Always follow safety guidelines when carrying out. In order not to get confused, it is better to do it yourself, but if you have a partner, then help should be minimal – feed, bring, do not bother. You will need the following tool:
- Figured and flat screwdrivers.
If you carry out repairs in the old apartment and in parallel change the wiring, you need to pull out all the cables so that they do not interfere. For this work useful special sensor detection wiring.
On the wall, put labels on which you will lay the wires. Pay attention to whether the position of the wires. After you have marked the places where electric cables will pass, you can mark sockets, boxes, shields and switches. Please note that the new apartments for the installation of the shield has a niche. And in old houses, the boards are simply attached to the wall.
First of all, you install a special nozzle on the perforator and drill holes for the installation of distribution boxes, switches and sockets. To lay the wires, it is necessary to make grooves in the walls – grooves. They are made using grinders or perforators. Whatever method is chosen, there will be enough dirt and dust. The groove should have a depth of 2 cm. As for the width, it should be enough to lay all the wires. As you understand, wiring the wiring with your own hands is a simple matter, it is more difficult from a physical point of view to do the installation.
Separate story with a ceiling. If you plan to do mounted, then just install all the wires on the ceiling. This is the easiest way. A little harder is to make shallow strobing. And one more – hide in the ceiling. For example, in panel houses, overlaps are used in which there are internal voids. Therefore, enough of two holes to lay the wires. And the last thing is punching holes in the corners of rooms in order to bring the wires to the central panel. After proceeding to the installation of electrical wiring closed (it is necessary to shtabirovat walls) or open ways.
The most important thing in the installation of electrical wiring in homes and apartments is to adhere to all the norms and rules according to GOST, SNiP, PUE. So you can not only achieve maximum efficiency from electrical wiring, but also reliability, durability, and most importantly – safety. And try to use when installing only quality materials. For example, it is desirable to use copper wires – they have a much longer service life (better conductivity, less heat).
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Wiring in the house do it yourself step by step
Electricity is a serious and responsible business. If you are going to do all the work yourself, you need to do everything very carefully and diligently. Proper wiring in a private house is a pledge of security, because according to statistics, 70% of fires occur due to electrical faults. If you are not confident in your abilities, it is better to entrust the work to specialists, only proven.
Wiring in a private house can be done by hand
Electrical wiring in a private house is done before the start of finishing works. The box of the house is expelled, the walls and roof are ready – it’s time to start work. The sequence of actions is as follows:
- The definition of the type of input – single-phase (220 V) or three-phase (380 V).
- Development of the scheme, calculation of the capacity of the planned equipment, submission of documents and the receipt of the project. It must be said here that it is far from always in the technical conditions that the power you declared is determined by you, most likely they will allocate no more than 5 kW.
- The choice of components and components, the purchase of the meter, machines, cables, etc.
- Putting electricians from the pillar into the house. It is carried out by a specialized organization, you need to decide on the type – air or underground, install an input box and a counter in the right place.
- Install the shield, start electricity in the house.
- Cabling inside the house, connecting sockets, switches.
- The device ground loop and its connection.
- Testing the system and getting the act.
- Electricity connection and its operation.
This is only a general plan, in each case there are some nuances and peculiarities, but you need to start with obtaining technical specifications for connecting to the power grid and the project. To do this, you need to decide on the type of input and the planned power consumption. It must be remembered that the preparation of documents can take half a year, so it’s better to submit them even before the start of construction: there are two years to fulfill the technical conditions. During this time, for sure, you will be able to expel the wall, on which you can put the machine and the counter.
How many phases
Single-phase voltage (220 V) or three-phase (380 V) can be supplied to a private house. According to the energy consumption standards for a private house on a single-phase network, the maximum consumption per house can be 10-15 kW, on a three-phase one – 15 kW.
Three-phase input is needed only when it is necessary to connect powerful equipment operating from 380 V mains.
So what’s the difference? In that three-phase network, you can directly turn on powerful electrical appliances – electric or heating boilers, ovens and the like equipment. However, the requirements for the input and wiring of the 380 V network are much tougher: the voltage is higher, there are more chances to get a serious injury. Therefore, if you have a house no more than 100 squares, and you do not think to heat it with electricity, you should spend 220 V.
Making a plan and getting a project
Having decided on the type of input, you can begin to develop a plan for electrifying the house. You take the plan of the house on a scale, and draw where the equipment will stand, estimate where to place the sockets and switches. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account where some large-sized furniture will stand, and where it can be rearranged so as not to set up sockets and switches in these zones.
The plan will need to put all the lighting: chandeliers, wall lamps, floor lamps, lamps. For some of them will need switches, for some – sockets. Then you need to figure out what devices in each room will need to turn on. For example, in the kitchen there is a mass of equipment that works constantly. For her necessarily need sockets. There is also a technique that is turned on periodically. All this is applied to the plan, the optimal location of the points of inclusion is determined. The same approach in each of the rooms.
The result of the design of wiring in a private house. You should also have a similar scheme.
Determination of total power
Having defined approximately what kind of equipment will be in your house, summarize its power. Average power can be taken from the table: technology, probably not yet. And, where there is, take into account the starting load (they are much higher). Add to the amount found about 20% of the stock. The result will be the required power. Her and indicate in the papers filed to obtain permission to connect electricity to the site. If you allocate the declared power, you are very lucky, but you should not hope for it. Most likely you will have to invest in the standard 5 kW – the most common limit of electric power for a private house.
Average values of power devices for calculating the total load on the wiring of a private house with their own hands
Breakdown of consumers into groups
All of these consumers (this is the term professionals) – lamps, spotlights, switches, sockets – are divided into groups. Separate branch divorced electrics on lighting devices. Usually one is enough, but this is not the rule; it may be more convenient or more expedient to make two branches – for each wing of the house or for each floor – depends on the type and configuration of the building. Exactly in a separate group, the lighting of the basement, ancillary rooms, as well as the light outside is highlighted.
Then divided into groups of sockets. How much you can “put” on one wire – depends on the diameter of the wire used, but not very much – three to five, not more. It is better to select a separate power supply line for connecting each powerful device: it is more reliable from the point of view of fire safety, and will contribute to longer operation of the devices.
As a result, you can go to the kitchen three or seven lines – here the equipment is the most powerful and powerful too: for the electric boiler, the electric stove needs separate lines unconditionally. The refrigerator, microwave, electric oven, washing machine is also better to “plant” separately. Not so powerful blender, food processor, etc. can be included in one line.
Designing electrical wiring in a private house: count the number of groups and plan what to connect to
There are usually two or four lines to the rooms: in a modern home and in any room, there is something to be included in the electrical grid. One line will go to the lighting. On the second there will be sockets in which you will need to turn on the computer, a router, a TV set, and the charging of the phone. All of them are not very powerful and can be combined into one group. If you intend to install the air conditioner or turn on the electric heater, you need separate lines.
If a private house is small – a dacha, for example, then there may be two or three groups in general: it is for all lighting fixtures, the second is for the street and the third is for all internal sockets. In general, the number of groups is an individual matter and depends most of all on the size of the house and the amount of electrical equipment in it.
Wiring plan may be quite small if the house is small
By the number of groups received, the number of automata on the switchboard in the house is determined: add two or four to the number of groups added to the development (suddenly you forgot something important, or you need to include something powerful, to divide a group too large or far apart two, etc.). According to the number of groups, a switchboard and the number of machines in it are selected: for each group there is a separate machine. If a private house is large – on several floors, it makes sense to put more powerful machines on each floor, and connect group machines to them.
Where to put the shield
Regulations place the installation of the shield is not standardized. There are only restrictions on the distance from pipelines, it should be at a distance of at least 1 meter. Pipes are taken into account any: plumbing, heating, sewage, internal drains, gas and even gas meters.
There are no restrictions on the premises. Many people put a shield in the boiler room: once the technical room, it is reasonable to collect all communications here. The receiving authorities do not make claims. Sometimes it is more convenient to position the shield near the entrance door. If the protection class meets the requirements, there should be no complaints.
Choice of cables and accessories
Today’s standard wiring diagram of a private house includes two machines. One – input – is set to the counter, usually on the street. His and counter sealed when commissioning. The second UZO machine gun is placed in the house in front of the panel The current of operation (disconnection) of these devices is selected so that the automaton installed in the house is first switched off (its current value is slightly lower). Then at emergency operation you will not need to climb under the roof.
Typical wiring diagram of a private house: groups can be many different
If the calculated load is less than 15 kW, the input automat is set to 25 A. The counter is also selected accordingly. At higher power consumption, the installation of a transformer will be necessary, its parameters and parameters of all equipment will be indicated in the project.
Recently, when connecting a private house to the power grid, they require the installation of a meter and automatic switch on the street. This requirement is not legally confirmed, it is easier for the electric service to control consumption. If you want, you can fight; if not, choose a counter and a machine in a case with high dust and moisture protection – protection class not lower than IP-55. For installation inside the building, the protection should be less – IP-44, respectively, and the price will be lower.
For wiring in a private house is better to use cables, not wires. They have insulation, at least two times better, and therefore the requirements for laying are not so rigid, and it is safer to use them. All internal wiring in a private house should be made with protective grounding. Previously, there were no such requirements, but now many electrical appliances have three-prong plugs and require grounding for safe operation. Because the cable must be three-core.
In electrical cables, conductors are made of copper or aluminum. Although aluminum is cheaper, it is used less frequently: it is tough, it breaks more often, it is harder to work with it. When self-wiring wiring in a private home and lack of experience this can be a problem. Moreover, in wooden houses inside it cannot be used at all.
The definition of the cross section lived
Once you have decided on the material, you can choose the diameter of the cable cores. This is done depending on the planned load on the line on the table.
Calculation of electrical wiring – the choice of cross-section of the cable is carried out on this table
The cross section of the conductor is selected by current or power of all consumers connected to one machine. Here you will once again come in handy a plan for electrification of the house, where you have drawn groups of consumers. You consider the sum of the currents or powers of all the instruments and select the desired cross-section of the lived according to the table
How to use the table? If you decide to lay copper wires, the input voltage is 220 V, then for internal wiring, its left part, the corresponding column, is suitable. Compared will be the found power of all connected to a group of consumers (it is easier to find and calculate). In the part where we are talking about copper wires laid in trays, voids, channels, the column “220 V” find the nearest greater value. On this line, move to the right to the column “Section, square. mm. ” The number indicated here will be the required size of the cores. From conductors of this diameter will need to do electrical wiring from the machine to outlets or switches.
In order not to get confused when counting and laying, the conductors of the same diameter should be marked on the plan with a certain color (write it down so as not to forget what color you designated). After the diameter is determined for all groups of consumers, consider the length of the required cables for each size, a margin of 20-25% is added to the numbers found. You calculated the wiring for your home.
Shell type selection
Specific requirements for the type of sheath are only when laying electricians in wooden houses: it is recommended to use triple (NYM) or double (VVG) cable insulation. In the homes of their less flammable materials, you can use any insulation. The main thing is that it should be intact, without cracks, flows and other damage. If you want to be safe, you can use the conductors with enhanced protection. It makes sense in rooms with high humidity (kitchen, bathroom, pool, bath, etc.).
Choice of sockets and switches
Under some powerful devices sockets are selected by the maximum (starting) current. For the rest of low-power consumers, they are standard. You need to know what they are:
- Outdoor – when the case sticks out of the wall. It is easier to install them: a substrate is attached to the wall, and an outlet on top of it. But few people use such models now, even at summer cottages. The reason is aesthetic: not the most attractive sight.
- Internal. A recess in the wall is made under the electrical part, an installation box is installed and embedded in it. An electrical outlet or switch is inserted inside this box.
It is internal electrical outlets and switches that are most often used today. They are decorated in a different style, painted in different colors. They are selected mainly in the tone of the finish, and if this is not possible, put white.
How to connect loop-through switches (turn on / off the light from two or more places), read here.
Do it yourself
Current construction trends include hidden wiring. It can be laid in grooves specially made in the walls – grooves. After laying and fixing the cables, they are plastered with putty, comparing with the surface of the rest of the wall. If the erected walls are then reveted with sheet materials – plasterboard, gypsum plasterboard, etc. then the grooves are not needed. The cables fit into the gap between the wall and the finish, but in this case only in corrugated sleeves. The sheath with the laid cables is fastened with clamps to the structural elements.
How should the internal wiring be laid? In a private house with the device with your own hands, you must follow all the rules
When laying it is necessary to remember that the internal electrical wiring of a private house is done according to all the rules and recommendations. This is the only way to guarantee security. The basic rules are:
- wiring only vertically and horizontally, no rounded corners or sloping tracks;
- all connections must be made in installation junction boxes;
- horizontal transitions should be at a height of at least 2.5 meters, from them down the cable to the outlet or to the switch.
A detailed plan for the passage of the route, similar to the one in the photo above, must be maintained. It is useful during repair or upgrade wiring. With him you will need to be checked, if somewhere close you need to make a hole or make a hole, hammer a nail. The main task is not to get into the cable.
A large percentage of wiring problems result from poor wire connections. They can be done in several ways:
- Twist. Only homogeneous metals, or not entering into a chemical reaction, can be connected in this way. Twist copper and aluminum can not be categorically. In other cases, the length of the bare conductors must be at least 40 mm. The two wires are interconnected as tightly as possible, the coils are stacked one next to the other. On top of the connection is wrapped with tape and / or shrink-wrapped packaging. If you want the contact to be 100%, and the loss is minimal, do not be too lazy to disappear twist. In general, according to modern standards, this type of wire connection is considered unreliable.
The rules for the installation of electrical wiring in private ohm prohibit twisting in the walls (walling them). If they can be, then only in the installation boxes, where their condition can be checked
Connection via screw terminal box. In the case of heat-resistant plastic, metal terminals are sealed, which are tightened with screws. The conductor, cleared from isolation, is inserted into the socket, fixed with a screw, using a screwdriver. This kind of connection is the most reliable.
Connecting wiring with terminal boxes – it is fast, convenient, reliable, safe
Connecting pads with springs. In these devices, the contact is provided with a spring. A bare conductor is inserted into the socket, which is clamped by a spring.
And still, the most reliable methods of joining are welding and brazing. If there is an opportunity to make the connection so, we can assume that you will not have problems. Anyway with connections.
Installation of electrical wiring in the house with your hands requires careful implementation of all requirements. This is a guarantee of your private security and the security of your private property.
After the wires from the circuit breaker to the outlet point of the socket or switch are laid, they are checked for integrity by a tester – they ring the wires together, checking the integrity of the conductors, and each one to the ground – checking that the insulation is not damaged anywhere. If the cable is not damaged, proceed to the installation of the outlet or switch. Connecting, still check the tester. Then they can start on the appropriate machine. Moreover, it is advisable to sign the machine immediately: it will be easier to navigate.
Having finished electrical wiring throughout the house, having checked everything on their own, they call specialists of the electrical laboratory. They check the condition of conductors and insulation, measure the ground and zero, and by the results give you an act (protocol) of tests. Without it, you will not be given permission for commissioning.
Home »Wiring» In a private house »How to do wiring at home with your own hands: where to start and how to finish
How to do the wiring in the house with your own hands: where to start and how to finish
Recently, capital and country building has become very popular. Many homeowners prefer to create their dream home in their own hands, without resorting to the services of firms.
Without electricity, the life of modern man is unthinkable. Therefore, the electrical supply of the home is the primary task of the homeowner.
People who decide to build a house with their own hands, face the need to electrify it. It also happens that in existing housing the electrical wiring is in very poor condition and must be replaced.
We will consider all the nuances of connecting the dwelling to the electrical network, installing electrical wiring of various types, we will study in detail common errors in order to avoid them in practice. Also in the article there will be instructions on how to put the wiring into operation and recommendations on popular issues.
General electrical connection rules
Regardless of whether you want to connect a new house to the network, or restore electrical supply in the old (for example, with a complete change of wiring), you will have to undergo a lot of bureaucratic procedures. For permission is required:
- Registration of TU (specifications). To do this, you should contact the energy supply of your settlement and the resource-supplying organization managing the power grids of your region). Preliminarily specify which package of documents each organization will require along with the application. You will also need to write a statement in the prescribed form.
Creating a project. It is carried out either by a resource organization or a licensed commercial company.
Subsequently, you will need to coordinate the project with the organizations where you applied for connection at home.
Connection object. Directly installation work is usually carried out by the power supplying organization.
If they did not connect the house, you will need to provide there a copy of the license (permission to perform certain works) of the company that carried out the installation and a full list of the work performed.
Acceptance tests. Elements of an electrical installation need to be tested, which is carried out by a special laboratory. Upon completion of the procedure, the laboratory issues a protocol containing data on the equipment parameters and a conclusion on its suitability for operation.
Verification and sealing. The meter must be verified and sealed with energy sales. A permit is also issued for the further operation of the metering device.
The conclusion of the contract. In conclusion of all the above procedures, it is necessary to submit a package of documents to the resource supplying organization, obtain permission to use its services and enter into an agreement under which the facility will be supplied with electricity and paid for the consumed resource.
Drawing up wiring diagram
It’s best to start wiring installation in a private house with a circuit diagram. This will greatly facilitate the further calculations of consumables and the determination of the installation locations of the power components.
The following items should be included in the wiring diagram:
- Supply from the nearest support to the introductory switchboard
- Electric meter
- Input RCD / Circuit Breaker
- Internal switchboard with consumer groups:
- Rosette band
- Power group (silt-night household appliances (boiler, washing machine, machine tools)
- Hozblok (garage, basement)
Scheme of how to properly conduct and do electrical wiring in a private house with your own hands:
For each of these groups, separate RCDs / automats are installed.
Also, when drawing up the scheme, you need to have a general plan of the house, on which to mark the direction of cable laying and the location of outlets and switches.
Well, if the wiring will have two separate circuits. Then you can turn off one for repair, and from the second you can power up the necessary lighting or soldering equipment.
Based on these data, a schematic diagram is constructed, the total cable length is calculated, the required cross-section in each case, the placement of the power elements, metering devices, and the place where the power cables are inserted.
What is required
Let’s try to figure out how to do it yourself and conduct wiring in a private house. In order to conduct high-quality electrical wiring in the house, complying with all SNIPs and safety standards, the following materials and tools will be required.
Terminal blocks (better to take screwless)
Alabaster building mixture for fixing the cable in the gate
Open conduit box
Skirting, if the wire will be laid under them
Tin mounting strips or plastic fasteners
- Electric meter
- RCD. automatic or difavtomat
- Cable of various sections (power, low-current, lighting)
- Junction boxes
- Shtroborez (Bulgarian with diamond disks)
- Chisel assembly
- Cable shears
- Putty knife
- Sandpaper Grater
The cable is selected based on the total load. On average, it is 0.5-0.9 square millimeter per 1 kW of power. Copper stranded wire is best. It gives in to twisting better , is elastic, steady against short-term loadings.
The amount of cable can be calculated by taking measurements of surfaces in the house and adding 15 cm on each side of the connection elements.
The number of sockets, switches and other elements is calculated when drawing up the concept. It is better to take the box and box from self-extinguishing or non-combustible materials.
Hidden wiring is best carried out under the baseboard. and not in the strobe. Such a position of the cable prevents the drill from getting into it or a nail during repair work, it can be accessed and check or re-switching is possible.
Video, how to make and conduct e-wiring in a private house with your own hands:
Step by step installation instructions
Different types of wiring are recommended in different homes. In the wooden most often done open electrical wiring. and in concrete structures with a multitude of technological voids – hidden. Consider the nuances of installation and wiring in a private house with their own hands.
Often used in country wooden houses. It can be made both in special boxes, under baseboards, and in “retro-style”. from a special cable and on porcelain insulators-mounts, fixing the vertical elements.
To conduct an open electrical wiring in the house, you need:
Make a markup of the route of cable running and fixing the installation elements. Remember that the distance from doors and windows should be at least 10 cm, from the ceiling – at least 20 cm. The mounting height of switches and sockets – about 80 cm, but not more than 150 from the floor.
Fix the cable on the walls with tin stripes or plastic fasteners, excluding sagging.
Fasten junction and installation boxes
Switch the connections according to the scheme: get the wires in the boxes with a margin of 70-100 mm and connect them
Mount in places indicated on the schematic sockets and switches
Connect the wires to them.
- Calculate the length and cross section of each type of cables: power, lighting and low current
- Create electrical schematic diagram
- Use flat wire brands APRV, APR, APPV
Mounted somewhat more complicated. To hide the cables in the walls, you need:
- Mark the walls with a marking cord
- With the help of the grinder cut into the walls grooves 2×2 cm
- Wall chaser cut out the space for the installation of junction boxes, switches and sockets
- Install boxes and podrozetniki. Fix them with asbestos or dowel screws
- Primed grooves
- Put the cable in them. It must first be cut into pieces of the desired length.
- Secure it in the groove with plaster. Mounting step – about 40 cm
- After 20-25 hours, when the plaster dries completely, clean it
- Install switches and sockets
Here are all the simple steps required for handwritten electrification of the home.
Step-by-step video instruction on how to do electrical wiring in a private house with your own hands:
In the now fashionable retro-wiring open type fittings can be very diverse. In addition to switches and sockets, there are used porcelain rollers insulators. Attach each of the accessories should be at a distance:
- Insulator rollers: 10-12 centimeters apart
- Single twisted wire – 1 centimeter from the wall
- Sockets: not lower than 35-40 centimeters from the floor and not lower than 15 cm from the kitchen table
- Switches – from 50 to 150 centimeters from the floor
Do not install switches and sockets on the same level. This rule applies to hidden type wiring.
Safety rules, errors and ways to avoid them.
Sometimes homeowners neglect some nuances or inadvertently make mistakes that could seriously affect fire safety. We will look at the most popular such errors and ways to avoid them.
- Aluminum wires. They are in no case be used. They are fragile and can break off when replacing an outlet or switch. It is better to pay more, but take the copper ones.
- In the hidden wiring is not allowed to use stranded wires. The terminal does not hold such a cable very well, so a constant heating point is created. This can lead to damage to the socket / switch and fire.
- Do not interconnect wires of different metals directly. In order to avoid oxides, do this only through the terminal to eliminate the possible contact of metals.
- Waterproofing. You can not neglect it in rooms with high humidity: bathrooms, kitchens, storerooms, terraces. Its absence can cause electric shock.
- Mark the length of the wire with maximum accuracy. It is strictly forbidden to put strands on straight sections, especially if 10-15 centimeters are missing!
- Groove under the groove. Its depth should be 2-2.5 centimeters. It makes no sense to get a cable deeper, and the smaller groove is difficult to plaster.
- Distribution boxes. They should be located almost under the ceiling. This is done for the convenience of wiring maintenance and to avoid confusion of cables for various purposes.
- Propyl under the wire. They must be strictly vertical or horizontal. Possible cable savings in case of diagonal installation may lead to a drill or nail entering it during repair or finishing work in the house.
- Wire section. It should not be too thin. Thin wires do not withstand increased load and burn out. The optimal cross section for the rosette group is 2-2.5 mm, for the lighting group – 1.3-1.5 mm.
Then, in the video, an experienced specialist will tell you how to do the wiring of electricity in the house yourself, where to start it, and even the person most distant from the electricians can do it with their own hands:
And a little about safety. Work with a home electrician only when traffic is off. Electric shock can have the most dire consequences.
Inspection and Commissioning
After the complete installation of electrical wiring, you need to install all the planned machines, RCD and electrical appliances. After that, boldly invite a specialist from the energy supervision to check and commission the electrical equipment of your home.
Acceptance tests of your facility should end with the issuance of a positive conclusion about the safety of the wiring. the possibility of further use of equipment. With the “Act of admission to connect” you should contact the power supply organization. On this basis, it should connect your object to the support and draw up an agreement on the provision of services.
You should not save on consumables and tools – because in the future, well-done work will be the key to your peace of mind and comfort.
To make electrical wiring in the house on your own is a simple matter, but it requires attentiveness and scrupulousness. If you approach this case responsibly, the wiring will serve you for many years and will be guaranteed safe.
Sources: http://fb.ru/article/246312/elektrika-v-dome-svoimi-rukami-shemyi-elektrika-v-kvartire-i-dome-svoimi-rukami, http://stroychik.ru/elektrika/ elektroprovodka-v-dome-svoimi-rukami, http://elektrik24.net/provodka/v-chastnom-dome/sdelat-svoimi-rukami.html