15 symptoms of cancer that women most often ignore Many of the signs of cancer are similar to the symptoms of other diseases or conditions, so they are often ignored. Pay attention to your body. If you notice.
7 body parts that should not be touched Think of your body as a temple: you can use it, but there are some sacred places that cannot be touched. Studies show.
Never do this in church! If you are not sure about whether you are behaving properly in a church or not, then you are probably not doing the right thing. Here is a list of terrible.
It turns out that sometimes even the loudest glory ends in failure, as is the case with these celebrities.
Contrary to all stereotypes: a girl with a rare genetic disorder conquers the world of fashion This girl’s name is Melanie Gaidos, and she broke into the world of fashion rapidly, shocking, inspiring and destroying stupid stereotypes.
The device of a floor in the frame house
The surface of the foundation must be checked for evenness of the surface. The height difference should not exceed 1 cm per 1 running meter. Otherwise, you must additionally use the cement-sand screed.
In the process of pouring the concrete foundation, when it has not yet hardened, anchoring mounts should be installed for laying down in increments of 2 m.
Prior to the continuation of construction work, you should also take care of proper waterproofing of the foundation. This will ensure its durability, protect it from gradual destruction, protect the ground floor and basements (if any) from fungus, dampness and the multiplication of insects.
It is possible to waterproof the foundation with the help of various versions of roll, coating, sheet and sprayed materials. You can also use concrete with special hydrophobic additives that increase the degree of water repulsion.
Concrete gains full strength by 28 days of hardening in normal conditions. However, laying the floor can begin about a week after pouring, when the foundation already has about 60-70% of the final strength.
If the laying of the floor is made to the device walls and the construction of the ceiling of the next floor, the work must be performed in dry weather, as well as making sure that the foundation is dry from precipitation.
The device of floors of the frame house on piles
In the case of a house on stilts, the floor of the first floor will rise more or less above the ground, leading to significant heat loss through it. In this case, you can not do without a good insulation of the grillage.
If the distance between the grillage and the ground level is small, it is better to build a basement frame around the perimeter of the building, which is insulated and then sheathed with decorative panels, siding, decorative stone, etc. The base can also be built from bricks, foam and cinder blocks. The result will be a small technical room that can be used for household needs.
In the case when the overlap of the first floor is too high, the grillage itself is insulated directly – with coating, roll or sheet insulation outside and inside.
Naturally, warming is performed before laying the floor covering.
The device of a draft floor in the frame house
Between the upper surface of the foundation and sunbeds, a layer of waterproofing (usually roofing material) is laid. Along the perimeter of the foundation, boards with a width equal to the width of the foundation and 50 mm thick are attached to the pre-set anchor bolts. The most popular wood for this is larch, because it is resistant to decay. However, the boards are still impregnated with an antiseptic, which is allowed to dry well.
Poles and floor joists
If the span has a length of more than 3 meters, then in order for the floorboards not to bend much, additional supports should be arranged under them. They are brick columns with a cross section of one brick and a concrete reinforced base measuring 40×40 cm, recessed into the ground by 30-40 cm.
Under these pillars, holes are pulled out somewhat deeper than is necessary for their concrete foundation. The bottom of the dimples is rammed, a sand cushion about 5 cm thick is poured and carefully leveled. The bottom and walls are covered with polyethylene or similar waterproof material, and formwork is installed. Further the reinforcing grid keeps within and concrete is filled in.
Brick laying can be carried out not earlier than in 3 days, when the concrete dries out and gains minimum strength capable of withstanding the load from the bricks.
Binding and logs
Along the perimeter of the foundation, on the end of the butt joint, the stitching boards are laid on the butt joint, on the plane of the future floor they are laid out in 40-50 cm lags on average. The position of the boards on the butt ensures high rigidity and geometric unchangeability of the structure. Between themselves, strapping and logs are connected using galvanized corners. It is acceptable to use nails as well, but such a connection will be much less reliable. If there are no boards at the disposal of a sufficiently large length to cover the entire span at once, then it is permissible to make logs of several fragments. In this case, the joints should be on brick supports.
For the construction of piping and lag wood is also used impregnated with protective compounds, 5 cm thick and 20-25 cm wide.
The floor of the lower floor is a source of constant cooling of the room. No matter how efficient home heating systems are used, they will be useless without proper floor insulation. In addition, condensate will inevitably form in the room, leading to dampness, mold, fungus development, deterioration of wooden floor structures, etc.
The construction market offers a large variety of natural and synthetic insulation of varying degrees of efficiency. When choosing between them, it should be remembered that with high environmental friendliness, natural materials will be much less durable, in addition, there is a high probability that rodents can live in them.
Installation of insulation and flooring
That the heater was where to lie, boards are hemmed to the bottom of the lags. If they fail to fit there in height, you can lag bars and lay boards for insulation on them. If rigid plate heaters are used, then boards can be replaced with a frequent grid. On top of the flooring roll waterproofing is laid. Next fit insulation. It should be remembered that the denser it is laid, the worse it will be heat-insulating and noise-protective properties.
Also, the heater should not reach the height to the top of the lag by a few centimeters to provide floor ventilation. Among the popular materials for insulation are expanded clay, mineral wool, polystyrene foam, foam plastic, penofol, sawdust. If mineral wool is chosen, then during its installation special care should be taken to protect exposed skin and face from small particles of material scattering everywhere.
After laying the insulation you can proceed to the installation of floorboards. The less often logs are laid, the greater the thickness of these boards should be: for example, at a step of 70 cm lag it is recommended to lay at least 4 cm thick, with a more frequent arrangement of the lag every 40 cm is enough for a three-centimeter board.
Flooring boards have grooves and protrusions – spikes. The first floorboard is laid with a spike to the wall with a distance of 3-4 cm from it. The indentation is necessary to compensate for fluctuations in the size of the boards with changes in temperature and humidity.
It is better if the transverse joints of the boards will fall on the logs – this will increase the strength of the floor construction.
The device of a water heat-insulated floor in the frame house
In brick and concrete houses, floor heating is usually arranged in a cement-sand screed. However, the wooden floor just will not sustain such a load. In such cases, the floor heating system is mounted on a dry polystyrene foam screed.
Installation of heated floor
The boards of the flooring are made of expanded polystyrene plates (related to the foam material) with pipe fittings. These plates have an extremely small weight and thickness of only 2-3 cm. They are fastened together with a lock-type joint (like laminate).
On the plates in the grooves fit the contours of the pipes. The length of the circuit should not exceed 100-120 meters, one circuit is designed for heating a room of no more than 40 square meters. It is unacceptable to use one circuit for several rooms, even if they together have an area of less than 40 m 2.
After laying the pipes, it is necessary to carry out their hydraulic test, which will make sure that the system does not leak and heats the room properly. After checking, it is possible to stack aluminum heat distribution plates on top, to cover them with a waterproofing substrate.
At the device of a heat-insulated floor it is useful to think over the layout of the room at once. So under the large-sized furniture in the presence of a heated floor does not make sense, and when placed under the appliances (refrigerator, washing machine, etc.), it will only harm it with additional heating.
On average, a warm floor will cost between one and a half – three thousand per square meter.
Other options for underfloor heating in the frame house
An alternative to a water-heated floor will be electric – cable or with an infrared carbon film.
The cable is laid with a step of 10-20 cm on the floor surface on the heat insulating material. To increase the temperature, the step can be slightly reduced, but not more than 5 cm. The power of the system varies depending on whether the heated floor is the main way of heating the room, or only complements traditional batteries.
The action of film heating systems is based on infrared radiation of carbon paste inside the film. To increase the efficiency of such a floor, a heat-insulating substrate with a foil-coated coating is placed under it, which will reflect the heat back into the room. Fragments of the film are placed jointly at the joint, with 10 cm indents from the walls. If it is necessary to cut a solid piece, this can be done only in the places specially marked on the film with a dotted line.
Heating is also located only under the useful open part of the room. Before laying the floor covering, the performance of the underfloor heating system must also be checked.
Choosing a clean floor covering, you should give preference to materials specifically designed for installation over a warm floor. They will have a high thermal conductivity, which means they will allow the maximum amount of heat to go to the heating room.
Soft flooring such as carpet or linoleum can be put directly on the warm floor, and for hard (laminate, tile, etc.), you will need an additional base, made of plywood sheets or moisture resistant plasterboard.
Any material must be “accustomed” to the microclimate of the room, for this it must lie in it before installation at least several hours.
For a house with a wooden floor construction, it is better to use the lightest flooring materials. These will be linoleum and laminate.
Linoleum is laid on a thin (1-2 mm) polyethylene substrate, or even without it, if it has its soft layer below, with a slight overlap on the walls. Having settled on the floor for a couple of days, it can sit down a little or, on the contrary, expand, so you shouldn’t immediately cut it along the contour of the walls.
Linoleum is fixed on the masking tape or glue. If the coating somewhere blistering, it is bristling, then this place should be straightened and press down with something heavy. To prevent shifts and deformations of the coating, it should be installed indoors without drafts. Do not also immediately arrange the furniture, the glue must be given time to grab.
After linoleum flooring, wooden or plastic plinths are mounted around the perimeter of the room. Aluminum joints at the joints.
Laminate is mounted with a small indentation from the walls, necessary to compensate for the change in the dimensions of the material during temperature fluctuations. The transverse joints of the individual boards of the material should not be on the same line, they should be laid separately.
The device of the floor in the frame house is a labor-intensive, but quite simple thing, accessible even to a novice in the field of construction. Regulatory documents will help to make accurate calculations of the required size and quantity of materials. Compliance with the technology and the use of high-quality materials will provide a design that will last a long time.
What you shouldn’t particularly save on is the waterproofing of the foundation and antiseptic impregnation of all wooden floor elements.
How to make a floor in a frame house at the lowest cost
Erection of the floor is the most important construction stage. The quality of the floor determines how comfortable your home will be, whether it will have a body in it in the winter. The floor in the frame house can be made in several ways. For seasonal living in the country, it can be easier, and for the living space additional warming is often required, and then water heating is mounted under its surface. Consider the basic methods of device of this element of the building.
The device floor in a frame house with their own hands
The main types and their advantages
In a wooden house warm floor can be installed in several ways. The choice depends on the personal preferences of the owner, on the foundation, on financial possibilities. There are 3 main ways to create a floor:
- based on concrete screed
- based on concrete slabs
- based on adjustable systems
Concrete floor screed
The floor on the basis of a concrete screed has several advantages, in addition to low prices:
- It withstands heavy loads.
- Creates a flat surface.
- Is an excellent basis for the device of a heat-insulated floor.
- The big term of operation at which repair is not required.
The use of plates for the home
A floor based on concrete slabs is also called a dry screed. Its main advantages are:
- Ease of installation and construction.
- Quality base for the frame house.
- On the plates it is good to lay down a water-heated floor.
- The life of more than a hundred years.
Adjustable floor systems
If you choose a solution using regulated systems, you will acquire:
- Modern way of arranging the floor.
- Ease of installation.
- We create the necessary floor drops for the visual division of the room into zones.
- It can be mounted both on logs, and on overlappings.
Concrete frame under frame
Before you make a concrete screed, it is necessary to carry out a series of preparatory work. This is a layer under the concrete screed. It should consist of the following layers:
- The very first layer is a coarse-grained soil.
- Next, you need to pour the sand, which must be tamped.
- We cover the sand with large rubble, which we also tamp. The thickness of this layer should be at least 10 cm.
Draft screed on the ground
If the foundation is high, then the sand should be filled and tamped down gradually, each layer falling asleep and tamping separately. Use a rammer or vibro-compactor that will visibly facilitate your work. Moisten the surface of the sand with water, only not much, it will help to seal the sand more strongly. This is a very important stage of laying floors on the ground, so it’s best not to hurry and allow the sand to settle for some time after mechanical compaction. If the sand is compacted quality, the top layer of rubble may not be required.
Tip: Sometimes you can find the following composition of the cake under the floor: soil, rubble, sand. It is also considered correct, and often its use is more justified.
We leave about 10 cm to the upper edge of the foundation. The concrete screed itself will be located here. Do not forget that by the time the device is installed, you should have parts of engineering communications, this applies to sewage, water mains and wires for conducting electricity to the frame house.
Diagram of the floor in the frame house
Now it is time for the screed device. Concrete is supplied from the mixer, its density should be slightly below average. We can say that the concrete should be freely spread over the entire surface, having the consistency of liquid sour cream. We level and distribute it with shovels evenly in each department of the future house.
Tip: underfloor heating can be done under the finishing screed, and you can put them directly on the insulation. To do this, they put a reinforcing mesh on it, and a warm floor pipe is fixed to it with clamps (another mesh can be put on top), and it is poured with a finishing tie.
You can additionally use a metal grid and reinforce the foundation, which will give it additional strength. However, experience suggests that most often this is not necessary.
Flatten Liquid Cement
Since you used more liquid concrete than usual, there is no need to install beacons for leveling concrete. The liquid consistency allows the solution to more evenly distribute itself independently in space and maintain the desired level. The only negative – a longer basement battle. On the second day, the foundation is still liquid and puddles of released water can penetrate across its surface.
Waterproofing the floor with a draft screed
If the moisture evaporates very quickly, for example during dry and hot weather, on the second day, moisten the screed.
At this stage, the floor can be left and continue to put the frame of the frame house. if it has not previously been delivered. If you make a screed on the ground after installing the walls. You can continue to do the floor.
On the rough concrete screed, which we have made, it is necessary to lay the following layers:
- Vapor barrier.
- Finishing screed.
- Warm water floor.
In some companies laying hydro and vapor barrier produce a single layer, which is fraught with accumulation of moisture in the insulation. To understand correctly why it is impossible to do this, you need to know the nature of the vapor barrier and waterproofing. Waterproofing is placed immediately on the concrete, as it must prevent the ingress of moisture from the concrete to the insulation. This is especially true when mineral moisture is used as a heater, which absorbs moisture, crumples and loses all the suites of thermal properties. Therefore, waterproofing protects from moisture in the insulation.
We use a damper film
Do not forget to use a damper film to compensate for the expansion of concrete, if you lay the “warm floor”.
Tip: If you lay a layer of penoizol under the concrete, moisture will not be absorbed into the concrete, thereby increasing the life of the structure. And the floors in such a house will be warmer.
However, the insulation itself is often located in the dew formation zone, and if it comes into contact with cold concrete, even through waterproofing, it can collect condensate on itself. That is why we put a vapor barrier over the insulation, which allows excess moisture to go outside, and does not allow moisture to penetrate inside. These are the qualities that modern vapor barrier membranes have.
Water warm floor in the frame house
Only after laying all the layers, you can proceed to the device bulk self-leveling floor. The finishing floor is also made by pouring the surface with a concrete mix, on which, after drying, pipes can be installed under a water-heated floor. At the same time the warm floor has a pitch of 160-300 mm.
Why it is better not to use a tile tie
For the device of such floor reinforced concrete plates are used. Such a floor requires additional ventilation in the foundation – it is necessary to form airways. It is better to make them through for adequate ventilation under the plates. The minimum height from the ground to the bottom of the slab should be half a meter. Therefore, the foundation should be quite high.
Using slabs when flooring
For low-depth foundations, which are most often erected under the frame houses, this type of screed is not suitable. Moisture coming from the ground will lead to premature destruction of the plates, due to which their operation becomes unsafe.
To lay the unused part of the foundation, it is necessary to lay it with bricks, which leads to additional costs and difficulties in the work.
That is why it is better not to use a dry tile tie for frame houses.
Lag-based wooden construction
Wooden floors for the frame house are considered a universal solution. They support the tradition of wooden construction, breathe, perform some role of ventilation of the frame house. and the whole house is done in one technology.
Wooden floor logs
Wooden floors for the skeleton carcasses are made with the help of logs, which are an ordinary timber from high-quality, better coniferous, wood. All elements of the wooden house should be impregnated with an antiseptic. Lags spread across the light from the windows, then the flooring boards will be located along this direction. A gap of 2-3 cm must be left between the lags and the wall. Lags should touch the sound insulation layer without gaps.
Half meter lag
If you plan to dock two lags, then their length should be at least 2 meters. If the surface on which spread logs is uneven, it is necessary to put a gasket under them. The height of the space between the roughing screed and the floor surface should be at least 10 cm. Lags are attached to the roughing screed using anchors. Lags need to be laid flat, so check the geometry of laying in all directions. To do this, you can use a two-meter rail, which is laid on the logs, checking – if there are no gaps. The rake must lie flat, without free space under it.
Floor scheme in the frame house
After all the logs are laid and checked, it was the turn to make crate. We place the bolts on the lugs (lining), securing them with self-tapping screws. The size of the lathing should correspond to the size of the plywood used. The distance between the bolts must be at least 30 cm.
Crate lag board
We put sheets of plywood on the crate. It is also necessary to pre-soak the antiseptic. Laying should be done so that the sheets do not touch each other. If the sheets have a contact point, then in the future the floors may creak, so leave a space of 2 mm between the sheets. Fasten plywood with screws, the distance between which is about 50 cm.
Warm floor is placed most often on the plastic film, with a thickness of 100 microns.
A further stage of work is the preparation of the surface for finishing. Perform priming or treatment with antiseptic. The last stage is the laying of finishing materials, for example, laminate or tile.
We lay plywood on the crate
If you decide to arrange a warm floor, use special concrete mixes.
Useful video on the topic:
Sources: http://fb.ru/article/262198/ustroystvo-pola-v-karkasnom-dome-obzor-suschestvuyuschih-variantov, http://okarkase.ru/konsturkciya-doma/pol/ustrojstvo-pola-v- karkasnom-dome.html, http://karkasblog.ru/mounting/pol-v-karkasnom-dome.html