A rather popular option of arrangement is a sloping roof with an attic, which allows you to significantly expand living space and effectively use the available space. When building a roof with an attic, attention should be paid to the issues of high-quality insulation and lighting. In order to obtain comfortable conditions in the attic of the attic type, pre-installation of heat-insulating materials with low thermal conductivity is carried out. All the planes bordering the environment are subject to insulation.
Also important is the question of choosing roofing materials, since the roof of metal tiles in summer heats up fairly, thereby creating uncomfortable living conditions in the attic. This, in turn, entails additional costs for ventilation, air conditioning and thermal insulation, so it is very important to consider all the features of the construction of the future attic and its intended purpose. Properly and properly built attic can become a full-fledged living room, which would be an ideal option for multi-purpose use.
Additional functional roof equipment
The final stage of the construction of the roof should be the installation of a drainage system that will allow precipitation to flow in the required direction and protect the blind area and the walls of the building from the additional harmful effects of moisture.
The drainage system should cover the entire surface of the roof and have the highest possible productivity, affecting the discharge of water in the desired direction and quantity. Modern building codes take into account the process of the drainage system in the winter, for which an additional heating system is installed, which contributes to the melting of snow and ice on the roof surface. With a great desire and free time, the question of how to build a roof with your own hands can be resolved in the shortest possible time. To do this, it will be enough to have basic skills of independent work with metalworking and woodworking tools.
We offer to see how to build a roof with your own hands, a video on how to do it right and organize it.
How to make the roof of the house itself and properly make the installation of the roof? Not always find the answer to these questions is easy.
It is necessary to have a constructive understanding and knowledge of the necessary information: awareness in the disassembly of individual elements, assemblies, parts, used roofing and the correct technology of completion.
Today, a large number of the most diverse types of roofs are beyond the usual understanding of them. Forms of pitched roofs and structural elements may vary depending on the design and architectural tasks. Under the roof, you can organize the used space – an attic (living room) or technical room.
Scheme of the roof structure
Types of modern roofs
There are many types of roofs: flat and pitched, monotonous and multi-colored, thatched and iron, attic and mansard.
Experts classify roofs into flat and pitched (sloping) roofs. Flat is the roof, the slope of which does not exceed 5º.
Pitched roofs in their geometric form are divided into:
Geometric roofing forms are much more, and it all depends on your preferences.
The shape of the pitched roof depends on the architectural composition of the building as a whole and the operational characteristics of the attic space.
The pitched roof frame is a rafter system or truss. On the rafters arrange underlay roofing or crates. The latter is the basis for the roof and gives the structure rigidity.
The shape of the pitched roof depends on the architectural composition of the building as a whole and the operational characteristics of the attic space. Today, a constructive solution to the construction of a roof can be anything that the soul desires: from a flat ramp to bizarre spatial shells with various curvatures – everything relies on the presence and location of the main structural elements of which the roof is built.
Materials that will be needed during the construction of the roof
When you probably already know what kind of roof to choose to cover the buildings, you will need to decide on the choice of coverage. The strength and amount of materials required for the truss system (frame) directly depends on this.
The sturdiest system is to hold a tile covering. Compared to metal and slate, baked clay tiles weigh the most. Therefore, before you make the roof, better determine the material of the roof.
When installing the system of rafters for the construction of the roof with your own hands, you will need boards, slats, timber, as well as waterproofing film, insulation, nails and screws.
Material consumption depends on the size of the building, the complexity of the roof and the nature of the coating.
Components of the truss system
The rafter, or rafter foot, is the main element of the frame, it is the skeleton of the roof
For a proper understanding of the design of the truss system and perception of installation instructions, it is necessary to understand the names of the components of the rafter system and their main functions.
Mauerlat is a detail of the truss system, which serves as a transition from a non-wooden (brick, concrete, metal, etc.) structure to a wooden one. It is a timber of coniferous wood.
The most common dimensions of the mauerlat are 150 × 150 mm, 150 × 100 mm, less often the dimensions are 100 × 100 mm and 200 × 200 mm.
Such an element of the frame, as the lay, is intended to remove the weight point load from the floor (floor), which is transmitted through the rack from the roof structure. That is, through the bed, the load distribution goes over a wide area of support. You can draw an analogy with skis: if a person snows on skis, he does not fail, if without skis, he fails.
The size of the top affects the size of the racks. The main condition is that the rack must be completely set on the floor.
Racks in the truss system perform the role of posts holding the girder and resting on the rails. They are designed to support run.
The run is called a wooden beam that supports the rafters (more precisely, not allowing them to sag). Runs are used for heavy roofing on long slopes.
The rafter, or rafter foot, is the main element of the frame, it is the skeleton of the roof. Any calculations related to the calculation of the roof. reduced to the calculation of rafters. Their size is taken according to the calculations of the project.
What determines the angle of the roof
The slope of the roof depends on the height of the truss structure and the size of the building in width
The slope of the roof is the angle of its inclination relative to the horizontal level. Roofs are divided depending on the angle of slopes on:
- Low sided
- Medium bent
- Strongly steep
The assembly of a low-sloping roof is made on the basis of the lowest recommended slope of the slope. For each roofing there is a recommended minimum angle of inclination.
- Protective ability of the roof of the building from external influences.
- Roofing material, different types of which have their own minimum recommended angle of inclination.
- Wind loads, which is greater, the greater the slope of the roof. With a steep slope, windage increases and wind resistance decreases. To reduce the load on the supporting structures of the roof, in places with strong winds it is better to construct roofs with a minimum slope.
- Atmospheric precipitation: snow and mud will not accumulate on a steep slope, which cannot be said about a flat roof.
- Architectural visions, solutions, traditions.
How to measure the slope of the roof
In the drawings, the slope of the roof is designated by the Latin letter “i”. It is measured in degrees or percent. The angle of inclination is measured using a inclinometer or a mathematical method.
Today, it is possible to calculate the angle of inclination of the slope with the help of geodetic devices-inclinometers, as well as electronic and drip levels with inclinometers.
To measure the angle of inclination, you need to know the vertical height from the ridge to the eaves and the horizontal distance from the top of the slope to the bottom
If these instruments are not available, then a mathematical calculation of the angle of inclination can be made. For this you need to know the values:
- Vertical height, measured from the ridge to the eaves,
- Layouts – horizontal distance from the top of the slope to the bottom.
The calculation formula is as follows:
i = H / L, where i is the slope of the slope, H is the height of the roof, L is the inception.
To express this ratio as a percentage, it must be multiplied by 100.
Minimal slopes of slopes for different roofing
- For the roof of bitumen roll materials (3 and 4-layer) – 0-3 ° or up to 5%.
- For roofing of bitumen roll coatings (2-layer) – up to 15%.
- Ondulin coating requires a minimum inclination of 5 °.
- For slate, this angle is 9 ° or 16%.
- The minimum slope when coated with ceramic or shingles is 11 °.
- With metal tile the slope should be 14 °.
Roof slopes for different types of roof should have structures that make up its supporting part
Sprengel Roof System
Sprengel systems are called rod systems, which, in addition to the basic elements, contain additional ones designed to reduce bends caused by an external node external load, and for even greater rigidity of the system as a whole.
It is better to use metal trusses or truss systems as trussing systems.
Sprengels are widely used in reinforcing structures. When calculating the truss system, both its main elements and simple trusses are taken into account, at whose nodes the trusses formed by additional truss beds are mated.
Elements of the truss system
- The main elements on which the main load.
- Items that are affected by local load.
- Related to the main farm and to the shear element.
To determine the load on the latter, the values of loads on the sprengels and main elements are summed up.
How to make a roof with insulation
“Roofing pie” allows you to create optimal moisture.
Before covering it is necessary to equip the roof protection. The protective layers themselves must be arranged in this order:
- Steam insulation layer that protects insulation.
- Finishing roofing.
It is best to first lay insulation between the rafters. Its quality often uses special mineral wool. It is resistant to wear, durable, lightweight and harmless. Foam is not recommended because of its high flammability and toxicity.
Insulation layer ranges from 5 to 10 cm, depending on the climate of the area.
How to make the roof ventilated
In the warmed roof ventilation of the roofing space between the roof or its base and the insulation is obligatory. This need is caused by:
- To avoid condensation on the surface of the batten from the side of the cold attic; natural ventilation of the attic should be provided with the help of ventilation holes – exhaust shafts, ventilation windows, etc.
- The need to remove moisture from wooden structures and thermal insulation.
- Reducing the possibility of icing of the roof (along with vapor barrier and insulation).
The air inlet is provided by the device on the lower surface of the eaves of the gaps with a total width of at least 20 mm with wooden stapling; when filing aluminum or plastic siding – through the use of perforated species.
In order for the air circulating due to the pressure difference to go out of the under-roof space, a ventilating exhaust outlet is arranged to the ridge from the eaves at a distance of no more than 1 m from the ridge.
How to make a ventilation gap on the roof?
Ventzazor is an element of the ventilation system of the roofing space. Accordingly, it is arranged under the roof. Ventzazor is a gap between the roof and the hydrobarrier, through which air circulates from the roof eaves to its ridge, deflectors, aerators and other ventholes located in the upper part of the slope (most often at the ridge).
Ventzazor can be installed with the help of a wooden bar (counter-rail) made of softwood, 50 × 50 mm in size. This is due to the fact that in section along the width of the rafter have a size of 50 mm.
The bottom ventilation gap under the flooring along the entire length of the structure must be at least 100 mm.
Calculation of timber (counter-rail) for the ventilation system
The dimensions of the inlet vents and the height of the vented channels depend on the slope of the roof and the humidity of the inner layer of the roof.
So, with a roof slope of up to 5 °, the height of the ventilation duct should be 100 mm, from 5 to 25º – 60 mm, at 25-40 ° – 50 mm, and at 45 ° and more – 40 mm. These values for the height of the ventilation channel are appropriate for the length of the slope not exceeding 10 m. If the length of the slope is greater, the height of the ventilation gap is increased by 10% or additionally think through the installation of exhaust devices – aeration pipes.
The height of the vent is at the same time the size of the counter rail. The standard length of the bars offer sawmills – 3 m.
You need to install a counter-rail on top of a hydro-barrier, which is mounted on rafters. The timber is fastened with the help of 90 mm fine nails. The nails themselves are driven at a distance of about 5 cm from the edges with an interval of not more than 0.5 meters.
The junction of the roof to the pipes
Bypass pipe for each type of coating is carried out in different ways, using components for the roof
Often there is a question about the proper junction of the roof to the pipe. After all, it is necessary to do everything not just aesthetically, but also correctly.
Cutting the roof (tiles, slate, etc.) will not be difficult. But the installation of the junction is particularly important to prevent leakage and reliability of the roof.
Pipe bypass for each type of coating is carried out in different ways, using components for the roof. For example, for metal profiles, metal tiles, and other similar materials, metal abutment strips are used, selected by the color of the coating. For the roof of slate used less costly strips of galvanized. For shingles, the end carpet is adjoining the pipe. For ceramic and other natural tiles apply a special adhesive tape in a set with a metal apron (salary), selected by the color of the roof.
And it is worth recalling that, if you do the roof yourself, it is better to take care of insurance when performing high-rise works. Remember that everyone can make a roof with their own hands – all you need is to prepare as best you can.
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How to make a dual slope roof
The durability of the walls of a private house and comfortable living in it are directly dependent on a reliable roof. Among various types of roofs for country houses, the dual-slope roof is most common. Its popularity is due to its simplicity of construction, ease of construction and the presence of a large attic room in which you can equip the attic. Carrying out the construction of a two-slope roof with your own hands, you must have an understanding of what you are doing and be able to handle the tool. Therefore, before you make a dual-slope roof, you should familiarize yourself with the roof structure, its elements, installation features and develop its design.
Gable roof device
The selection and creation of the dual-slope roof construction begins at the design stage of the house. But if you have to redo the roof of an already built house, then the project of a dual-slope roof can be developed separately and then implemented. The main thing – to keep the overall architectural style.
Before building a double-slope roof, it is necessary to develop its project with drawing documentation. You can create it yourself. This will require computer skills and an architectural program such as ArchiCAD. Performing such work for the first time, it is best to seek the help and advice of a specialist. Also, all the work on the project can be delegated to relevant organizations that have been doing this for more than one year and can provide a number of ready-made and time-tested dual-pitch roofs.
Dvukhskatnaya roof: photo
To create a roof project yourself, you need to understand the structural elements and materials for its construction, since without this knowledge a serious mistake can be made.
The dual roof construction consists of the following main elements:
- Crate and counterbribe.
- Ridge run.
- Bracing and diagonal connections.
Important! Two truss legs, interconnected and reinforced with braces, are called “trusses”. The photo shows several types of different trusses.
All these elements are part of the truss system, which can be of two types: hanging and sliding. The first is used when the rafters are based only on two external walls. The second type has three or more points of support – external and internal walls. These two types can be used simultaneously. For the part of the house where there are intermediate supports, they use slant rafters, and where there are no such supports, they are hanging.
The material for rafters and crates can be metal or wood. In private construction, wood is more preferable, and the reason for this is its low cost and accessibility. The table below shows all the truss elements and the recommended cross-section of a wooden beam and board.
When creating a project, it is also necessary to consider the length of the rafters and the step with which they will be installed. From this will depend on the thickness of the timber. It should be noted that the market is a wooden beam with a maximum thickness of 250 mm. This is quite enough for roofs with lengths of rafters up to 7 m and steps of 150 cm. But quite often the step of rafters is adjusted to the size of the insulation in order not to cut the latter and to get a tighter fit. In such cases, to create a reliable structure, a larger section bar is required. The solution in this situation can be glued laminated timber, whose thickness reaches 300 mm, which, in combination with the supporting frames, will make the roof as reliable as possible. The table below shows the relationship between the thickness of the rafters and their lengths.
By tradition, the angle of the dual slope roof is chosen in the range of 11 – 45 °. But to get more accurate data, you need to know a number of factors that will determine the angle of inclination. First, it is the material used for the roof. Secondly, these are wind loads in the region where the house is being built. Thirdly, these are snow loads in the selected region. All these factors are interrelated. For example, if you make a large angle in a region with strong winds, you will have to reinforce the truss structure, which will entail additional costs. In addition, the greater the angle of inclination, the greater the area of the roof and, accordingly, more materials are required. But in a region with large precipitations, a small angle of inclination will result in them accumulating on the surface and thereby increasing the load, which will also require reinforcement of the truss structure.
The table below shows the inclination angles for various types of roofing:
Taking into account the snow load, you must first determine in which area the house is located. To do this, you can use the following special card, as well as the SNiP “Loads and Impacts”. Then conduct a small calculation.
In order for the roof not to fulfill the role of a sail, and at the same time the precipitates would roll on it, for calculations it is necessary to use the map of wind belts and the SNiP “Loads and Impacts”.
Important! When performing calculations to identify the optimum angle of inclination of a gable roof, it is necessary to remember about this type of precipitation, like snow, or rather, about its thermal insulation characteristics. The fact is that snow is a natural insulation at low temperatures, and its presence on the roof will allow to keep the heat in the house. Therefore, do not make too large a corner and rush to get rid of all the precipitation from the roof surface.
Double-Roof Roof: video
Construction of a dual roof
All works on the construction of a gable roof are divided into three main stages. The first is the construction of the truss structure. The second is the creation of insulation layers, namely heat, hydro, vapor barrier and, if necessary, noise insulation. The third – laying roofing. Using the previously made drawing of a dual-slope roof, and having purchased all the necessary materials, you can proceed to its construction.
Construction of truss structure
The first thing to do is to lay down and secure the power plates. To do this, along the perimeter of the walls of the building, as well as on the intermediate walls, we place a waterproofing layer of roofing felt. On top of the ruberoid, we lay a wooden bar designed for the Mauerlat and fix it to the walls with the help of metal studs previously embedded in the walls, as shown in the figure:
Metal stud is a rod with a thread. The length of such a stud is chosen on the basis that half of it will be embedded in the wall, and the projecting part must be 3–4 cm above the laid mauerlat, so that the nut can be tightened.
Now proceed to the installation of rafters. There are two ways to do this work. The first is to build a farm on the ground, and then raise it to the top. The second is to build the farm directly at its installation site. Which of these two ways to choose, decide directly to the masters. In any case, for the convenience of mounting rafters and creating single-type trusses, it is worth making a template according to which rafters will be cut and joined.
Make such a template is quite simple. To do this, we take two boards, the length of a little more rafters, we lift up and set in place like rafters. Align them vertically, make sure that the tip of the skate is exposed in accordance with the drawing and connect the boards with one nail. Now it is possible, by raising or lowering the ends of the planks, to obtain the required angle of inclination and, having achieved the desired, we connect the planks with the transverse plank in order to fix them in this position. Using this template, we customize the rafters and then connect them. In order to connect the rafters with the mauerlat, we make undercuts in the shape of a right-angled triangle in it, and for connecting we use stamped metal corners or brackets.
We mount trusses at the beginning and at the end of the building, then stretch the cord between them. We make sure that the level of the horizon is perfectly smooth, in case of skew we lower one of the trusses a little. Under this cord install all the other rafters with a step specified in the project. After that we mount the braces, crossbars, retaining beams and frames.
Important! For the connection of structural elements and its reinforcement it is best to use stamped metal nail plates, angles and brackets.
Insulation of dual slope roof
After installing the rafters, you can begin to create a multi-layer insulating cake, which will protect the internal structures, keep warm and cool in the house. Insulation consists of several layers: waterproofing, vapor barrier and heat insulation. In some cases, when using roofing materials with low noise absorption, they also equip noise insulation.
Creating an insulating cake begin to do with laying a layer of waterproofing over rafters. To do this, you can use different films and membranes, which will reliably protect against the ingress of moisture inside and simultaneously pass the excess out. We start laying the materials themselves from bottom to top, blowing them with an overlap of 15-20 cm. As an attachment, we use wooden slats 25 mm thick. These slats are contra-grills and are attached to the rafters along. It should be noted that the counter grille allows you to equip a good ventilation of the roof. We lay the main crate on top of the counter-lattice, which goes perpendicular to the rafters and to which the roof will be fixed.
Important! There are two types of crates: solid and discharged. The first is used for soft and roll roofing materials. The second for materials such as slate, tiles, galvanized sheet.
Having finished with a waterproofing and an obreshetka, we start arrangement of thermal insulation. As a heater used various materials. The most popular of them are mineral wool, glass wool and foam. But today, other heat-insulating materials can be found on the market, which are more suitable for roof insulation and at the same time are not inferior in characteristics to those already familiar. Among such foamed glass, algae ladders, extruded polystyrene foam. Choosing one or another material for roof insulation, you should focus on its characteristics:
- Thermal conductivity should be, the lower the better.
- Specific gravity. The smaller, the thicker the layer can be made without strengthening the structure.
- Resistant to moisture. The higher it is, the better.
- As well as the fire hazard and environmental friendliness of the material.
Important! Having chosen mineral or glass wool as thermal insulation, you should be prepared for the fact that it absorbs moisture very well, losing its insulating properties. Even creating an excellent waterproofing, cotton wool will draw in moisture from everywhere like a sponge.
Himself insulation material is laid between the rafters. As noted earlier, the rafters pitch is matched to the size of the insulation. Therefore, mats or slabs simply fit tightly between the rafters. On top of the insulation, a vapor barrier film is attached, which is fixed with wooden slats nailed to the rafters in 50 cm steps.
Important! If further planning of the attic is planned, then the heat-insulating layer should be strengthened. This is done very simply. On top of the thermal insulation laid between the rafters and on top of the rafters themselves another, already solid, layer of thermal insulation is placed. For these purposes, perfect extruded polystyrene foam with a selected quarter in the end. This is necessary because the rafters act as cold bridges; in addition, if there are small gaps somewhere, a continuous layer will block them.
The final stage of the construction of a two-sided roof with your own hands is the laying of the roof. There are many different roofing materials on the market today. The choice depends on the financial capabilities and the wishes of the owners. The most popular are metal tiles, shingles and slate sheets. In many ways, this popularity is due to the ease of installation and reliability of these materials. Regardless of which roof was chosen, its installation comes from the bottom up. Thus, an overlap of the sheets is ensured, which makes it possible to run out of water and not get inside.
The construction of a gable roof with his own hands is a very important matter. The slightest error in the calculations in the design and construction will result in additional costs or a decrease in the reliability of the entire structure. If you have to perform such work for the first time, it is better to insure and invite an experienced master who will lead the work.
Duplex roof do it yourself: video instruction
Sources: http://vseokrovle.com/krysha/82-kak-postroit-kryshu-doma.html, http://kryshikrovli.ru/raboty/sdelat-pravilno.html, http://strport.ru/stroitelstvo- domov / kak-sdelat-dvukhskatnuyu-kryshu