With a pump that will pump water to the surface, you must decide in advance. The choice of pumping equipment allows to solve the problem with the diameter of the future well and the core pipe. Pumping equipment must pass freely into the pipe. Therefore, between the diameter of the pumping equipment and the inner diameter of the pipe the difference should be at least 5 mm.
The descent and the subsequent lifting of the equipment – this is the process of drilling a well. The bar turns and simultaneously with it hit on top. Working together, it is much easier to do this work. One person turns the gas wrench, the second strikes the bar from above, punching the rock.
Using a winch can significantly simplify the drilling process. Using it, lowering and lifting drilling equipment is noticeably easier. When drilling the bar should be marked. Marks are required for orientation. By marking it can be clearly seen when it is time to pull out the bar and clean the drill. Experts recommend performing this procedure every half meter.
Not everyone knows how to drill wells in the water. To facilitate the task of overcoming different layers of soil, it is recommended to use different types of drills:
- Spiral drill – it is intended for clay soils.
- Boer-chisel – with its help perform the loosening of solid rocks.
- Boer spoon – it is used for sandy soil.
- Gallstone – it helps to raise the soil to the surface.
Sandy soil is easiest to overcome, if you use a drill spoon when drilling. While drilling, water should be added to facilitate this task. If the soil is solid, then in this case it is best to use a drill bit. Such boers come in several forms:
Regardless of the type used, its main purpose is to provide assistance in loosening hard rocks. Mud sands are overcome using the shock method.
If the site is dominated by clay soil, then in this case it is necessary to use a coil, a shelf and a spoonful when drilling. For clay soils, coil and spiral drills are good tools for drilling. They have a design that looks like a spiral.
At the base of the drill size varies from 45 to 85 mm. The blade can have dimensions from 250 to 290 mm. For penetration of pebble layers containing gravel, alternately use the slug and chisel with casing.
In some cases, you have to drill with the mandatory water inlet in the hole. Such a procedure will help make the drilling task easier. Sometimes to create wells on the site using its version of drilling with a pump.
If the rock delivered to the surface of the earth has become wet, then this indicates the proximity of the aquifer. It remains to go a very short distance to go into the aquifer. In this case, drilling will be easy, but it is impossible to stop until the impermeable layer is detected.
Do-it-yourself well construction
When the desired depth is reached, we are engaged in arranging a water source. A filter column is launched into the opening, which consists of the following elements:
In order to strengthen the pipe, the space is sprinkled with rubble of 5 mm fraction. In parallel with the backfill, water is pumped into the pipe with a hermetic upper end. This allows you to flush the annulus and filter. Then zonalization is carried out. When performing this work, use the nozzle, the scraper and centrifugal pump.
The main advantage of such equipment is its ability to pump over liquids of high density. When pumping is complete, a pump is lowered to the depth of the cable. Then the water pipe is connected to it.
When using a well, it is necessary to clean it regularly. If there are jerks at the exit or air congestion has formed, it indicates that cleaning is required. If you miss this point, then the productivity of the well will decrease significantly.
To restore its normal functioning, purging is carried out using an air compressor.
Well at the dacha – a necessary thing. It provides the wearer with water that can be used for drinking, cooking, and household needs. When there is no possibility to connect to a centralized water supply system, the device of an individual well with your own hands is the simplest and most inexpensive solution.
You can drill a hole in the area with the help of specialists. However, if you want to save money, you can do this work on your own. The device of a sandy well or Abyssinian well does not require much effort.
Knowing the technology works, you can make a well that will satisfy the needs of the owner of the suburban area in the water.
Sobolev Yuri Alekseevich
Well in the country – the subtleties of drilling and the main nuances of the device
Well in the country – an extremely useful structure that solves the problem of water supply. Its drilling can be entrusted to professionals, especially if it is planned to use water not only for household needs. However, the device wells can be held personally. This will require: knowledge, a set of materials and tools, including special drills.
Manual Drilling Video
Site selection and necessary tools for drilling
Drilling wells in the country requires a certain number of actions. The first step is to conduct geological exploration, select the appropriate place. Optimally, if the first aquifer is located at a depth of 7 – 10 meters. Independent drilling is advisable to carry out if its depth does not exceed 20 meters.
Any dacha is unthinkable without water
The main signs by which you can determine the proximity of the location of groundwater:
- the presence of a large number of moisture-loving plants in the area allocated for the well;
- natural signs (evening fog, abundant dew, thawed patches on snow cover during the winter months);
- insects (accumulations of mosquitoes, midges) and animals. Experts say cats love to lie on the ground with the potential proximity of groundwater.
The device wells in the country can be entrusted to professionals, but very often the craftsmen resort to manual self-drilling, which is performed using a special tool. To do this, digging the soil, rotating the drill. Such a tool is made from high-quality steel grades and quenched using high temperatures.
The process of manual self-drilling is performed using a special tool made from high-quality steel grades.
There are several types of tools for drilling:
- Drilling spoon, which is used for light clay, sandy soils.
- Drilling spoon with serpentine on the end.
- Coil – this drill is necessary if there is a certain amount of gravel in clay and loamy soil.
- Chisels are used in percussive drilling.
- The slug is necessary for the extraction of rock drilled in a percussive manner, work in loose soils.
Different types of drills are used for different types of soil: light clay and sandy, complex, containing gravel
The process of drilling their own hands
To drill a well in the country, you need to install a pile driver – tripod assembled from thick logs, and also attach a wide board to the ground with a hole for the casing, which is needed to eliminate the possibility of loose soil collapse during drilling. The diameter of this element should allow free movement of the drilling tool. As the casing deepens into the ground, it is lowered, for this purpose it is loaded with ballast and periodically extended using connections on the thread.
The drill, fixed with the help of a rope thrown over the top of the tripod, is directed strictly vertically into the casing and lowered down. Every 0.5 – 0.7 m the instrument must be removed and cleaned of the rock. For dense and stony soils, it is better to use chisel bits and work as a percussion method.
After the drill reaches the soils saturated with water, you should take a note on the pipe, remove the tool and install a filter in its place. The joint is compacted with tow, soaked with red lead. The next stage is the settling of the pipe into the ground. It is necessary to stop when the water level in it rises 30-40 cm above the filter. Completes the process of installing a pump, which can be manual or electric. For safety net in the event of a power outage it is good to have a standard piston version.
Installation for well drilling do it yourself
Choice of drilling depth and drinking water compliance rate
Solving the question of how to make a well in the country, it is necessary to determine the depth to which work should be carried out. For technical needs, irrigation is sufficient to achieve the first aquifer, because the quality of water does not impose high requirements. The presence of nitrates, nitrites, organic and other impurities. Such a composition can be considered partly advantageous, since it introduces certain fertilizers into the ground. Drinking water in this case is brought separately.
If the well-mounted well in the country will be used not only for technical needs, then most likely it will be necessary to drill deeper. The quality of water can be determined by passing a sample for expert evaluation to the sanitary-epidemiological service. To recognize its usable, it is necessary that it meets certain standards:
- transparency no less than 30 cm;
- the presence of nitrates not more than 10 mg / l;
- the presence of E. coli in the amount of less than 10 units per 1 liter of water;
- evaluation of taste and smell should not exceed 3 points.
When installing a well for the purpose of extracting drinking water, it is important to avoid errors that are possible at any stage of drilling. If this task is entrusted to specialists, then they carry out all the necessary work on geological surveys, selection of a suitable site, and direct drilling.
Equipping water supply system in the country from a well is not so difficult. It includes several basic elements: a water intake system, a highway through the yard and, if necessary, water supply inside the house.
Filters and types of water pipes for wells
An important step is to install the filters strictly at the level of the aquifer. Their goal is to prevent the collapse of the walls of the well and the passage of water into the pipe. To this element impose a number of requirements:
- the presence of mechanical strength;
- ensuring the intake of the required amount of water;
- availability of maximum filtration area;
- skipping the minimum amount of sand, fine rock fractions.
To increase the service life and improve filtration, gravel is used. The design of the filter includes: filtering part, pipe and sump. In this case, there are several types of it:
- filter consisting of wire winding;
- mesh filter;
- gravel filter.
Connection diagram of the filter and pump
Well in the country with their own hands is made using different types of pipes. For technical purposes, you can install cheap thin-walled metal, bell-shaped PVC or threaded PVC-U pipes. Polyvinyl chloride products may eventually begin to partially release chlorine compounds. Better water pipes are made of polyethylene, which is not exposed to corrosion and does not wear under the surface of the earth. Some technological reasons impede their use, then steel enameled counterparts are used.
Various well cleaning methods
The question – how to clean a well at a dacha – rises due to the irregular, seasonal use of it for several years. The reason, as a rule, lies in silting up the filter or caking the sand in the pipe during the winter months. This problem is much easier to solve by experts.
There are several popular well resuscitation methods:
- flushing by supplying water to a high-pressure pipe lowered into the well. In the annular space, dirt is understood upward and spills out. The disadvantages of the method are: uncontrolled release of polluted water and a limited supply of clean liquid;
Flushing – through the annulus, dirt rises to the top and splashes out
- Blowing is carried out as well as flushing, with one difference – instead of water, air is blown. Both methods can damage the well filter by using high pressure;
- pumping using a pump capable of handling contaminated water. This method is quite neat and simple. Pumped out heavy water can be drained into containers, while maintaining cleanliness near the well;
- Pouring a solution of food-grade acids is able to reanimate even a non-working well. To do this, the infused composition is left for a certain time in the pipe, and then pumped out. If necessary, repeat the procedure.
In addition to the above, there are a number of cleaning methods, the effectiveness of which is quite high, but the possibility of damage to the pipe or filter is also present. This, for example, a small explosion in the well. It is worth noting that regular and frequent use can save from the problem of silting.
Installing a well in the country solves many problems associated with the use of water for irrigation, showers and other household needs. It is convenient to entrust all the work to professionals, but this approach can “fly into a pretty penny.” In the shallow occurrence of the aquifer, it is worthwhile to drill the well yourself, using simple tools and special tools.
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After reading a lot of useful information on drilling wells and digging wells, I decided to share with you my method of extracting water, more simple and accessible. The first is I will tell you how to make a well, well, in a very simple way.
In practice, I personally did not try this method, but cited an article by my friend who does it for money.
I think it will be interesting to you, and I personally will try this method in the summer. May be useful in the future. The principle is pretty simple. I made an animated picture showing how this should happen. Now we look: for a start you need to buy 2 pumps, two barrels, hoses and pipes. Several 6-meter bars and of course the coupling for the pipe. Use a shovel to dig a hole about 1 meter x per 1 meter and a depth of 60 cm. Pipes should be about 2 meters long (longer). Threads should be cut from both ends of the pipes. Later, when the pipe enters the ground, a second pipe is screwed to it with the help of a sleeve, and so on until you go deeper into the desired depth.
The first pipe has teeth on one side, which can be made grinder, and the second side of the pipe is threaded. First, you wind the adapter onto it with the end part under your hose. I was recommended to slice to make pipes 4-6 meters long. So less gimoroy with twisting adapter. Yes, and the weight of the structure becomes larger, which allows the pipe to more quickly crash into the ground. So in a row. At the beginning of the timber we make a tripod and set over a dug pit. From above to the tripod we attach a roller through which we pass the rope. It is better to fix the tripod by connecting three legs to each other from below and in the middle with the same bar. A little further from the trinog, we impale a wooden or metal pin into the ground. It is better to even make a drum for raising water from a well. Attach one end of the rope to it. The other is tied to the tube.
The pipe with the connected fitting is inserted into the pit. Next, go to the barrels. Next to the pit, one barrel is placed on the ground, the second is on a platform made of scrap materials to the height of the top level of the first barrel. At the bottom of the upper barrel we drill a hole and insert a pipe with a tap there. We fill the top barrel with dry grass, which serves as a kind of filter, put a net obliquely on top. The grid will clean large fractions of soil that has fallen into the water, then this soil will simply fall down. The grass filters small parts of the soil and flows from the upper barrel to the lower one.
In the lower barrel there is a pump that takes the water, feeds it into your pipe under pressure. The water comes out from the bottom of the pipe and washes out the soil. This muddy suspension falls into your pit. The second ground pump pumps out turbid water to the upper barrel. At the same time a small part of the soil gets into the barrel with water. The main part of it begins to grow out of the pit on the eyes. After a while, you remove it with a shovel.
Thus, the pipe itself deepens, the ground as a geyser throws up. You just need to fold the ground and look beyond the level of the washed out soil.
THE MEETING METHOD IS PERSONALLY TESTED BY ME.
I do not use for this casing, drill, headstock, zhelonka and other things. In my opinion, a pipe for such a well is needed 5-10 cm and no more: it completely ensures uninterrupted water supply using a domestic high-performance pump. The method is as simple as two and two. In this case, you do not pay drillers, and this at the beginning of 2007 costs about 30-45 thousand rubles. Digging a well also costs a lot. Without the cost of the rings, you pay about a thousand American tugriks. And if you are not a rich person and the saved bucks – for you a significant amount of the family budget, then this topic is for sure.
First you need to stock up on pipes. I recommend pipes with a diameter of about 5 cm. The length of the pipes should be approximately 1.5 – 2 meters. Take pieces just in case. 8. At the ends of the pipes, cut the threads and buy the sleeves so that you can connect the sleeves with the sleeves. Buy also steel bar. Its length should be 2-2.5 meters. The rod also has a thread at the ends and connecting sleeves of its diameter. You will also need to make a steel cone, the diameter of which is larger than the diameter of the pipe. Weld to it a piece of pipe with slotted longitudinal slits. These slots should be subsequently wrapped with a grid. They are a filter. It is possible to weld strips of hard steel (for example, pieces of a sharpened flat file) to the cone, but only so that upon impact, these strips create a small rotation in the direction of pipe twisting. Next, do the following:
The pipe is plugged (and thus a well is formed) with the help of your composite rod consisting of two pieces of steel bar dia. 20-30 mm. and 2.5 m long, threaded at the ends. This rod is lowered inside the pipe (filter) and abuts against the cone welded to the filter. Together with a partner, setting the filter vertically up the plumb line, take the barbell with our hands, lift it up and lower it abruptly – in short, beat it. At the same time, the impact of the rod is on the cone. When the filter is deepened, the tow soaked in paint is wound onto its threaded part, then the coupling is screwed and the next piece of pipe is 2. 2.5 m long. If the bar is short, build it up and beat again. Scoring to a depth of 3-6 meters, we check whether there is water in the well. We take a bucket of water and pour it into the pipe (at the same time we do not pull out the bar). If water is in the pipe; does not leave, so we did not reach the aquifer. Beat another meter, check again, pouring water. Aquifers go in layers, therefore, in my opinion, it is more rational to punch a well onto the second aquifer or at least to the bottom of the first layer. A layer is thick and up to 10 meters.
It is not always justified to check the aquifer by pouring water into the pipe. In some cases, the water goes into the layer of sand. After all, I can not check to which layer I reached. If the water slowly goes away, then we are theoretically at the beginning of the aquifer; punch another 0.5-1 m, pour water. Now the water should quickly go down the pipe – reached the aquifer. We begin to pull the bar, but it does not go, jammed. Do not worry, take a hammer and hit the bar, but not on top, but on the side from the top. With these blows you create a vibration, and the soil that has fallen through the filter screen into the pipe “dilutes”, the bar is released. Having pulled out a bar, we wind on the well the union with the pump. Can be manual or electric. After pumping two or three buckets of turbid water usually goes clean.
It is advisable to pump a couple of two hundred liter barrels. You and see the amount of water and its quality. Then pour pure water into the pot and boil it, and then taste it – what quality does it have? If it is bad, then after boiling it becomes reddish or muddy, and a precipitate will fall to the bottom. Then you have to deepen the well by another meter. Do not confuse with sediment from lime water if it goes through limestone rock.
It also happens: after a few years, the water in the well disappears (it does not “take” the electric pump, but the manual pump is very tight). This is a sign that the filter is clogged. Many wash wells with various solutions. I argue that this gives a small effect in practice, such washing only poison the aquifer. It is easier and more reliable to pull the filter out of the ground, but it is not always possible. This happens quite rarely with a competent approach to business, and in this case it is necessary to use a truck crane, a jack. In this case, it is necessary to lower the rod into the well and strike the cone a dozen times, then apply the listed mechanisms. After 10–20 cm the ascent is again stopped; you need to hit again, and after 2 hours you pull out the filter. As a rule, it is covered with black oily bloom. Gather water, pour the filter over the top and rub the wire with a metal brush. For better cleaning, pour “sieve”, which will absorb everything from rust. Gradually washed away.
Check and pipe: sometimes rust punches in them a small fistula. Because of this, integrity is violated and the well may not work (due to air leaks or penetration of soil into the fistulas). It is better, of course, to replace the pipes with new ones. And again, you can hammer them in the same place where the well was before.
This method is tested in practice. According to this method, hundreds of wells were continued. All work to this day. Some were slaughtered to a depth of more than 20 meters, in the artesian layers of water.
You can drill a well for water in your own area, despite the seeming grandeur of this process, on your own, i.e. manually. This will require a metal auger, the so-called serpentine, the role of which is quite fit fishing ice ax. This method of drilling a well for water is the cheapest among the possible.
Necessary tools and materials for drilling water wells:
The main tool to be used is the auger with lengthening lugs, for lack of a special one, you can safely use the fishing drill. For the best efficiency of the process, it is recommended to weld reinforced cutters on the clockwise edges of the drill. For this purpose, you can use a couple of files, which you can sharpen with an ordinary grinder. And of course pipes for knees, which diameter is 25 mm.
You will also need a shovel, a cart for the removal of the selected soil, a pump and a hose to “build up” a well, a barrel or a high table on which to get up and sifting of gravel.
Preparation of pipe for lowering into the well
Before lowering the pipe into the well, they must be properly prepared. This is an important point, because the drilled area is very quickly tightened and the pipes must be lowered immediately after the extraction of the drill. Pipes can be purchased at specialized construction stores, thick-walled polyethylene is best suited.
The preparation of the pipe consists in drilling the perforation holes, approximately at a distance of 0.5–1.0 meters from the lower end and for a length of 1.5–2 meters. Holes enough to make a 6-millimeter drill, if done wider, then you will need a filter mesh.
Then prepared guide bars, which are attached to the surface of the pipe. The bars are needed to center the pipe in the well and to provide the same clearance in order to evenly distribute the filtering gravel screenings.
Manual drilling technology using a screw
The place where the well will be equipped, should be pre-aligned. For a start, a guide hole is dug for a drill to a depth of 2 bayonets of a shovel. Having collected the tool, you can proceed directly to the drilling process itself.
At the initial stage, it is quite possible for one person to rotate the drill, but as you go deeper, additional help will be needed. The deeper the drill goes, the harder it will turn, so you can use the water to soften the soil. Making two or three full turns, the drill is pulled out and released from the ground, dropping it into the cart. The sludge is poured away from the work site so that it does not create additional interference.
Thus, they drill until the tool handle descends to the ground. After that, the drill is extended with an additional knee.
After the lengthening of the handle was made, naturally the size of the tool no longer allows working with it while standing on the ground. Just for this case, and need a metal barrel or another pedestal, standing on which you can rotate the drill by the handle. Or for the handle use gas pipe wrenches.
Increasing knees, drilling continues to enter the aquifer. This moment will be very noticeable as the soil being excavated. At this phase, it is possible to tighten the tool, so you should choose the sludge in small portions, otherwise you will not be able to pull out the drill manually. If, nevertheless, the drill was “sucked in”, so that it was no longer possible to pull it out with your hands, you would have to resort to the Archimedean lever using two logs and a barrel or buy a lever chain winch.
To prevent the ingress of high water, its depth should be greater than the first clay layer. Before lowering the pipe, it is necessary several times, like a piston, to raise and lower the drilling tool. This will eliminate possible obstacles in the path of the pipe and greatly facilitate its descent. After the pipe is completely lowered, it is necessary to fill the gap by sifting gravel — this is an ordinary sand-gravel mixture screened from sand. Without sand, as sand can penetrate inside the well.
In order to quickly pump the well better to use a powerful centrifugal pump. Such a pump is able to cope with a very dense environment. Although you can do with a conventional household pump. In order for the vibrating pump to work more efficiently, it should be periodically lifted and the water shaken up with the collected knees to lift heavy particles from the bottom, after which the pump with the lower water intake will continue to pump again, otherwise the pump will silt up with the upper water intake.
When the well is being swayed, gravel filtering screenings will shrink, therefore it should be periodically added.
The process of rocking the well is quite time consuming, so you should worry about the drainage channels or try to reach the drainage ditch with a hose.
After the well is fully swung, it should be equipped with a pump for everyday use.
The advantages and disadvantages of manual water well drilling
The advantage of manual drilling of wells, in addition to the cheapness already mentioned above, is the fact that there is no need to check in on a site of cumbersome machinery, therefore, your green spaces or landscape design will not be affected.
Having a relatively shallow depth, such wells pump much faster and are less susceptible to indentation.
In the absence of electricity, water can be obtained with a manual suction pump.
The main drawback of hand drilling is limited depth. The disadvantages include criticality to the density of the soil and the shortage of specialists who are ready to undertake repairs if necessary, although it has a lower probability of occurrence than in deep engine wells.
Video how to drill a well with your own hands:
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