwork is mounted:

  • removable – any sheet materials or construction formwork for foundations (can be rented);
  • non-removable – prefabricated polystyrene block extruded polystyrene.

The formwork will help to keep the foundation shape, prevent the overconsumption of concrete and the penetration of lumps of soil into it. To ensure the evenness of the surface of the walls of the structure inside the trench can be covered with simple polyethylene.

The further course of work is determined depending on the type of foundation chosen – monolithic or prefabricated.

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Monolithic foundation

During the construction of monolithic strip foundations for the house, the next stage is reinforcement.

Scheme of the finished strip foundation.

The reinforcing structure can be mounted directly in a trench or in blocks on the surface of the earth. The connection of the reinforcement elements is carried out by welding, wire knitting. In the first case, it is necessary to purchase a reinforcing bar, in the marking of which there is a letter “C” – welded. Standardized welded meshes can be used.

Before starting work, all metal elements are cleaned from dirt and rust. Making the foundation of the house using iron scrap as a reinforcement is prohibited.

The thickness of the protective concrete layer for the reinforcement cage must be at least 40 mm on all sides. Usually the metal system consists of 2 vertical rows fastened with horizontal ones: the number is determined by the depth of the foundation. Rebar installation step – from 10 to 25 cm:

  • vertical rods – smooth or ribbed, diameter from 10 mm;
  • transverse reinforcement – smooth or ribbed core, diameter from 10 mm;
  • longitudinal rods – ribbed, diameter from 12 mm

The maximum number of errors in the reinforcement of monolithic foundations for the house is allowed at the junction points and corners. A simple crosshair of the rebar in these areas is not enough! In practice, this is a rupture of the reinforcement, the result is the formation of cracks at the corners, the separation of the monolith.

The correct placement options for the reinforcement bar are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

In a construction site, it is difficult to meet all the requirements for the composition of the concrete mix and the technology for its preparation. It is better to make a foundation using the factory solution.

When self-preparation of concrete is required to observe several rules:

  • use only pure sand and crushed stone fractions of 1.2-3.5 cm and 1-8 cm, respectively;
  • the ratio of cement, sand, rubble – 1/3/5.

Dry components are first mixed, then water is added to them. Adding plasticizers will give concrete the necessary fluidity, which will greatly facilitate the work. Instructions for use supplements manufacturers usually indicate on the package. Use of household chemicals as plasticizers is unacceptable!

Concrete is poured into the trench in horizontal layers with the obligatory compaction of each. If necessary, the foundation can be cast in parts. To ensure a tight grip of the new layer with the already set concrete base, it is required:

  • clean it from debris, dirt;
  • remove the surface layer of the cement jelly with an iron brush or other improvised means;
  • Dust off the surface.

Filling ends at 50-70 mm from the top edge of the formwork. Before full maturity, the concrete is protected from moisture (from rain) and from loss: it is closed with polyethylene, wetted. The minimum ripening period is 28 days.

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Prefabricated house foundation

How to make a foundation for a house of reinforced concrete blocks, bricks, rubble stone? Construction of precast strip foundations – regular masonry. The first row of blocks, brick or rubble is laid on the cement mortar layer. The space between them is also cemented. It is strictly forbidden to put crushed stone, brick battle, etc. under blocks. The thickness of the horizontal and vertical seams should not exceed 2 cm.

To increase the reliability of the structure, it is reinforced (reinforcing mesh with cells 10 × 10 cm). The extreme core of the reinforcement should be at least 3 cm from the edge of the wall block of the foundation. The scheme of reinforcement of corners and abutments, as well as for monolithic structures. The layout of the solution to the valve is carried out at the beacons.

During the pouring of the foundation for the house with concrete or the laying of prefabricated elements, it is necessary to provide openings for communication lines, ventilation, a window or an entrance to the basement.

After reaching a concrete solution of 70% of the design strength (7-10 days), the formwork is dismantled. The basement waterproofing of the house is carried out, it is smeared with bitumen mastic or the roofing material is closed with a membrane cloth.

Backfilling of the basement sinuses is done with medium-sized sand, with water spilling each layer or rubble, gravel.

Sources: http://moifundament.ru/montazh/kak-sdelat-fundament-dlya-doma.html, http://ofundamentah.com/stroit/201-kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom, http: // moidomkarkas.ru/fundament/pod-dom-kak-sdelat.html

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