How to make a tape foundation

It should take at least three hours to grab the concrete, after which its surface is filled with shavings, sawdust or sackcloth closes, and richly moistened with formwork. So the concrete should be watered with an interval of 3-4 hours for two to three days in hot weather. Then you need moisture for seven days, 2-3 times a day. The number of irrigations can be reduced if the wet concrete is covered with a polyethylene film.

Formwork is used for casting one of two options:

  • solid (constant) cross section;
  • with step expansion to a bottom.

For formwork most often used:

  • small or large shields;
  • contractions;
  • fittings and parts for fasteners.

If the method of constant cross-section is used, the beacons are first installed, which serve to determine the level at the bottom of the foundation and in the plan. Then the markers are painted on the beacons.

Formwork installation sequence

  How to make a tape foundation

To facilitate and speed up the work of pouring the foundation, you can order a machine with a mixer, which is ready for pouring concrete.

Consider the process of installing a formwork with your own hands for strip footing with a rectangular section. On both sides of the foundation, at a distance of 3 or 4 meters, lighthouse shields are installed. To fix and give stability to the lighthouse shields should use struts and struts. To unite the lighthouse shields should use contractions. Shields and fights fasten tension hooks.

To ensure the necessary stability of the shields for the fights, you should install inventory struts that have a screw jack. With the help of screw jacks, the lighthouse shields can be easily aligned vertically. In order to ensure the preservation of the dimensions between the lighthouse shields, they should be connected with their own hands with spacers. Wedge clamps are used to secure the spacers. Other shields in the formwork are connected between the contractions and the lighthouse shields using tension hooks or spring clips are used.

For more convenient concreting of the formwork with their own hands, it is equipped with mounted ladders and work sites. If the length is very large, then it should be divided into separate grippers. Disassembly of formwork produced in reverse order.

To build your own formwork step section, you can apply one of two technological schemes.

When using the first scheme, the formwork of the lowest level is collected and concreted. After the concrete has set, a second formwork is collected in the first stage and it is also poured with concrete. So continue to complete the fill.

There is another method for installing formwork for a stepped strip footing. In this case, formwork is placed immediately flush with the height of the foundation.

First, the shields of the first, lowest, stage are installed. Shields are combined with the help of contractions and fasteners. Then ordinary shields are set up, which are attached to the contractions. Fixing the position of the bottom of the shields is made using inventory or wooden wedges and inserts.

Beams are placed on the upper belt of the first row of shields, which should be fixed with overlays. The beams are applied risks that indicate the position of the planes of the boards of the second tier. Longitudinal contractions are set at risk. For fights attach shields of the next level.

Shields are united by upper contractions, and between themselves the shields are combined with keys and spring clips. To ensure the specified size, temporary struts and tie bars are installed at a distance of 3 to 4 meters. To ensure the desired stability of the second level shields should be fastened with struts with screw jacks.

Waterproofing construction

Seizure of concrete occurs 3 hours after pouring, after which it must be watered with water every 3-4 hours and covered with a film to retain moisture.

Waterproofing, in its essence, is a whole series of actions aimed at eliminating the penetration of water into the premises, as well as ensuring the preservation of the walls, foundation and structure as a whole. Therefore, waterproofing is so important and its correct implementation.

The depth of the bookmark do-it-yourself directly depends on the severity of the building and the ground. At the same time, the heavier the design, the further the strip foundation goes deeper into the ground. Sometimes the depth of such foundations can be about 3 meters. Quite often, the strip foundation is a basement wall.

In such cases, it is very difficult to ensure that water does not penetrate under the house. The arrangement of internal drainage systems, which is one of the actions that additionally protect the foundations, helps in such situations. But the device of internal drainage systems can lead to the fact that the house simply proyadyad, and the foundation and walls will give cracks. The tape monolithic, in comparison with the national team, is slightly less flushed, but it is also not without certain flaws.

The full setting of the foundation is more dependent on climatic conditions, on average, one week is enough.

Waterproofing can be properly arranged with his own hands by several methods:

  1. Waterproofing plating fixed formwork.
  2. Penetrating waterproofing by impregnation with polymeric resins.
  3. Gluing waterproofing using rolled waterproofing materials.

Often used to protect the strip foundation of the house, the so-called two-level waterproofing. It lies in the fact that those layers that are in the ground, protect against water penetration by plating with roofing material, and the ground parts are impregnated with special mineral compounds.

Permanent formwork is a rather expensive method of waterproofing. But his long life allows you to talk about the need to use this method. And together with the internal drainage system such waterproofing will be capital and reliable.

Independent installation

It is not so difficult to build a strip foundation with your own hands. First of all, you should familiarize yourself with certain technological features of the arrangement, then – the necessary calculations are performed correctly, after that, anyone can save well during the construction phase of the foundation.

When the site is selected and the design of the building is ready, the soils are studied and the type of foundation is selected, you can properly equip the strip foundation.

Works aimed at arranging strip foundations. it is customary to begin with the process of marking its base. As a rule, a construction is made with their own hands, the width of which does not exceed 40 cm – this is quite enough for a low-rise building.

Construction of the tape foundation with their own hands

  • How to make a tape foundation for the house with your own hands
    • Principles of creating a strip foundation
    • How to make an analysis of the soil under the tape foundation with your own hands
  • Concrete preparation under the strip foundation
  • How to make a reinforcement strip foundation
  • Materials and tools for the device of the reinforcing belt for the strip foundation of the house
  • Recommendations for the construction of wooden formwork under the strip foundation in order to create armored belt
  • Features of pouring formwork and fittings under the strip foundation of the house and its waterproofing with their own hands

How to make a tape foundation for the house with your own hands

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Principles of creating a strip foundation

Ribbon foundation is the most common supporting structure, which has not only lower cost and simplicity of its manufacture, but also great reliability.

The scheme of filling the strip foundation.

Make a reinforced base around the perimeter of the construction of the house. It is necessary to distribute the load on the walls of the house on the ground.

It is possible in one month to make a tape foundation with your own hands for a home with certain knowledge and construction skills. To make a strip foundation is time consuming, since the whole process is connected with the rules, non-observance of which can lead to negative results.

The depth of the foundation is chosen taking into account the climatic conditions of the region and the height of the building. An important role is played by the choice of material for the construction of the house. The depth of the shallow strip foundation must be 400 mm. The base of the trench should be constructed after it has been created. The base is made with the most even surface, which is achieved with the help of a water level. The soil in the trench must be thoroughly tamped.

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How to make an analysis of the soil under the tape foundation with your own hands

Before the start of construction work, an analysis should be made of the soil area for building a house, which is necessary for any kind of buildings. You can use the information received from specialized organizations, or do a soil analysis yourself. In general, soil analysis is carried out as follows:

Foundation installation diagram.

  1. At the beginning, it is necessary to develop a well, since a water source will be needed for the quality performance of all construction work. While drilling a well, soil selection is performed at a different level of its depth.
  2. Evaluation of the soil is carried out with maximum accuracy, providing the well depth is 50-70 cm more than the level of frost penetration.
  3. Then, the depth of the soil and bulk layers is measured, which are not suitable, since they have a small bearing capacity. Therefore, they will not fit even the device shallow-tape foundations.
  4. For a normal strip foundation, it is necessary to remove all unnecessary layers of soil in advance and leave layers such as sandy loam, sand, clay and loam, which are hidden by the upper layers of soil, for the base.
  5. The soil analysis will determine the characteristics for the calculated footing area.
  6. When analyzing, it is necessary to determine the degree of heaving of the soil, since the soil that freezes during cold weather can increase in its volume and swell. This phenomenon is characteristic of all finely porous soils. Puffy soils are fine-grained and silty sands. By conditionally-heaving are clay types of soils. The latter are able to change their characteristics as a result of water saturation.
  7. The tape foundation is arranged either with regard to the uniform swelling of the soil over the area of ​​the entire foundation of the building, or it is chosen as a support for non-loosening soil layers. In the first case, the foundation and the building will rise evenly in winter, and in the summer, when the ground freezes, it will fall. In the second case, the support will be large- and medium-porous soils and layers lying below the level of freezing.
  8. Sometimes the soil, which is swelling, is replaced by pre-moistened layers of sand or gravel, and then compacted tightly.
  9. Sandy, detrital and rocky soil is most suitable for the strip footing device.
  10. Particular attention in the analysis of soil is paid to the location of groundwater in it. If their level of location is high, then a drainage system should be created, which is necessary for the outflow of water.

Diagram of options for a strip foundation for the house.

After analyzing the soil with their own hands, they mark the foundation of the strip footing. Its arrangement must begin with the layout of the base. If the construction of a low-rise building is planned, the foundation should be 400 mm wide. The marking is carried out using a theodolite, that is, a special device, it is possible to use the available tools. First, the perimeter of the foundation is drawn, and then pegs or fittings are hammered along its corners. After that, the pegs are pulled on a string or a fishing line. In the same way, an internal marking is carried out taking into account the necessary indentation by a distance equal to the width of the foundation.

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Concrete preparation under the strip foundation

When laying the gravel or rubble with their own hands, they make concrete preparation with the use of a lean type of concrete, the layer of which should be from 5 to 10 cm. Concrete can gain strength up to 50% depending on weather conditions. After 5-7 days after pouring concrete, during which he will gain strength, you can make a strip foundation. Concrete preparation using lean concrete can be made using a profiled membrane. It must be borne in mind that in the process of concrete preparation use low-quality lean concrete B7, which allows you to get a flat surface, and then carry out the waterproofing of the foundation. If the groundwater level is low, then apply only anti-capillary horizontal waterproofing of the foundation with your own hands. In this case, you can not perform work on concrete preparation, and use only a profiled membrane.

The scheme of the tape foundation.

The use of a profiled membrane makes it possible to make the conditions of hardening of the concrete acceptable, since the prepared cement milk will not go into the ground. The membrane has a studded surface that allows you to give it strength and rigidity for direct placement of reinforcing cage on its surface.

The membrane should have a surface area that exceeds the flat surface by 25%, and the surface with protrusions – by 56%, which provides minimal pressure on the base layers under the membrane. Its surface is studded to create additional friction at the base, which inhibits the formation of cracks in the slab. The use of a membrane allows to reduce the time of laying concrete preparation and its set of strength.

According to the calculations, as a result of using the membrane, not only the construction time is reduced, but also the cost of various materials for it, that is, reinforcement and concrete, and concrete will not need time to build strength. The whole technological process is simple and easy to do by hand.

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How to make a reinforcement strip foundation

Foundation scheme for the fence.

The next stage of construction is the calculation and subsequent proper installation of fittings with your own hands. The principle of its implementation is reduced to the fact that they perform transverse and longitudinal reinforcement using reinforcing bars. The reinforcement in the process of reinforcement must be connected. To do this, use the knitting wire. The reinforcement rods must be treated with a corrosion-resistant coating so that the reinforcement cage can be created by welding. But the welding method is not used as often as knitting, as it can cause rebar corrosion.

The correct way is to create a more complex reinforcement cage, and not just horizontal reinforcement. The whole process will depend on the load on the future strip foundation, which is determined by the weight of the walls of the building, its floors, etc. In order to create the layout of the reinforcement correctly, careful calculation is needed.

The process of creating a solid country house is inextricably linked with the implementation of work on the creation of armored belt for strip foundations. The functions that this design performs:

  • prevention of deformations of the structure of the premises associated with the seasonal movement of the ground;
  • imparting special strength to the structure;
  • uniform distribution of the load on the walls around the perimeter of the structure;
  • obstacle point loads on floor beams.

The scheme of the tape foundation for the fence.

Reinforced belt, arranged with the use of blocks, is necessary in order to support the floor slabs on it. In this case, take blocks with a U-shaped, which are installed using masonry mortar. The length of the bearing plates comply with at least 12 cm.

Install the plate with the subsequent device reinforcing cage. It is possible to make a binding of the construction of reinforcing bars using metal wire and special hooks with your own hands. After laying the reinforcement cage between the plates, installed along the entire perimeter of the building on both sides of the building blocks, they make a one-time pouring of M300 concrete.

Be sure to observe the continuity of the pouring process, since the future design of the armored belt must keep the blocks used for construction from the occurrence of cracks. Blocks can be aerated, foam concrete, expanded clay, and others.

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Materials and tools for the device of the reinforcing belt for the strip foundation of the house

Before starting work, you should prepare all the necessary tools and materials. It should be:

The scheme of reinforcement of the sole of the strip foundation.

  • concrete mixer;
  • gear trowel;
  • shaking machine;
  • reinforcing rods (d = 10-20 mm);
  • masonry mortar;
  • floor slabs;
  • boards for formwork;
  • stone or rubble;
  • fasteners;
  • M300 concrete;
  • insulation.

In the process of arranging the armored belt, it should be remembered that its width should be equal to the width of the blocks used for walling. Height preferably take 300 mm.

First you need to make a removable wooden formwork. Boards for it must have a thickness of 20 mm or more. Laying reinforcement cage do with the use of special fasteners, as the frame should not be located directly on the bottom of the formwork. Concrete mix for pouring can be prepared using a concrete mixer or manually.

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Recommendations for the construction of wooden formwork under the strip foundation in order to create armored belt

In order to properly make a formwork with your own hands, you should:

Diagram of the subsoil strip foundation.

  • use knitting wire, but not welding, which can damage the integrity of reinforcing rods, exposing them to corrosion;
  • if welding is used at the intersection points and corners of the contour, then the framework should be treated with an anti-corrosion compound before pouring it with concrete;
  • the rods must be tied in the finished formwork, as the frame will be heavy;
  • the frame in the section can resemble a triangle or a rectangle, since in its manufacture it is possible to use 3 or 4 rods for one section;
  • frame and formwork are installed using a level;
  • through each m to the frame fix the pins with a knitting wire before pouring concrete for the greatest reliability.

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Features of pouring formwork and fittings under the strip foundation of the house and its waterproofing with their own hands

Diagram of examples of strip foundations from blocks.

In order to make the right choice of concrete grade and its composition for high-quality casting of the reinforcement cage in the formwork, it is necessary to calculate all the loads. The choice of composition and brand will be determined by weather conditions. The most favorable conditions require the use of concrete grade M200 or higher. The use of brand concrete M300-400 is the most suitable option for cold weather. At the same time, special additives with frost resistance and plasticization properties are introduced into the concrete mix. They should speed up the process of hardening the concrete solution in the formwork after it is cast. It is not necessary to do the calculation of the required number of additives used, since all the information will be indicated on the container for the concrete mix. The proportion of additives can be 1-2%. For example, the construction of strip foundations of concrete for baths is recommended using lightweight concrete. In addition, fiberglass reinforcement is used.

When the formwork and frame are ready, proceed to pouring the concrete mix. It can be purchased in advance by calculating the amount of concrete by multiplying the width by the length and height of the strip foundation. You can cook it yourself, using parts of cement, sand and rubble in the ratio of 1: 3: 5. After dilution with water of all components, the solution is stirred.

If the formwork is not poured at one time, you should consider laying wooden lintels, which will need to be removed when pouring the next batch of concrete. In dry weather, the formwork is removed on the fifth day.

After the concrete solution has been poured, all voids are necessarily removed, using a piece of rebar. They should poke the concrete fill.

To cut off the cold bridge, a warming of the reinforced belt should be carried out. The formed cracks after displacement of the formwork are filled with insulating material. Flooded concrete covered with plastic wrap, which will not allow moisture to evaporate, so the fill will quickly grab. To avoid the formation of voids in the pouring, use a vibrating machine.

Innokentiy Andreevich Vlasov

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

October 20, 2015

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

A few additions: 1. If you need to perform high-quality waterproofing liquid rubber, it is desirable to apply geotextiles over the entire surface. Consumption.

September 23, 2015

How and what to make the top border of the foundation lining (natural stone. Plitnyak)?

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Ribbon Foundation for the house do it yourself

  • Geodetic works
  • Work with soil under the strip foundation
    • Trench depth under the house
    • Digging a trench by hand or with an excavator?
    • Sand leveling
    • Concrete preparation under the strip foundation
  • Waterproofing strip foundation
    • We start laying concrete
  • Frame reinforcement
  • Installation of foundation formwork
  • Concreting strip foundations

Many future owners of cottages are concerned about such questions: how to make a ribbon foundation with your own hands? How not to make mistakes and do everything properly? what you need to pay attention to the house pleased with warmth and reliability? This article will try to answer all this.

The depth of the basement trench depends on the type of building, its weight, dimensions, etc.

For the construction of reliable support for the house does not need to invest a lot of money, it is much more important to have the necessary knowledge.

Then you will be able independently and at the same time to make a ribbon foundation for the house properly and quickly. This article is not a complete step-by-step instruction, but it will help you understand the sequence of steps, some technical nuances of the construction process and warn you about possible problems.

Geodetic works

Scheme of the device of the tape monolithic basement.

In order to get a reliable ribbon foundation for the house, it is necessary to carry out a number of preliminary activities for the preparation of the territory. These actions are called geodetic breakdown. Within the framework of this procedure it is necessary to take a number of steps in a certain order.

The first step is preparatory. First you need to clear the area from unnecessary vegetation and other natural formations (trees, stumps, stones, etc.). In addition to natural objects, the site may also include artifacts of human activity, for example, old buildings and their ruins, various engineering objects (sewage, power lines, trenches, roads, etc.). It doesn’t matter what prevents further construction: natural or man-made obstacles, everything should be removed and cleaned.

But it is necessary to remember that for the demolition of buildings and some other objects, permission of special municipal bodies is necessary (technical inspection). Of course, this activity implies the existence of a plan for the future structure, and the project of the strip foundation and the house as a whole. You can make them both with the help of specialists and independently, if you feel in yourself enough knowledge and confidence.

The second step is to find the main axes. In geodesy, the main and main axes are called the lines along which the constructed structures are oriented. The basis of any plan are two perpendicularly intersecting main lines. Relying on them, the builder orients all the main points of the future strip foundation and other objects. Correctly correlate the plan of the house with such lines means to take the first step towards building your dream home. Accurate orientation of buildings with respect to the street, boundaries of the site, lines of communications, cardinal points, etc. will make the future cottage comfortable for living and exploitation.

The layout of the plot under the foundation.

The third step of geodetic works is to calculate the angles correctly. It is a continuation of the previous stage and consists in determining the corners of the house on the site, which must be marked with pegs and very carefully calculate all the necessary distances. To make an accurate calculation is extremely important in order to avoid the building skewing and reducing its performance.

The end of geodetic works. At the last stage, after accurate calculation of distances, it is necessary to make an ideal angle. To do this, use not only measuring devices, but also pegs with building cords. For the correct calculation, find out the aspect ratio. Whatever the experience of the builder, even they do not aspire to calculate the correct position of each peg the first time, so do not drive them after the first calculations, but only slightly squeeze it into the ground. Doing the calculation of all the geodetic parameters is a rather troublesome thing that requires care and patience.

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Work with soil under the strip foundation

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Trench depth under the house

The depth of the trench under the strip foundation of a house depends on many factors. The first one is the type of building, its dimensions and massiveness. For a frame-panel house there is no need to make a deep trench; for this type of buildings, shallow-depth foundations are prepared. If the walls of the house are brick, then the depth must be made about 20 centimeters lower. The tendency is quite clear: the more massive the building, the safer the foundation must be, which means it is necessary to make a deeper pit.

Scheme of types of strip foundations.

The second factor affecting the depth of the trench is climate. In the northern latitudes, in winter, the ground freezes through quite deeply, so in this case, the strip foundation must be deepened below the freezing point of the soil. In particular, if the house is planned to make a basement or other room, then the foundation should be at 20-25 inches below the level of freezing.

It is necessary to take into account such factors as the composition of the soil and the mass of overlaps. In addition, the trench under the foundation for the internal walls of the house can be designed a little less, they have enough depth of 40-50 centimeters.

It is also worth remembering that the strip foundation is beneficial for its low cost, but is intended primarily for lightweight structures and reliable soils. If you are not sure of the soil or build a house of heavy materials, then choose a foundation of a different type.

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Digging a trench by hand or with an excavator?

The main work on the soil is performed with an excavator, especially if the soil has a high plasticity due to the high content of clay and moisture. Such work should be entrusted to a professional excavator, it is better not to try on your own. The excavation of the pit is best done in the dry season (in summer or early autumn), when the soil contains a minimum amount of moisture. A wet soil requires more attention and effort to remove and transport. In addition, it is worth remembering that in winter, the cost of excavator services is twice as much. Therefore, it is best to start construction work in the spring.

The scheme of the device under the foundation.

Before you start digging a pit for a strip foundation, it is necessary to assess the situation on the site, whether there are any other buildings nearby or their remnants. If such objects are present, then the trench must be made 20-25 percent deeper than the base of the foundation of these buildings. It is necessary to deepen the pit by 5%, if it is built on the site of the old. This is done in order to reduce the load on the foundation and prevent its premature destruction.

Trench under the strip foundation can be dug out and manually. In this case, the cost of work will be lower, but the quality of work and speed will also be lower. It is better to use manual labor in the development of soil only in some cases when delicate and accurate work is required, for certain types of communication, for loose soils, etc.

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Sand leveling

If you need to level the territory, if the soil in your area is problematic, heterogeneous and unpredictable, then we advise you to make a protective sand pad. For a strip foundation, a sand cushion for formwork should be about 40-50 cm in height. But this figure should be reached only after careful tamping. The thicker the cushion, the less deformation can be expected from the foundation under the influence of soil heaving. But the thickness of the pillow can vary considerably depending on the climate. For example, in the same England, a height of 20 cm is the norm for a sand cushion.

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Concrete preparation under the strip foundation

Sand pillow device diagram.

Concrete preparation is a layer of “lean” concrete or rubble, lined under the bulk of the foundation. It is designed to protect the mass of the foundation from the loss of concrete milk, helps to quickly achieve the necessary conditions for the foundation of the house, helps to more evenly distribute the load on the ground and facilitates the creation of a reinforcement base for the strip foundation.

For concrete preparation cement M300 or M400 is used.

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Waterproofing strip foundation

To waterproof the concrete strip foundation is a very complex and demanding process. Its essence is to maximize the protection of the base from moisture penetration; various materials are used for this. Waterproofing is divided into two types: horizontal and vertical. The first method is associated with the use of rolled materials (primarily ruberoid), and the second is aimed at isolating the foundation from the effects of external moisture and is divided into anti-pressure and non-pressure.

Anti-pressure waterproofing is performed with paints, plaster and various lubricant mixtures, which are applied to the insulated surface. In the role of isolation are often made of lime powder and bitumen mastic, which are applied to the entire surface of the foundation, and the top is covered with a sheet of roofing material.

Non-pressure waterproofing is significantly different in appearance. To do this, along the entire perimeter of the foundation, a trench is dug 20-30 cm deep. This trench is then filled with plastic clay, covered with sand, and all this is compacted. After that, the surface is cemented and a rain gutter is installed.

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We start laying concrete

Concrete mortar preparation scheme.

Before you start laying concrete, you need to make a protective tie. This is a thin layer of concrete, which covers the trench, later will be installed reinforcing “skeleton”. This step will significantly increase the service life of the strip foundation and protect it from deformation. The screed solution is made from M200 or M300 brand concrete, mixing it with sand in a 1: 4 ratio.

The next step is to fill the foundation with concrete. Before it is necessary to lay a metal grid. The consistency of the concrete must be thick, and after pouring, the concrete is poured over with water, ensuring maximum impregnation of the whole structure. After that, the concrete should be allowed to dry for about two days, then cover with plastic wrap and leave alone for a month.

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Frame reinforcement

It is better to reinforce with the help of specialists, but for a beginner to do it quite well. To do this, you need to purchase three types of reinforcement: the thickest longitudinal reinforcement (diameter 12 mm), transverse (10 mm) and vertical reinforcement (10 mm). To begin with, vertical posts are installed, to which other types of fixtures are fastened, fastened together with the help of knitting wire.

The scheme of reinforcement strip foundation.

The rods can also be welded together, which will even better affect the working qualities of the structure. The assembled structure is put on the formwork and should externally resemble armor, which will take on a solid load. In Figure 1 you can see how it should look.

One of the crucial points of reinforcement is a bunch of corners. It is the corners that are the first to suffer from deformation, and you need to carefully consider this element of the formwork. Bend the reinforcement and stick it into the wall of the corner, and the other end into the opposite wall.

Pre-measure the distance carefully. Both ends must enter the walls of the strip foundation. Carefully check each element and be patient, as this step in building the foundation is very important.

The higher the expected load on the strip foundation, the less should be the step in reinforcement (the distance between the bars of the reinforcement). It can range from 10 to 25 millimeters. As a result of your activity, a single crate should be formed, durable and neat.

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Installation of foundation formwork

If you did everything correctly, then proceed to the installation of formwork for strip foundation. Here a lot depends on the size of the building. If you want to build a small and light house, then you can get by with a simple formwork installed at once in a trench. If the house is large, then the installation of formwork begin gradually, starting from the bottom of the trench. It is also necessary to establish stiffness angles and additionally strengthen all sides in order to avoid further deformation. The second option is a wall formwork necessary for concreting the base and walls of the basement.

After preparing the trench, metal pegs are driven into its bottom at such a distance from the walls so that it is possible to insert formwork boards between them, plus a gap of 10-12 mm. The external part of the formwork is strengthened with the help of various supports that will stop the deformation of the formwork under the pressure of the poured concrete. There are three types of supports: horizontal, vertical and diagonal. If the width of the foundation exceeds half a meter, then it is necessary to use the entire range of supports.

There is a fixed form of formwork. It is not removed and after drying the concrete remains a constructive part of the building. Fixed formwork has a number of very important advantages over conventional:

The scheme of the device formwork for strip foundation.

  1. First of all, it greatly facilitates installation.
  2. Significantly accelerates the work of mounting formwork.
  3. It is an additional protection against noise and heat loss.
  4. Resistance to temperature daily and annual differences increases.
  5. Does not rot and practically does not decompose (if made of expanded polystyrene).
  6. Provides excellent waterproofing.
  7. The service life is huge (about 80 years).
  8. Provide convenient installation of communications.
  9. Economical.

The sequence of installation of permanent formwork:

  1. Lay out the ruberoid or another roll waterproofing material.
  2. Along the perimeter of the future foundation, insert the reinforcement.
  3. Attach the formwork blocks to the reinforcement.
  4. Insert the horizontal bars of the reinforcement through the holes.
  5. After the third layer can be filled with concrete.
  6. Carry out tamping (either manually or using special equipment).

Using wood as a formwork material has both positive and negative points. Boards are easy, and they can be used quite widely, quickly and without special equipment. The disadvantages are their instability to deformation and hygroscopicity. Partially, these problems can be solved by strengthening the stiffness angles of the structure and its additional fasteners.

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Concreting strip foundations

Foundation can be poured in two ways: manual and mechanized. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. The choice is usually made depending on the type of construction objects.

Concreting the foundation with your own hands is a fairly simple and cheap way to complete this phase of construction. The first step is to purchase ready-mixed concrete.

Welding scheme of reinforced joints.

At one time, usually no more than 5-8 cubic meters are delivered. It will take a team of at least five workers. It is impossible to pour the foundation at once, it needs to be poured in several places, since, whatever the concrete liquid, it will not spill on its own throughout the formwork.

Several points are needed through which the concrete solution will be poured, although it is possible to use a long gutter, with which you can evenly distribute the concrete, without moving. The gutter can be either ready-made or hand-made from wood and lined with polyethylene or other insulating material.

Mechanized pouring of concrete is to use a concrete pump. With the help of a special arrow, concrete can be removed and delivered to any point (up to 50 m) of the site. Concrete ordering and casting with the help of a concrete pump is both more convenient and more efficient and of higher quality, but its cost will be 10-15% higher.

The implementation of this step-by-step instruction is the key to the success of creating a strong foundation.

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

October 20, 2015

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

A few additions: 1. If you need to perform high-quality waterproofing liquid rubber, it is desirable to apply geotextiles over the entire surface. Consumption.

September 23, 2015

How and what to make the top border of the foundation lining (natural stone. Plitnyak)?

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  • work with the foundation
  • Reinforcement
  • Protection
  • Instruments
  • Installation
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  • About the site
  • Questions to the expert
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  • Works with the foundation
    • Foundation reinforcement
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    • Foundation Finish
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    • Foundation calculation
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  • Foundation types
    • Strip foundation
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    • Slab foundation

Sources: http://1pobetonu.ru/montazh/kak-sdelat-lentochnyj-fundament.html, http://moifundament.ru/lentochnyj/fundament-kak-sdelat.html, http://moifundament.ru/lentochnyj/ fundament-kak-pravilno-sdelat.html

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