The upper rafters of the attic roof can be an L-shaped structure. Truss legs between themselves can be joined end-to-end with the use of wooden or metal fixing lining, or by cutting in half-wood, using a bolted connection. It is recommended to fit the first pair of rafters in place, which is then dismantled and used as a template. Prepared trusses are installed in the standard order – first extreme, then the rest with constant leveling.
At the last stage of the creation of the roofing structure, the installation of the batten, the installation of waterproofing, the creation of the ventilation clearance, the installation of the roofing covering are carried out with their own hands. On the inside, heat insulation and vapor barrier are fixed, and sheathing is mounted. In the video you can get acquainted with the technology works.
Make a roof attic svim hands
With the attic can not only increase the number of rooms used. The structure with a high slope of the roof looks more solid and presentable, while its construction is less expensive than the construction of a full-fledged two-story building. To learn how to make a roof attic with your own hands, read this article.
Choosing the type of roof and roof system
For the arrangement of the attic most often used two types of roofs:
• ordinary gable. the roof has two inclined slopes, its ends are closed by triangular walls – gables;
• polyline. each of the slopes is additionally divided into two more, located at a different angle; while the angle of inclination of the top is much smaller; the ends (gables) have the shape of a pentagon.
Broken and gable roofs
Building a dual roof is certainly much simpler. But the mansard rooms in it, unfortunately, will be close, and the ceilings are too low. Therefore, for the arrangement of a comfortable attic more often use broken gable roofs with a small (40-45 °) tilt angle of the slopes. And the smaller this angle, the more spacious will be the attic room. However, the construction of a more complex broken structure will require the mandatory device of additional connections between the rafters (inclined beams that serve as a roof frame).
There are two types of roof systems:
• slashes. rafters are based only on the outer walls;
• Hanging. additionally rely on capital partitions.
The first option is used only in the absence of such partitions. But, since the load on the load-bearing walls in this case is rather high, it is possible to build floor structures only when the distance between the capital walls is up to 8 m. In other cases, it is better to use more durable hanging structures.
Suspended and hanging truss systems
On broken mansard roofs, mounted systems are most often mounted. in which the rafters coming from the ridge, make hanging, and the lower side – naslonnymi. Such a device is especially effective for roofs with a small slope.
Combined truss system
Gable broken roof frame
To get a full attic with a ceiling height of 2.5 m, the height of the roof to its bend must be 3.1 m. The recommended inclination angles are 60 and 30 ° (the upper part of the rafter can be inclined 15-45 °).
Mauerlat – lower roof support, laid on the upper part of the bearing external walls:
1. When constructing a gable roof, the mauerlat is mounted on both sides of the building at the location of the rafters. Thanks to him, the load from the weight of the roof is evenly distributed over the entire surface of the wall. With a small mass of the roof allowed its installation only under the rafter legs, but in our case it should fit around the perimeter of the wall.
2. For the manufacture of mauerlat used coniferous timber 100 × 150 mm. To prevent the wood from rotting, it is better to separate it from the wall with a waterproofing layer. For these purposes, most often use roofing material or bitumen.
3. Mauerlat is attached to the base with threaded rods for a wide washer. To do this, it drilled holes exactly the size of the mountings. At the same time, their frequency should be not less than the number of truss legs, but not more than 2 m.
4. In the brick walls it is mounted on wooden cork. To strengthen the mounting plate in the masonry, you can provide special pockets. where it will be laid. Allowed to lay in the laying of a special wire (wire rod). with the help of which the mauerlat is screwed to the base. In the construction of buildings of aerated concrete or concrete slabs in the walls for it provides for armored with thick metal studs inserted. Their length should be enough for girth mauerlat and tightening the lock nut.
5. In wooden buildings, the upper log of a log or timber is used as a mauerlat.
In wooden houses, the upper log of a log house can serve as a maeurlat.
Installation of runs and struts
The most common way to build a mansard roof is the following algorithm:
1. The first to fit the power plates.
2. For the convenience of movement on the roof of the prepared temporary flooring, replacing scaffolding.
3. Next, the U-shaped frame of the posts (vertical beams that transfer the load from the ridge), crossbars (horizontal stretch marks) and girders are mounted.
Installing a U-shaped roof frame
Terms used in construction
Runs are called additional horizontal beams. They can be:
• ridge. the upper part of the rafters is supported on such a run, they may not be used in broken mansard roofs;
• side. are evenly spaced throughout the roof slope, their number may be different and depends on the size of the roof itself and its angle of inclination.
4. On the finished frame are laid rafters of durable timber 50 × 150 mm. Additional rigidity of the truss legs is attached with the help of struts (diagonal beams used to strengthen the structure, set at an angle of 45 °, sometimes they are called subrafter legs).
Fixing truss legs
There are two types of mounting rafters:
• tough. on metal brackets, bolts or using a combination of wire and nails;
• sliding (articulated). in the case of house movement, the rafters move along the mauerlat along the “sled” provided in the fixings.
Hard rafter connection
The articulated version is more reliable, since it allows to avoid displacements or even ruptures of roof elements during seasonal ground movements. When constructing wooden houses prone to shrinkage, such anchorage also helps the roof “tune in” to the new position of the walls.
Hinged truss legs
Types of rafters
Council To determine the location of the upper rafters, you should make a temporary rack of several bars and nail it to the power plate so that the upper part falls exactly on the center line of the roof. On it, you can easily align the upper rafters.
The upper part of the mauerlat should be bevelled. To avoid mistakes, it is better to make a template from a thinner board, which is applied to the girder and draw on it the form of gash. In case the lower part of the rafters is attached to the gash, they are cut out already in place.
Watch the video on how to make a roof attic with your own hands:
Mansard roof do it yourself
Equipment attic room significantly increases the living space of the house. Even an unheated room will serve as additional thermal insulation of the dwelling.
The mansard roof is made in the form of a broken gable design. but there are many other options:
- the classic gable roof is characterized by simple calculations, the work on the construction of rafters is feasible for the beginner as well, its disadvantage is the low ceiling;
- sloping – a simple type of roof, providing one full wall in the attic;
- tent, having four slopes of the same size;
- Multi-tongs – an attractive and balanced, but complex structure.
House scheme with mansard roof
The gable broken mansard roof of the house allows you to get a sufficient height of the ceilings in the room and expand the comfortable area. For its construction will require a well-designed project. Creating it yourself is not an easy task; you can order it from a construction company or use a special computer program. The design scheme will allow to calculate the required amount of material for the rafters, insulation, waterproofing, roofing. The angle of slope for the roof slopes is calculated taking into account the recommendations of the manufacturer of roofing materials, in addition, the climatic conditions are taken into account – snow and wind load.
Features gable sloping roof
Rafter roof system
The lower part of the truss system is installed at an angle of 60 °. its supporting pillars become the framework for the interior walls of the room. The angle at the top of the rafter does not exceed 45 °. what allows to reduce amount of the used material, but not to the detriment of quality of a covering. Additional rigidity to the frame of the room is given by the struts, which are attached to the floor beam and the lower part of the rafters.
Warming attic mineral wool
A layer of insulation should be at least 20 cm, this thickness will provide sufficient insulation and keep the room from freezing in winter and excessive heating in summer. An insufficient layer of insulation will lead to regular heat loss and heated snow. Due to repeated melting and freezing, the roofing material will quickly become unusable. In the heat of summer to find an unprotected attic will require the installation of a powerful air conditioner. All these problems are eliminated while observing the norms of warming.
Before you make a mansard roof, the wood used for the construction of the structure must be processed to protect against damage by microorganisms and from fire. It is important arrangement of ventilation, allowing to get rid of excess moisture.
Sound insulation is of great importance, because being directly under the roof, you will clearly hear the blows on the roof, especially if you use a metal coating.
The choice of insulation
As the insulation used mineral wool or foam glass and polystyrene foam. Foam materials do not absorb moisture like cotton wool, so they will last longer. Extruded polystyrene has the ability to absorb sound and will become a good sound insulation. Foamed glass does not burn, it is frost-resistant, does not rot, does not let moisture through. Mineral wool is affordable, it is thick enough for insulation, easy to install. Elastic basalt wool does not burn, it fits comfortably between the rafters and is characterized by high durability.
Basalt wool insulation
- beam thickness 150 × 150 mm for beams, 100 × 150 mm – for a power plate, 150 × 150 mm – for racks;
- board 50 × 150 mm;
- unedged board;
- fasteners: nails, screws, corners, staples;
- battens for crates;
- roll waterproofing;
- vapor barrier membranes;
- roofing material.
The article does not describe the design of a certain size. How much material you need, you can find out using the calculator to calculate the attic roof.
Stages of construction
- Along the perimeter of the structure is laid support beam – mauerlat. It is attached to the bearing walls and transfers the load from the rafters to the base of the building. To the brick or block walls, the mauerlat is attached with embedded anchors or studs. Mark a place for drilling holes for mounting can be tape measure or by attaching a timber on the wall and crushing it until the appearance of dents. Roofing material must be laid under the timber for waterproofing. Mauerlat is put on anchors and secured with nuts.
- Floor beams are durable coniferous timber. They are placed on the mauerlat and extend beyond the perimeter of the walls by 0.5 meters in order to increase the area of the attic. Another way – mounting in special pockets left in the clutch. The ends of such bars must be covered with mastic and roofing material to protect against moisture. Beams fasten with screws and corners. Extreme bars laid on the level to properly install the rest of the tension cord. The optimal spacing of beams is 0.6 m, it allows laying insulation without trimming. All beams are aligned in height, with an insufficient level – they enclose the boards; if a beam protrudes, it is cut off.
- Vertical pillars are attached to the extreme beams. Their height and installation location is determined by the drawing. After being placed vertically with a level and a plumb line, the racks are temporarily fixed by the stitches from the board. After fixing the extreme poles, a cord is drawn between them, along which the remaining bars are installed. Each rack is placed on the beam and temporarily fixed, it turns out two parallel rows.
- Racks are fastened with girders – boards, this element is necessary to impart rigidity to the structure. On top of the girder, place the bolt that connects the racks on opposite sides. Tightening is attached to the posts with metal corners. The complex of these elements limits the attic room. To make the structure stronger, the struts are subsequently installed.
- Before installing the lower rafters made a template that facilitates the work. In order not to check each time how to properly saw off the upper part of the rafters, take a board and, attaching it to the girder, cut it at the right angle. This will be the template. At the bottom of the rafters, which are attached to the mauerlat, a groove is cut. If the lower rafters are supported by the beam, they are trimmed in place and fastened with angles, screws and nails.
- Before you build the upper rafters, it is necessary to note the center of the roof. For convenience, you can nail the board to the mauerlat and end tightening, it will serve as a guideline for aligning the rafters. To be able to trim the upper rafters on the ground, make a template. To do this, take the board and applied to the girder and sawn at an angle. The template runs all the rafters, when the racks are installed correctly, they are all the same size. The upper part of the hanging rafters is fastened with metal plates or scraps of the board. Places docking with runs are fastened with corners. The first installed extreme truss legs, then the rest. Suspended racks of 25 × 150 mm timber connect the rafter attachment points to each other and tighten.
- The lower rafters require reinforcement with struts; for this purpose they use a plank bolted to the rafter and the supporting beam. After installing all the strut remove temporary support. Having assembled the complete truss structure, they sew up the gables.
Roof Pie Laying
The vapor barrier membrane is attached to the roof structure with a stapler. Spreading of cloths starts from the eaves, it is necessary to stack them with an overlap of 15 cm and fasten with tape. A heater is laid on top, the material fits tightly, leaving no gaps. To fix the insulation stuffed crate. It is made of slats, the width of which is from 10 to 15 cm, and thickness – 5 cm. This part of the work ends with the interior decoration of the room.
From the outside on the rafters is mounted waterproofing, protecting the roof from water. The material is fixed with a crate to which the roof covering will be mounted. The pitch between the slats depends on the type of material. Soft roof needs a continuous crate. therefore, the entire area of the attic roof is sewn with sheets of plywood, providing a smooth and durable base.
When sheathing gables leave space for windows, if they are provided in the design.
Work on the independent erection of the roof is a complex and painstaking process. Using the experience of the masters who share the secrets of construction in the provided video will help to understand the sequence and nuances of the installation of the roof.
This video shows how to make a roof attic:
The author of this video will tell how to calculate the attic scheme taking into account the loads on it:
Sources: http://vseokrovle.com/mansardnaja/66-mansardnaja-krysha-svoimi-rukami.html, http://svoimi-rukamy.net/69-mansardnaya-krysha.html, http://kakpravilnosdelat.ru/ mansardnaya-krysha-svoimi-rukami /