How to make a tape foundation for the house

Faster, cheaper and more convenient to perform waterproofing with the help of fired lime, roofing material (roll type) and bitumen mastic. The technology of waterproofing the foundation is not as complicated as it seems. There are 2 common methods of waterproofing.

How to properly waterproof the strip foundation? Start from the allocated budget. The first method is the most difficult, but durable. The second method is simple, it is used mainly in budget construction projects.

  1. You need to coat the entire surface of the foundation with mastic. Initially, the mastic must be mixed with fuzz in a 1: 1 ratio and heated to a soft texture. Apply 5 mm of warm mastic and a sheet of roofing material on top. The action is recommended to be carried out in stages, repeating 2-3 times. It is recommended to begin to coat sheets from the side surfaces of the foundation, ending with the upper side.
  2. A sheet of waterproofing material is placed on the 5-8 mm layer of cement, and the actions are repeated 2-3 times.

These methods are used mainly in construction sites. There are other technologies for waterproofing foundations, but it can be done by professional builders.

As it became clear, waterproofing the foundations is not such a complicated process. Follow the instructions, and everything will turn out to be done independently.

The device of a protective tie from a solution

The strip footing technology has its own characteristics, so follow all the tips below exactly to avoid the consequences that may appear over the years (warping, deformation). To avoid problems, it is recommended to make a protective tie.

The protective screed is performed by applying a thin layer of concrete, on which a metal “skeleton” is subsequently laid. With this approach, the foundation will never crack and will stand for at least 25 years without deformation.

Concrete for strip foundations required brand M200, class B15. If there is a shallow groundwater level in the area, then cement of grade M300 and higher is used.

1 part cement to 4 parts sand. Stir the solution gently to avoid clots. Slowly pour water, it is better to spend more time, but your building will last longer.

Concrete laying

The main construction of the strip foundation begins with the pouring of concrete. At the time of laying concrete, the consistency should be as thick as possible. Before pouring the solution, put the metal mesh. After pouring the concrete, water the structure with water and make sure that it is as saturated as possible. Let dry for a couple of days. Step lightly on the concrete, if everything is dry, cover the surface with plastic bags. This is necessary so that the moisture does not evaporate and the design does not succumb to the effects of natural forces. Otherwise, all moisture will evaporate, the structure will become thinner and less stable. After that, leave the building for 28-30 days.

  1. Look at the date of release of cement. If he has been in the store for more than 1 year, then divide the brand of cement in half and add sand, using the results obtained. The fact is that the proportions of sand will vary depending on the brand of cement.
  2. When preparing the solution it is recommended to use coarse sand, without various impurities.
  3. Note that the thickness of the protective cover must not be less than 3 mm (not to exceed 6 mm).

Reinforcement of the strip footing frame

If you do not have enough money to hire professional workers, you can overpower the reinforcement yourself. To achieve identical quality, if you carry out the reinforcement of the strip foundation with your own hands, the main thing is to follow the instructions.

  How to make a tape foundation for the house

To reinforce the strip foundation, it is enough to apply a simple scheme consisting of 3 types of reinforcement:

  1. Longitudinal reinforcement – ribbed, with an average diameter of 12 mm;
  2. Transverse – smooth, medium diameter 10mm;
  3. Vertical – smooth, medium diameter 10mm;

The skeleton mesh is assembled in advance, later it is put on the formwork.

Initially, the main rack consists of vertical reinforcement. The basis is fixed by means of a knitting wire. Proper reinforcement of the foundation is to put together a “skeleton”, and then only fasten the entire structure. It is recommended to tie a special crochet hook. Internal racks should consist of longitudinal reinforcement to withstand the main load.

Externally, the formwork for the strip foundation must have the appearance of some kind of armor in order to take on part of the load. When drawing up the frame, remember that the indentation should be 50-70 mm.

Tips for properly reinforcing the foundation:

The best option would be welding rods, which increases the resistance to stress. Also, make sure that there are no voids during welding, otherwise splits will form under load and the structure will begin to collapse.

Correct reinforcement corners tape foundation.

Reinforcement of corners is an important formwork element for strip foundations, since corners are the first thing that undergoes deformation. To do this, bend the reinforcement, pre-measuring the distance. Stick one side into the wall of the corner, the second part also stick into the opposite wall. Please note that the ends must exactly fit into the walls of the foundation. In order to reinforce the corners of the strip foundation well, you need to be patient, because you need to re-check everything at the end of the process to avoid problems with splinters.

Reinforcement of monolithic strip foundations is different from strip, because this design is stronger. Some builders of monolith reinforcement pay little attention, which subsequently affects the reduction of the duration of service life.

When reinforcing a monolithic foundation, it is recommended to take a step equal to 15mm. The pitch can vary from 10 to 25 mm, depending on the load. If you plan to build a 2nd floor, then the step should be 10-12mm.

When reinforcing a monolithic strip foundation, welding of reinforcement bars can be carried out inside the trench.

! Step – is the distance between the bars.

Having finished the reinforcement of the strip foundation with your own hands, you will get a single crate capable of withstanding tremendous pressure.

Installation and installation of strip foundation formwork

Formwork for strip foundations and the type of construction depends on the scale of the structure. If the house is designed for a couple of rooms, then the formwork can be assembled and installed at once in a trench. During the construction of a large building, the installation of formwork for strip foundations is carried out gradually inside the trench, as well as to establish the stiffness angles and additional fasteners on all sides. This will help avoid deformation.

There is another form of formwork – wall. This formwork is needed for concreting foundations, as well as basement walls.

Device formwork strip foundation with your own hands.

After digging a trench, you need to drive metal pegs from the inside. The distance of the pegs from the walls of the soil is calculated depending on the thickness of the boards or metal sheets plus an indent of 10-15 mm. This will allow you to correctly insert the board and not to scatter the ground.

On the outer side of the formwork are installed supports (vertical, diagonal, horizontal). This is necessary so that under the pressure of concrete the earth does not become deformed. If the width of the foundation exceeds 500 mm, then all three types of support are installed. As it became clear, it is easy to install the formwork for strip foundations. There is also a fixed formwork for strip foundations.

Fixed formwork is characterized by the fact that after the construction of the foundation remains the main component of the entire building structure.

Fixed formwork for strip foundations – advantages:

  • Additional source of insulation and sound insulation;
  • Does not give in to rotting (in a case with polystyrene foam plates and blocks);
  • Differs in high convenience of installation;
  • Filling the formwork when concreting the foundation takes less time;
  • Increased resistance to thermal drops;
  • With a good drainage system has reliable hydroprotection;
  • Labor intensity decreases;
  • Service life is 70-80 years;
  • Convenience when installing communications;
  • Efficiency.

Timbering under strip foundation – installation:

  1. Lay waterproofing material (for example, roofing material);
  2. Insert the reinforcement around the perimeter of the foundation of the future house;
  3. Slip the blocks onto the armature;
  4. Insert horizontal reinforcement into the holes;
  5. Once laid three layers, you can pour concrete;
  6. Spend tamping with a deep vibrator or rebar (manual method).

Having made a permanent formwork for a strip foundation according to this principle, it will last at least 30 years.

  • When constructing strip formwork, pay attention to the blocks and the laying of reinforcement:
  • When you build the second row, put blocks with offset to ensure the rigidity of the wall;
  • When laying, fittings need to be put overlapped and only then fasten with construction wire.

It is advantageous to use wooden formwork for strip foundations for portable use, since wood is easy to transport and assemble without the use of special equipment.

The lack of wooden formwork for strip foundations lies in the base of the wood material. The tree undergoes deformation and is excreted by hygroscopicity. Similar problems are solved by strengthening the stiffness angles, as well as additional fasteners.

Concreting the foundation

Formwork for concreting foundations can be any, here the main method of pouring cement mortar.

There are 2 options for fill – manual and machine. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages, so they are applied depending on the type of construction.

Concreting the foundation with your own hands – the manual method of filling the foundation is quite simple and economical.

It is necessary to purchase ready-made concrete mortar. It is usually delivered in 5-8 cubes at a time. It will take 5-8 workers, depending on the scale of construction. It will not be possible to fill in once, because, it is impossible to feed the concrete mix to one point. On the one hand, it is difficult to distribute the mass, at the same time, the liquid mass will pass further, and the thick will settle at the place of supply. To avoid this, you need to apply to different places or use a long chute and adjust it in the process of pouring. The gutter is made of planks, and inside it is encased with polyethylene or linoleum. Manual pouring method saves 10-15%.

Concreting strip foundations with the help of special equipment.

The technology of concreting the foundations of special equipment occurs through the supply of cement mortar concrete pump. Convenience is that you can extract the mixture at a distance through the boom. The maximum boom length reaches 50 meters. This is beneficial in the absence of entry, as well as the accuracy of the technique allows you to “pour” the mixture in the right place.

The best option – ordering concrete and pouring concrete pump. So it will be better, because the manual production of the mixture is sometimes characterized by mass heterogeneity, which affects the strength of the foundation (delamination, cod, deformation).

Concreting monolithic strip foundation using a deep vibrator

The deep vibrator is a hand tool that allows a vibrating wave to tamp down layers of cement mortar. To compact a solid foundation, pour concrete into the formwork using the above instructions. Then immerse the work item in a layer of concrete and hold for a few minutes (depending on the consistency of the concrete mix). Then retreat 70-100 cm and repeat the procedure. It should be borne in mind that the radius of the deep vibrator is 50 cm, so for convenience, divide the area into squares. Try not to touch the previous layers, since the moisture from the vibration will rise to the outside, which will cause drying. This will adversely affect the quality of the foundation and reduce the service life by several years.

Useful tips for concreting strip foundation:

  • Concrete is applied in horizontal layers;
  • It is necessary to prevent the separation of concrete. It is worth remembering, the higher the height of the cement mass, the higher the probability of delamination. The optimum height of extraction of the concrete mass is 50 cm. When the bar is over two meters, the feed is carried out through chutes, hoses or special pipes;
  • When the top layer is laid, it is not filled to the end. 5-7 centimeters should be between the top layer and the top edge of the formwork;
  • When feeding concrete, the direction is performed in one direction;
  • A new layer of concrete is applied only in the gap when the previous layer is well compacted and the next layer starts to set. This is usually in the range of 60-100 minutes.
  • When concreting the foundation with your own hands, it is necessary that the layers completely cover the reinforcement;
  • In the absence of a vibrator, a manual seal is performed – alternate flow of cement layers with small reinforcement;
  • It is also possible to compact with successive knocking with a sledge hammer on the formwork;
  • When tamping, the vibrator should not overlap or partially swing the reinforcement mesh;
  • The process of concreting is not recommended to be interrupted, but to do everything all at once, so that the layers of quality fit each other;
  • The remaining seams are recommended to be cleaned from the solution with a jet of water. You can also wet the brush and clean up all the necessary areas. This procedure is needed for better adhesion of concrete;
  • The thickness of the layers should always be the same;
  • At the end of concreting, you need to completely close the formwork with plastic bags from moisture. If moisture has got, then the destroyed sites need to be restored and condensed again.

As you can see, there is no special technology for concreting the foundation for the cottage. It’s simple, just follow the advice given by us.

Ribbon Foundation for the house do it yourself

  • Geodetic works
  • Work with soil under the strip foundation
    • Trench depth under the house
    • Digging a trench by hand or with an excavator?
    • Sand leveling
    • Concrete preparation under the strip foundation
  • Waterproofing strip foundation
    • We start laying concrete
  • Frame reinforcement
  • Installation of foundation formwork
  • Concreting strip foundations

Many future owners of cottages are concerned about such questions: how to make a ribbon foundation with your own hands? How not to make mistakes and do everything properly? what you need to pay attention to the house pleased with warmth and reliability? This article will try to answer all this.

The depth of the basement trench depends on the type of building, its weight, dimensions, etc.

For the construction of reliable support for the house does not need to invest a lot of money, it is much more important to have the necessary knowledge.

Then you will be able independently and at the same time to make a ribbon foundation for the house properly and quickly. This article is not a complete step-by-step instruction, but it will help you understand the sequence of steps, some technical nuances of the construction process and warn you about possible problems.

Geodetic works

Scheme of the device tape monolithic foundation.

In order to get a reliable ribbon foundation for the house, it is necessary to carry out a number of preliminary activities for the preparation of the territory. These actions are called geodetic breakdown. Within the framework of this procedure it is necessary to take a number of steps in a certain order.

The first step is preparatory. First you need to clear the area from unnecessary vegetation and other natural formations (trees, stumps, stones, etc.). In addition to natural objects, the site may also include artifacts of human activity, for example, old buildings and their ruins, various engineering objects (sewage, power lines, trenches, roads, etc.). It doesn’t matter what prevents further construction: natural or man-made obstacles, everything should be removed and cleaned.

But it must be remembered that for the demolition of buildings and some other objects, permission of special municipal bodies is necessary (technical inspection). Of course, this activity implies the existence of a plan for the future structure, and the project of the strip foundation and the house as a whole. You can make them both with the help of specialists and independently, if you feel in yourself enough knowledge and confidence.

The second step is to find the main axes. In geodesy, the main and main axes are called the lines along which the constructed structures are oriented. The basis of any plan are two perpendicularly intersecting main lines. Relying on them, the builder orients all the main points of the future strip foundation and other objects. Correctly correlate the plan of the house with such lines means to take the first step towards building your dream home. Accurate orientation of buildings with respect to the street, boundaries of the site, lines of communications, cardinal points, etc. will make the future cottage comfortable for living and exploitation.

The layout of the plot under the foundation.

The third step of surveying is to calculate the angles correctly. It is a continuation of the previous stage and consists in determining the corners of the house on the site, which must be marked with pegs and very carefully calculate all the necessary distances. To make an accurate calculation is extremely important in order to avoid the building skewing and reducing its performance.

The end of geodetic works. At the last stage, after accurate calculation of distances, it is necessary to make an ideal angle. To do this, use not only measuring devices, but also pegs with building cords. For the correct calculation, find out the aspect ratio. Whatever the experience of the builder, even they do not aspire to calculate the correct position of each peg the first time, so do not drive them after the first calculations, but only slightly squeeze it into the ground. Doing the calculation of all the geodetic parameters is a rather troublesome thing that requires care and patience.

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Work with soil under the strip foundation

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Trench depth under the house

The depth of the trench under the strip foundation of a house depends on many factors. The first one is the type of building, its dimensions and massiveness. For a frame-panel house there is no need to make a deep trench; for this type of buildings, shallow-depth foundations are prepared. If the walls of the house are brick, then the depth must be made about 20 centimeters lower. The tendency is quite clear: the more massive the building, the safer the foundation must be, which means it is necessary to make a deeper pit.

Scheme of types of strip foundations.

The second factor affecting the depth of the trench is climate. In the northern latitudes, in winter, the ground freezes through quite deeply, so in this case, the strip foundation must be deepened below the freezing point of the soil. In particular, if the house is planned to make a basement or other room, then the foundation should be at 20-25 inches below the level of freezing.

It is necessary to take into account such factors as the composition of the soil and the mass of overlaps. In addition, the trench under the foundation for the internal walls of the house can be designed a little less, they have enough depth of 40-50 centimeters.

It is also worth remembering that the strip foundation is beneficial for its low cost, but is intended primarily for lightweight structures and reliable soils. If you are not sure of the soil or build a house of heavy materials, then choose a foundation of a different type.

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Digging a trench by hand or with an excavator?

The main work on the soil is performed with an excavator, especially if the soil has a high plasticity due to the high content of clay and moisture. Such work should be entrusted to a professional excavator, it is better not to try on your own. The excavation of the pit is best done in the dry season (in summer or early autumn), when the soil contains a minimum amount of moisture. A wet soil requires more attention and effort to remove and transport. In addition, it is worth remembering that in winter, the cost of excavator services is twice as much. Therefore, it is best to start construction work in the spring.

The scheme of the device under the foundation.

Before you start digging a pit for a strip foundation, it is necessary to assess the situation on the site, whether there are any other buildings nearby or their remnants. If such objects are present, then the trench must be made 20-25 percent deeper than the base of the foundation of these buildings. It is necessary to deepen the pit by 5%, if it is built on the site of the old. This is done in order to reduce the load on the foundation and prevent its premature destruction.

Trench under the strip foundation can be dug out and manually. In this case, the cost of work will be lower, but the quality of work and speed will also be lower. It is better to use manual labor in the development of soil only in some cases when delicate and accurate work is required, for certain types of communication, for loose soils, etc.

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Sand leveling

If you need to level the territory, if the soil in your area is problematic, heterogeneous and unpredictable, then we advise you to make a protective sand pad. For a strip foundation, a sand cushion for formwork should be about 40-50 cm in height. But this figure should be reached only after careful tamping. The thicker the cushion, the less deformation can be expected from the foundation under the influence of soil heaving. But the thickness of the pillow can vary considerably depending on the climate. For example, in the same England, a height of 20 cm is the norm for a sand cushion.

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Concrete preparation under the strip foundation

Sand pillow device diagram.

Concrete preparation is a layer of “lean” concrete or rubble, lined under the bulk of the foundation. It is designed to protect the mass of the foundation from the loss of concrete milk, helps to quickly achieve the necessary conditions for the foundation of the house, helps to more evenly distribute the load on the ground and facilitates the creation of a reinforcement base for the strip foundation.

For concrete preparation cement M300 or M400 is used.

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Waterproofing strip foundation

To waterproof the concrete strip foundation is a very complex and demanding process. Its essence is to maximize the protection of the base from moisture penetration; various materials are used for this. Waterproofing is divided into two types: horizontal and vertical. The first method is associated with the use of rolled materials (primarily ruberoid), and the second is aimed at isolating the foundation from the effects of external moisture and is divided into anti-pressure and non-pressure.

Anti-pressure waterproofing is performed with paints, plaster and various lubricant mixtures, which are applied to the insulated surface. In the role of isolation are often made of lime powder and bitumen mastic, which are applied to the entire surface of the foundation, and the top is covered with a sheet of roofing material.

Non-pressure waterproofing is significantly different in appearance. To do this, along the entire perimeter of the foundation, a trench is dug 20-30 cm deep. This trench is then filled with plastic clay, covered with sand, and all this is compacted. After that, the surface is cemented and a rain gutter is installed.

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We start laying concrete

Concrete mortar preparation scheme.

Before you start laying concrete, you need to make a protective tie. This is a thin layer of concrete, which covers the trench, later will be installed reinforcing “skeleton”. This step will significantly increase the service life of the strip foundation and protect it from deformation. The screed solution is made from M200 or M300 brand concrete, mixing it with sand in a 1: 4 ratio.

The next step is to fill the foundation with concrete. Before it is necessary to lay a metal grid. The consistency of the concrete must be thick, and after pouring, the concrete is poured over with water, ensuring maximum impregnation of the whole structure. After that, the concrete should be allowed to dry for about two days, then cover with plastic wrap and leave alone for a month.

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Frame reinforcement

It is better to reinforce with the help of specialists, but for a beginner to do it quite well. To do this, you need to purchase three types of reinforcement: the thickest longitudinal reinforcement (diameter 12 mm), transverse (10 mm) and vertical reinforcement (10 mm). To begin with, vertical posts are installed, to which other types of fixtures are fastened, fastened together with the help of knitting wire.

The scheme of reinforcement strip foundation.

The rods can also be welded together, which will even better affect the working qualities of the structure. The assembled structure is put on the formwork and should externally resemble armor, which will take on a solid load. In Figure 1 you can see how it should look.

One of the crucial points of reinforcement is a bunch of corners. It is the corners that are the first to suffer from deformation, and you need to carefully consider this element of the formwork. Bend the reinforcement and stick it into the wall of the corner, and the other end into the opposite wall.

Pre-measure the distance carefully. Both ends must enter the walls of the strip foundation. Carefully check each element and be patient, as this step in building the foundation is very important.

The higher the expected load on the strip foundation, the less should be the step in reinforcement (the distance between the bars of the reinforcement). It can range from 10 to 25 millimeters. As a result of your activity, a single crate should be formed, durable and neat.

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Installation of foundation formwork

If you did everything correctly, then proceed to the installation of formwork for strip foundation. Here a lot depends on the size of the building. If you want to build a small and light house, then you can get by with a simple formwork installed at once in a trench. If the house is large, then the installation of formwork begin gradually, starting from the bottom of the trench. It is also necessary to establish stiffness angles and additionally strengthen all sides in order to avoid further deformation. The second option is a wall formwork necessary for concreting the base and walls of the basement.

After preparing the trench, metal pegs are driven into its bottom at such a distance from the walls so that it is possible to insert formwork boards between them, plus a gap of 10-12 mm. The external part of the formwork is strengthened with the help of various supports that will stop the deformation of the formwork under the pressure of the poured concrete. There are three types of supports: horizontal, vertical and diagonal. If the width of the foundation exceeds half a meter, then it is necessary to use the entire range of supports.

There is a fixed form of formwork. It is not removed and after drying the concrete remains a constructive part of the building. Fixed formwork has a number of very important advantages over conventional:

The scheme of the device formwork for strip foundation.

  1. First of all, it greatly facilitates installation.
  2. Significantly accelerates the work of mounting formwork.
  3. It is an additional protection against noise and heat loss.
  4. Resistance to temperature daily and annual differences increases.
  5. Does not rot and practically does not decompose (if made of expanded polystyrene).
  6. Provides excellent waterproofing.
  7. The service life is huge (about 80 years).
  8. Provide convenient installation of communications.
  9. Economical.

The sequence of installation of permanent formwork:

  1. Lay out the ruberoid or another roll waterproofing material.
  2. Along the perimeter of the future foundation, insert the reinforcement.
  3. Attach the formwork blocks to the reinforcement.
  4. Insert the horizontal bars of the reinforcement through the holes.
  5. After the third layer can be filled with concrete.
  6. Carry out tamping (either manually or using special equipment).

Using wood as a formwork material has both positive and negative points. Boards are easy, and they can be used quite widely, quickly and without special equipment. The disadvantages are their instability to deformation and hygroscopicity. Partially, these problems can be solved by strengthening the stiffness angles of the structure and its additional fasteners.

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Concreting strip foundations

Foundation can be poured in two ways: manual and mechanized. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. The choice is usually made depending on the type of construction objects.

Concreting the foundation with your own hands is a fairly simple and cheap way to complete this phase of construction. The first step is to purchase ready-mixed concrete.

Welding scheme of reinforced joints.

At one time, usually no more than 5-8 cubic meters are delivered. It will take a team of at least five workers. It is impossible to pour the foundation at once, it needs to be poured in several places, since, whatever the concrete liquid, it will not spill on its own throughout the formwork.

Several points are needed through which the concrete solution will be poured, although it is possible to use a long gutter, with which you can evenly distribute the concrete, without moving. The gutter can be either ready-made or hand-made from wood and lined with polyethylene or other insulating material.

Mechanized pouring of concrete is to use a concrete pump. With the help of a special arrow, concrete can be removed and delivered to any point (up to 50 m) of the site. Concrete ordering and casting with the help of a concrete pump is both more convenient and more efficient and of higher quality, but its cost will be 10-15% higher.

The implementation of this step-by-step instruction is the key to the success of creating a strong foundation.

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

October 20, 2015

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

A few additions: 1. If you need to perform high-quality waterproofing liquid rubber, it is desirable to apply geotextiles over the entire surface. Consumption.

September 23, 2015

How and what to make the top border of the foundation lining (natural stone. Plitnyak)?

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How to make a tape foundation

The construction of the strip foundation can be attributed to the construction of a monolithic structure, which is used directly for the construction of a residential house or a commercial building.

You can do all the work yourself, which can significantly save the family budget and send it to future work.

However, before proceeding, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the soil on the land plot, possible climatic and atmospheric changes, the type of future structure, as well as familiarize yourself with the regulatory documentation and obtain all the necessary agreements and permits to start work.

Regulatory documentation

Making a tape foundation for the house, you need to know how their classification takes place. It is carried out on the basis of characteristic standards of SNiP № 2.02.01-83, 3.02.01, 3-8-76 and СН 536-81. First of all, these are the differences of the construction itself:

  • reinforced concrete blocks;
  • monolithic, poured on a certain area in the formwork;
  • laying out the tape using a brick or rubble stone.

In addition, before starting construction, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the regulations governing the use of land plots in compliance with the requirements described in SanPin 2.1.7.1287-03.

If we talk about private residential and commercial construction, the second method with self-pouring is mainly used.

What is required for this?

FBS blocks allow you to mount the foundation very quickly

Before you correctly make a strip foundation, it is necessary to determine the technology of its installation. In this case, you need to select and purchase the right amount of building material. To it include the following:

  1. Concrete block type FBS.
  2. Concrete block type FL.
  3. Bricks and concrete for sealing holes and connecting joints.
  4. Waterproofing.
  5. Thermal insulation (if desired or necessary).

Concreting or patching holes is necessary because it is almost impossible to lay a wall below the ground without flaws.

In addition, you will need reinforcement, with its help you need to make tape around the perimeter and located in the supporting part of the structure.

Its main function will be to connect and link all the individual elements into one.

Reinforcement will allow you to distribute the load of the house or building throughout its area.

The foundation is poured continuously

Before pouring the strip foundation with your own hands, you must first prepare bulk material. In this case, suitable sand, gravel or gravel.

You can use the sand-gravel mixture, it can perform several functions at once: it will serve as the main component for the production of concrete and is used to install the cushion under the base.

The latter is necessary to do the following:

  • to level a ditch for the subsequent laying of plates or filling of concrete;
  • perform the role of the drainage layer;
  • to prevent the harmful effects of heaving soil at negative ambient temperatures.

Depth of occurrence

Lay the foundation sole below the ground freezing level.

With independent construction, with no experience in carrying out such work, many are wondering: how to fill the strip foundation correctly?

If it is more or less clear with the technology of work, then the question of determining the depth of trenches and laying the foundation is much more complicated.

The main determining factor of this size is the requirement that its base should be at least 30-40 cm lower than the level of soil freezing.

The height of the strip foundation of a house depends on the territorial location of the land plot, which is directly related to the climatic features of each individual region. To facilitate this task, see the table presented below and designed to independently determine the depth of freezing, according to the SNiP.

The arrangement of the strip foundation of a shallowly recessed type is located at a distance of 80-100 cm from the ground level. However, one should take into account the weak bearing capacity and almost zero resistance to frost heaving of the soil. Thus, before designing a house structure with your own hands, it is necessary to take into account the depth of the foundation.

Foundations for one-story buildings are usually calculated by eye.

As for the installation of the tape under the one-story structure, here in most cases the calculations are performed in average values, so to speak “by eye”.

In this case, the likelihood of overspending materials and work is reduced to a minimum.

However, if there is an opportunity to get professional advice, it is not recommended to refuse them. In the absence of an experienced person, the following factors can be taken into account:

  • The height of the tape depends on the freezing of the soil (data are shown in the table).
  • the thickness of the wall is taken as the width of the basement with the addition of 2–3 cm on each side;
  • reinforcement is performed using material with a cross section of at least 10 mm;
  • screed reinforcing mesh 5 – 7 mm.

We should not forget about the level of occurrence of groundwater. According to the standards, it should be located no closer than 20 cm from the base.

The order of work

You can dig a trench without using special equipment.

Step-by-step instructions for mounting the tape foundation with your own hands is quite simple.

After all calculations have been made, permits have been obtained, and the material has been acquired and delivered to the land plot, it is possible to proceed with the work.

The advantage of this method of construction is that you can do all the work yourself without using special equipment and specialists. Under conditions of loose soil, the trench is dug with shovels, and instead of reinforced concrete slabs, you can pour a monolith, reinforcing it with metal.

Start marking with driving in pegs at the corners of the future structure.

Before you make a tape foundation with your own hands, you need to mark the site. To do this, you need an architectural plan of the object under construction with an indication of all the walls and partitions.

According to him, the location is marked on the selected location. To facilitate subsequent work, it is desirable to pre-free the site from debris, branches and tree roots.

In addition, you can remove the top layer of fertile soil with a thickness of no more than 20 cm. It can be transferred to a garden plot or used for subsequent gardening of the area around the building.

The marking is done by driving in wooden pegs placed at the corners. Between them, a construction thread is drawn, depicting boundaries over which the base should not protrude. When finished, it is recommended to once again carefully check the ratio of the intended area and plan, the ratio of angles and straight lines.

If planning of arrangement of the basement of a rectangular shape is planned, comparison of the length of its diagonals will not be superfluous. If the values ​​are equal, you can start excavation work.

When planning to install a brick stove or a real fireplace, it is recommended to prepare a separate base. It should not be rigidly tied to the ribbon, but with a weak structure with time, the structure may lean or burst one of its sides.

Excavation

The walls of the trench should be smooth.

Digging of the trench in the strip foundation is carried out strictly along the intended trajectory. It is recommended to start from the bottom of the plot.

It is advisable to make the walls flat and vertical; when shedding soil, it may be necessary to make additional wooden or metal panels.

This will avoid unnecessary work and reduce the consumption of building materials.

Periodically, the depth of the planned bedding of the base cushion is measured and compared along the entire perimeter.

Trench preparation

The thickness of the pillow must be at least 10 – 20 cm

To distribute the load from the entire mass of the structure and reduce the pressure created by the soil during heaving in the cold season, a sand-gravel pad is poured at the bottom of the trenches.

Its thickness is not less than 10 – 20 cm, provided that it is well rammed. It is recommended to do it in 3 stages, wetting each row with water and well tamping.

If you do not protect the pad from leaching, there is a chance that when the soil is filled with water in spring, the sand will just wash out, so the ruberoid will be laid down on the bottom, which will not yet allow the cement slurry to mix with the sand when filling the strip foundation.

Roofing material can be not only laid on the bottom, but also raised on the walls of the trench by 15 – 20 cm.

Installation of formwork

Before pouring the strip foundation, you need to take care of its maximum alignment in the horizontal plane. This will reduce the likelihood that the base will be laid out unevenly. Installation is carried out using various materials that are available:

Cells of the desired height are assembled from individual elements and are connected with jumpers into one. In some areas, holes are made necessary for the ventilation of the future underground. Special pipes of the required length are inserted into them, the diameter is usually not less than 10 cm. For more information about installing wooden formwork, see this video:

Filling with concrete is completed without reaching the edge by 3 – 4 cm

Before pouring the strip foundation with your own hands, you need to take into account that this is not done up to the upper edge of the formwork, but 3–4 cm below it.

This will reduce the likelihood that the concrete will splash out during rammers.

To facilitate this procedure, you can use the marks made on the inside of the boards around the perimeter or taut construction thread.

If necessary, build a strip foundation with the use of thermal insulation lumber for formwork can be replaced by extruded polystyrene foam, assembled with each other as a children’s designer.

Structural reinforcement

It is recommended to knit reinforcement with wire

Building a house is quite a responsible matter, so you need to be very carefully approached. This applies to both the acquisition of material and the order of work. All stages of construction must be completed necessarily, ignoring any of them can lead to the most disastrous consequences.

Reinforcement of the tape foundation with your own hands is not so difficult to perform, however there are numerous nuances that can significantly affect the entire result. First of all, it is the joining of the rods in the corners and points of junction of the adjacent walls. In these areas, the metal is bent and laid along its entire length.

Secondly, the diameter of the longitudinal elements should not be less than 10, and distribution screeds and jumpers not less than 6 mm. For each frame you need to lay an average of 5 – 6 longitudinal rods.

On joints, the distance between the jumpers becomes not 60 cm, as in straight sections, but 20. The connection of the bars is carried out overlap with overlapping 50-60 cm over each other.

Thirdly, the metal should not touch the formwork, since the subsequent removal of shields will result in direct interaction with the ground, resulting in the formation of foci of corrosion and destruction of reinforcement under the influence of moisture. For more information about reinforcement, see this video:

To determine the amount of reinforcing material can be based on the volume of concrete. The coefficient is 80 kg per 1 m3.

Manage to fill the foundation in 1 day

If all the previously described actions were performed, the subsequent installation of the strip footing will not cause any special problems.

Having determined the amount of the required volume (this is done by multiplying the future height by the length and width), the decision is made: whether the purchased concrete mix is ​​used or made independently.

At the same time, it is necessary to take into account that the product produced in the factory mode is much better than that made by itself.

In this case, you still need to take into account the amount of cement and sand, which will need to be mixed manually.

Further the following requirements should be met:

  1. Filling is carried out in one day with small intervals no more than 2 hours.
  2. The walls in the strip foundation must be knocked.
  3. Each filled layer is rammed and tapped with scrap.

When self-manufacturing the mix, periodically you need to rearrange the mixer to different places. Filling from one point is not allowed.

The formwork is removed only after recruiting the foundation of half strength

A few years after it has been poured, the foundation repair can be prevented by observing the technology of its drying and aging. During this period, you need to reduce the likelihood of mechanical or chemical exposure. In addition, concrete is very sensitive to elevated ambient temperatures and sudden changes.

It is not recommended to remove the formwork until more than half of its strength is set with the composition, it may take several days. In addition, all the time drying it should be under a plastic wrap or tarpaulin, and periodically moistened with water from a garden watering can (in the hot season).

The time of complete hardening of the structure is from 1 to 1.5 months. This should be considered before building capital walls on it. Failure to meet the curing period may lead to premature failure.

Thus, the question of how to make a ribbon foundation with your own hands, is fully disclosed. Based on the information presented above, doing the work yourself is not so difficult. To do this, first of all, you need to correctly calculate and perform all actions according to the instructions. Only in this case the structure will serve for many years and will not be subject to destruction due to possible errors.

How to pour a strip foundation under the bath

How to make a foundation for a barn with your own hands

How to make a foundation for a stove in the house

How to make a foundation for a bath

Sources: http://www.vashcottage.ru/journal/post/1, http://moifundament.ru/lentochnyj/fundament-kak-pravilno-sdelat.html, http://kakfundament.ru/lentochnyj/svoimi- rukami-poshagovaya-instrukciya

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