How to make a ribbon foundation for the house

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Sand leveling

If you need to level the territory, if the soil in your area is problematic, heterogeneous and unpredictable, then we advise you to make a protective sand pad. For a strip foundation, a sand cushion for formwork should be about 40-50 cm in height. But this figure should be reached only after careful tamping. The thicker the cushion, the less deformation can be expected from the foundation under the influence of soil heaving. But the thickness of the pillow can vary considerably depending on the climate. For example, in the same England, a height of 20 cm is the norm for a sand cushion.

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Concrete preparation under the strip foundation

  How to make a ribbon foundation for the house

Sand pillow device diagram.

Concrete preparation is a layer of “lean” concrete or rubble, lined under the bulk of the foundation. It is designed to protect the mass of the foundation from the loss of concrete milk, helps to quickly achieve the necessary conditions for the foundation of the house, helps to more evenly distribute the load on the ground and facilitates the creation of a reinforcement base for the strip foundation.

For concrete preparation cement M300 or M400 is used.

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Waterproofing strip foundation

To waterproof the concrete strip foundation is a very complex and demanding process. Its essence is to maximize the protection of the base from moisture penetration; various materials are used for this. Waterproofing is divided into two types: horizontal and vertical. The first method is associated with the use of rolled materials (primarily ruberoid), and the second is aimed at isolating the foundation from the effects of external moisture and is divided into anti-pressure and non-pressure.

Anti-pressure waterproofing is performed with paints, plaster and various lubricant mixtures, which are applied to the insulated surface. In the role of isolation are often made of lime powder and bitumen mastic, which are applied to the entire surface of the foundation, and the top is covered with a sheet of roofing material.

Non-pressure waterproofing is significantly different in appearance. To do this, along the entire perimeter of the foundation, a trench is dug 20-30 cm deep. This trench is then filled with plastic clay, covered with sand, and all this is compacted. After that, the surface is cemented and a rain gutter is installed.

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We start laying concrete

Concrete mortar preparation scheme.

Before you start laying concrete, you need to make a protective tie. This is a thin layer of concrete, which covers the trench, later will be installed reinforcing “skeleton”. This step will significantly increase the service life of the strip foundation and protect it from deformation. The screed solution is made from M200 or M300 brand concrete, mixing it with sand in a 1: 4 ratio.

The next step is to fill the foundation with concrete. Before it is necessary to lay a metal grid. The consistency of the concrete must be thick, and after pouring, the concrete is poured over with water, ensuring maximum impregnation of the whole structure. After that, the concrete should be allowed to dry for about two days, then cover with plastic wrap and leave alone for a month.

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Frame reinforcement

It is better to reinforce with the help of specialists, but for a beginner to do it quite well. To do this, you need to purchase three types of reinforcement: the thickest longitudinal reinforcement (diameter 12 mm), transverse (10 mm) and vertical reinforcement (10 mm). To begin with, vertical posts are installed, to which other types of fixtures are fastened, fastened together with the help of knitting wire.

The scheme of reinforcement strip foundation.

The rods can also be welded together, which will even better affect the working qualities of the structure. The assembled structure is put on the formwork and should externally resemble armor, which will take on a solid load. In Figure 1 you can see how it should look.

One of the crucial points of reinforcement is a bunch of corners. It is the corners that are the first to suffer from deformation, and you need to carefully consider this element of the formwork. Bend the reinforcement and stick it into the wall of the corner, and the other end into the opposite wall.

Pre-measure the distance carefully. Both ends must enter the walls of the strip foundation. Carefully check each element and be patient, as this step in building the foundation is very important.

The higher the expected load on the strip foundation, the less should be the step in reinforcement (the distance between the bars of the reinforcement). It can range from 10 to 25 millimeters. As a result of your activity, a single crate should be formed, durable and neat.

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Installation of foundation formwork

If you did everything correctly, then proceed to the installation of formwork for strip foundation. Here a lot depends on the size of the building. If you want to build a small and light house, then you can get by with a simple formwork installed at once in a trench. If the house is large, then the installation of formwork begin gradually, starting from the bottom of the trench. It is also necessary to establish stiffness angles and additionally strengthen all sides in order to avoid further deformation. The second option is a wall formwork necessary for concreting the base and walls of the basement.

After preparing the trench, metal pegs are driven into its bottom at such a distance from the walls so that it is possible to insert formwork boards between them, plus a gap of 10-12 mm. The external part of the formwork is strengthened with the help of various supports that will stop the deformation of the formwork under the pressure of the poured concrete. There are three types of supports: horizontal, vertical and diagonal. If the width of the foundation exceeds half a meter, then it is necessary to use the entire range of supports.

There is a fixed form of formwork. It is not removed and after drying the concrete remains a constructive part of the building. Fixed formwork has a number of very important advantages over conventional:

The scheme of the device formwork for strip foundation.

  1. First of all, it greatly facilitates installation.
  2. Significantly accelerates the work of mounting formwork.
  3. It is an additional protection against noise and heat loss.
  4. Resistance to temperature daily and annual differences increases.
  5. Does not rot and practically does not decompose (if made of expanded polystyrene).
  6. Provides excellent waterproofing.
  7. The service life is huge (about 80 years).
  8. Provide convenient installation of communications.
  9. Economical.

The sequence of installation of permanent formwork:

  1. Lay out the ruberoid or another roll waterproofing material.
  2. Along the perimeter of the future foundation, insert the reinforcement.
  3. Attach the formwork blocks to the reinforcement.
  4. Insert the horizontal bars of the reinforcement through the holes.
  5. After the third layer can be filled with concrete.
  6. Carry out tamping (either manually or using special equipment).

Using wood as a formwork material has both positive and negative points. Boards are easy, and they can be used quite widely, quickly and without special equipment. The disadvantages are their instability to deformation and hygroscopicity. Partially, these problems can be solved by strengthening the stiffness angles of the structure and its additional fasteners.

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Concreting strip foundations

Foundation can be poured in two ways: manual and mechanized. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. The choice is usually made depending on the type of construction objects.

Concreting the foundation with your own hands is a fairly simple and cheap way to complete this phase of construction. The first step is to purchase ready-mixed concrete.

Welding scheme of reinforced joints.

At one time, usually no more than 5-8 cubic meters are delivered. It will take a team of at least five workers. It is impossible to pour the foundation at once, it needs to be poured in several places, since, whatever the concrete liquid, it will not spill on its own throughout the formwork.

Several points are needed through which the concrete solution will be poured, although it is possible to use a long gutter, with which you can evenly distribute the concrete, without moving. The gutter can be either ready-made or hand-made from wood and lined with polyethylene or other insulating material.

Mechanized pouring of concrete is to use a concrete pump. With the help of a special arrow, concrete can be removed and delivered to any point (up to 50 m) of the site. Concrete ordering and casting with the help of a concrete pump is both more convenient and more efficient and of higher quality, but its cost will be 10-15% higher.

The implementation of this step-by-step instruction is the key to the success of creating a strong foundation.

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

October 20, 2015

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

A few additions: 1. If you need to perform high-quality waterproofing liquid rubber, it is desirable to apply geotextiles over the entire surface. Consumption.

September 23, 2015

How and what to make the top border of the foundation lining (natural stone. Plitnyak)?

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How to make a tape foundation

The foundation of any structure is the foundation. If you need to build a cottage, country house, garage, bathhouse or other building, first of all, the most suitable type is chosen, it is he who is responsible for the stability, durability, general condition of the whole building. How to make a tape foundation correctly and securely? The construction of the foundation ultimately ensures the durability and safety of the structure.

The construction is more rational on dry and loamy soils, where there is no deep freezing of the soil.

The tape bases today are the most demanded among the most different types of the bases of buildings. This can be explained by the acceptable cost of arrangement of this type, the ability to do this work with your own hands, materials that are needed for work. Therefore, we will dwell on them in more detail and describe how to do this in the most qualitative and effective way.

Tips for choosing

For monolithic strip foundations, the reinforced mesh is laid in two vertical rows and filled with M-200 concrete

Construction of the tape foundation is recommended on dry ground, if the level of freezing is not deep. This type of foundation is properly made for the construction of a wide variety of buildings, if the construction provides for the presence of a basement, subfloor or basement.

Most of all, this type is in demand when the construction of small buildings is envisaged – garages, bathhouses, gazebos, various household structures that they build with their own hands. In this case, usually, a shallow foundation is chosen.

If construction is planned on deep-frozen, heaving soils, a deep foundation foundation should be erected, but this will be irrational, as the complexity of the process will increase, the cost of work will also increase by an order of magnitude. This statement is quite true if you build a solid casting foundation.

Before the construction of the foundation, it is necessary to determine the composition of the soil: heaving or non-peeling, finely frozen or deep-frozen.

For such cases, more suitable precast strip foundation. which is assembled from FBS blocks. Of course, for its construction will require a truck crane, but such a strip foundation will be a good wall for the basement, it will quickly build and there is no need to wait for the concrete to stand.

So we looked at the criteria for choosing the type of strip footing from the existing types:

  • solid cast;
  • assembly;
  • shallow depth;
  • strip foundation of deep occurrence.

Above the zero mark the removal of the basement begins. A waterproofing layer is constructed between the basement and the walls, consisting of two layers of roofing material, glued to the bitumen mastic. Plinth leveling with mortar.

Materials and tools

The excavated trench should be checked for moisture. If a day after digging a trench is dry, then the groundwater is far and a depth of 30-50 cm is enough for a strip foundation.

The material for the tape solid foundation are:

  • gravel or crushed stone;
  • a broken brick or a rubble stone can stand out;
  • cement;
  • sand;
  • water.

Concreting mortar, most often, is prepared at the place of pouring with your own hands, using the following mechanisms and tools:

To fill the strip foundation with your own hands, you can order ready-made concrete in a car mixer. This will greatly facilitate and accelerate the work. The choice of concrete is due to the load and soil characteristics, namely, its humidity and the level of groundwater.

Foundation preparation

The formwork frame is assembled from boards. It should be borne in mind that the foundation should be at least 20 cm wider than future walls.

Around the perimeter of the future building for the device must dig a trench, which will pass under the bearing inner and outer walls of the building. Quite often, the foundation and provide for the walls, stoves, fireplaces, possible equipment. For the basement should dig a pit. This work does not do it yourself, you should involve earth-moving equipment.

When planning the location of pits and trenches, be sure to consider the level of the maximum allowable slope of earthen slopes. If the work is carried out on loamy or dense clay soils, the height of the vertical walls can reach 1-1.2 meters.

Having dug a foundation pit or a trench, they immediately start laying the cushion (regardless of its type), having previously removed the excess water and liquid soil. If the bottom of the trench or trench is sandy, then the “cushion” will consist of a layer of crushed stone 15–20 cm thick. A layer of sand (10–15 cm) must be poured onto the clay base of the trench, and then a layer of crushed stone.

Under this solid foundation, the preliminary work on this ends and concreting begins with the bottling or reinforcement, and for the precast strip foundation, it is still necessary to sand the “pillow” under the level.

In order to provide the foundation of the building with reliable protection from surface water or rain moisture, it is recommended to build a wide blind area, providing it with a slope from the walls of the building. It will promote the removal of excess moisture. The blind area must be equipped immediately, as the work on the device will be completed. At the beginning, a dimple of a meter width breaks out in the ground, into which it is necessary to lay thick clay. From above, everything is filled up with a layer of gravel-sand mixture and slightly compacted.

Formwork under the base

Steel rods are used for the reinforcement of the foundation, while the strength of the foundation increases markedly.

Ribbon foundation is always a concrete structure. To correctly and quickly, economically and reliably build a belt, including with his own hands, you need to learn how to handle concrete. Basically, to perform any work with concrete, a formwork is required, where the solution will be poured. The formwork is a wooden frame with tightly fitted boards, sheathed with other material that does not allow the cement mortar to pass through.

Tamping hard concrete occurs until such time as moisture appears on its surface, called “cement milk”, and it does not begin to shine. Outside the formwork is knocked for better filling concrete with small voids. The surface is smoothed with a bar moved from above the formwork along its boards.

It should take at least three hours to grab the concrete, after which its surface is filled with shavings, sawdust or sackcloth closes, and richly moistened with formwork. So the concrete should be watered with an interval of 3-4 hours for two to three days in hot weather. Then you need moisture for seven days, 2-3 times a day. The number of irrigations can be reduced if the wet concrete is covered with a polyethylene film.

Formwork is used for casting one of two options:

  • solid (constant) cross section;
  • with step expansion to a bottom.

For formwork most often used:

  • small or large shields;
  • contractions;
  • fittings and parts for fasteners.

If the method of constant cross-section is used, the beacons are first installed, which serve to determine the level at the bottom of the foundation and in the plan. Then the markers are painted on the beacons.

Formwork installation sequence

To facilitate and speed up the work of pouring the foundation, you can order a machine with a mixer, which is ready for pouring concrete.

Consider the process of installing a formwork with your own hands for strip footing with a rectangular section. On both sides of the foundation, at a distance of 3 or 4 meters, lighthouse shields are installed. To fix and give stability to the lighthouse shields should use struts and struts.To unite the lighthouse shields should use contractions. Shields and fights fasten tension hooks.

To ensure the necessary stability of the shields for the fights, you should install inventory struts that have a screw jack. With the help of screw jacks, the lighthouse shields can be easily aligned vertically. In order to ensure the preservation of the dimensions between the lighthouse shields, they should be connected with their own hands with spacers. Wedge clamps are used to secure the spacers. Other shields in the formwork are connected between the contractions and the lighthouse shields using tension hooks or spring clips are used.

For more convenient concreting of the formwork with their own hands, it is equipped with mounted ladders and work sites. If the length is very large, then it should be divided into separate grippers. Disassembly of formwork produced in reverse order.

To build your own formwork step section, you can apply one of two technological schemes.

When using the first scheme, the formwork of the lowest level is collected and concreted. After the concrete has set, a second formwork is collected in the first stage and it is also poured with concrete. So continue to complete the fill.

There is another method for installing formwork for a stepped strip footing. In this case, formwork is placed immediately flush with the height of the foundation.

First, the shields of the first, lowest, stage are installed. Shields are combined with the help of contractions and fasteners. Then ordinary shields are set up, which are attached to the contractions. Fixing the position of the bottom of the shields is made using inventory or wooden wedges and inserts.

Beams are placed on the upper belt of the first row of shields, which should be fixed with overlays. The beams are applied risks that indicate the position of the planes of the boards of the second tier. Longitudinal contractions are set at risk. For fights attach shields of the next level.

Shields are united by upper contractions, and between themselves the shields are combined with keys and spring clips. To ensure the specified size, temporary struts and tie bars are installed at a distance of 3 to 4 meters. To ensure the desired stability of the second level shields should be fastened with struts with screw jacks.

Waterproofing construction

Seizure of concrete occurs 3 hours after pouring, after which it must be watered with water every 3-4 hours and covered with a film to retain moisture.

Waterproofing, in its essence, is a whole series of actions aimed at eliminating the penetration of water into the premises, as well as ensuring the preservation of the walls, foundation and structure as a whole. Therefore, waterproofing is so important and its correct implementation.

The depth of the bookmark do-it-yourself directly depends on the severity of the building and the ground. At the same time, the heavier the design, the further the strip foundation goes deeper into the ground. Sometimes the depth of such foundations can be about 3 meters. Quite often, the strip foundation is a basement wall.

In such cases, it is very difficult to ensure that water does not penetrate under the house. The arrangement of internal drainage systems, which is one of the actions that additionally protect the foundations, helps in such situations. But the device of internal drainage systems can lead to the fact that the house simply proyadyad, and the foundation and walls will give cracks. The tape monolithic, in comparison with the national team, is slightly less flushed, but it is also not without certain flaws.

The full setting of the foundation is more dependent on climatic conditions, on average, one week is enough.

Waterproofing can be properly arranged with his own hands by several methods:

  1. Waterproofing plating fixed formwork.
  2. Penetrating waterproofing by impregnation with polymeric resins.
  3. Gluing waterproofing using rolled waterproofing materials.

Often used to protect the strip foundation of the house, the so-called two-level waterproofing. It lies in the fact that those layers that are in the ground, protect against water penetration by plating with roofing material, and the ground parts are impregnated with special mineral compounds.

Permanent formwork is a rather expensive method of waterproofing. But his long life allows you to talk about the need to use this method. And together with the internal drainage system such waterproofing will be capital and reliable.

Independent installation

It is not so difficult to build a strip foundation with your own hands. First of all, you should familiarize yourself with certain technological features of the arrangement, then – the necessary calculations are performed correctly, after that, anyone can save well during the construction phase of the foundation.

When the site is selected and the design of the building is ready, the soils are studied and the type of foundation is selected, you can properly equip the strip foundation.

Works aimed at arranging strip foundations. it is customary to begin with the process of marking its base. As a rule, a construction is made with their own hands, the width of which does not exceed 40 cm – this is quite enough for a low-rise building.

How to make a tape foundation with your own hands: from marking the site to pouring concrete

Strip marking and ground work

Unlike the pile and screw base. Ribbon is perfect for the construction of buildings with basements, basements and underground. However, on the heaving soil, this option will be quite expensive – it is best to build a strip foundation on dry soil, which swells less than wet. It will also be unprofitable to fill the foundation of a tape type to a greater depth, but for small houses, baths and garages it will work best.

Since the preparation of the base for construction takes almost a third of the total cost of construction, you should figure out in advance how to make a strip foundation correctly. It is also necessary to investigate the type of soil on the site and the depth of its freezing, in order to understand whether this type of foundation is suitable for you at all. Subsequently, correcting your mistakes will be much more difficult.

Video about building strip foundations for home

This article will help you figure out how to make a strip foundation for a bath, garage, house or other private buildings without unnecessary trouble, in a short time. And for those who need to visually present how a tape foundation is being made with their own hands, the video is attached to the appropriate tab.

Before you build a strip foundation, you need to clear the area of ​​excess debris and begin to mark it. In accordance with the prepared project of a garage, bath or house, it is necessary to put on the ground the outer and inner borders of the future foundation. This is done with the help of available tools: wooden pegs or rods of reinforcement and rope (wire, solid fishing line).

It is necessary to put on earth the external and internal boundaries of the future foundation

How to mark the strip foundation ideally smoothly so that you do not have to move the pegs from place to place:

  • start the markup with determining the axis of the future building;
  • Using a plumb line, mark the first corner, and from it perpendicularly pull the cord or fishing line to the second and third corner of the building;
  • then by the square is determined by the fourth angle;
  • check all the corners by measuring the diagonals – if the angles coincide, you can drive in the pegs and draw a fishing line between them;
  • in the same way, make the internal marking, departing from the outside by 40 cm (the optimal width of the foundation).

When finished with the markup, examine the surface drops on the area and select the lowest point. From here it will be necessary to begin the counting of the depth of the trench, in order to exclude further the difference in the height of the foundation. For a small house, the depth of the pit will be about 0.4 m.

The pit can be dug with a hand shovel or with an excavator. Just do not dig at the eye – be sure to check with the water level so that the bottom of the trench is as even as possible, such a precaution will help to avoid many problems in the future. Do not forget that the walls of the trench should be strictly vertical.

The pit can be dug with a hand shovel or with an excavator

Installation of formwork and fittings

At the bottom of the excavated trench, a sand cushion is arranged, which not only reduces the load in the offseason on the foundation, distributing it over the entire area of ​​the foundation, but also saves building materials. Pour sand with a layer of at least 150 mm, level the surface with a water level and tamp it down with water. A layer of rubble can be poured over the sandy pillow and waterproofed in the form of roofing material or plastic film to enhance the strength of the strip foundation.

Before pouring the strip foundation, it will be necessary to build a formwork of the available materials – plywood, wooden boards, pieces of metal tiles, etc. The formwork is twisted with screws or knocked down with nails, while the nail heads are placed inside, so that it is easier to disassemble the structure, and the walls of the foundation are smoother. The installed formwork should protrude at least 30 cm above the ground. Inside the formwork, stretch the rope along the entire perimeter at the level to which you will pour the foundation. Immediately take care of the holes for sewer and water pipes, otherwise you will have to cut them later, violating the integrity of the concrete monolith.

The formwork is screwed or hammered.

The next step will be the installation of reinforcement. Tie rebars with a cross section of 12 mm with special knitting wire so that the sides of the square cells are 30 cm. Welding is better not to use, because corrosion will show up in the welding areas, and wire knitting in addition provides the flexibility of the structure when the ground moves. Putting the reinforcement in the trench, make sure that there is a 5 cm indent from all sides, then the reinforcement will be inside the monolith.

How is the foundation tape casting

Now let’s figure out how to properly fill the strip foundation. Calculate how much concrete you need by multiplying the height, length, and width of the foundation. You can prepare a concrete solution by yourself, mixing 3 parts of sand, 5 parts of rubble and one part of cement, diluting with water to the optimum consistency. But it is better to use factory-made concrete, because at one time you will not be able to pour ready-made concrete, as a result “cold joints” and cold walkways are formed, through which water will later seep through, destroying the foundation. If you fill the foundation with the machine, make sure that there is access for pouring from any angle of the formwork, and that the solution in the machine has not managed to harden – if necessary, dilute it with water.

Video about casting strip foundations

Here’s how to fill the tape foundation (video attached to the article, this crucial process does not affect):

  • concrete is poured a little, in layers of 20 cm;
  • each poured layer is carefully rammed with special wooden rammers to prevent the formation of voids in the monolith;
  • with the same purpose it is necessary to knock the walls of the formwork;
  • pouring is carried out to the level of a fixed rope;
  • after the completion of the work, the surface of the poured foundation is leveled with a trowel, pierced in several places with reinforcement (so that air can escape), the formwork is tapped outside with a wooden hammer.

Fill up to the level of a fixed rope

So, we have figured out how to make a strip foundation, now it remains only to wait until it dries completely – this may take about a month. At this time, cover the foundation with waterproof materials for the night, so that the rain does not wash the cement off the surface, and water during the day in sunny weather to avoid cracking the upper layer. It is recommended to dismantle the formwork no earlier than two weeks after the foundation has been poured, and preferably a month later.

Sources: http://moifundament.ru/lentochnyj/fundament-kak-pravilno-sdelat.html, http://1pobetonu.ru/montazh/kak-sdelat-lentochnyj-fundament.html, http://orchardo.ru/ 135-kak-sdelat-lentochnyy-fundament-svoimi-rukami-ot-razmetki-uchastka-do-zalivki-betona.html

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