In general, it is possible to lay one beam 100-150 cm, but its price is much higher than two boards, which together give the same thickness, and correctly fastened two boards have a greater bearing capacity, although it takes more time to lay them. So that they work as a single timber, they are knocked down with nails in increments of 20 cm in a checkerboard pattern.
We put the strapping and logs
Next to the rail board is attached strapping. Its size is also 150-50 mm, but it is placed on the edge. It is leveled at the outer edge of the foundation, and is nailed with long nails (9 cm) to the sunbath every 40 cm.
Installation of the harness: according to the instructions, the assembly of the frame house continues with the installation of the harness to which. will lag the floor
The next stage is the installation and installation of the lag. These are the same boards 150 * 50 mm, put on the edge. They are attached with two oblique nails (9 cm) in the butt to the trimming board, two nails on the right and left to the bedside. So each lag on both sides.
Installation example floor lag
The photo shows that the first lag is set close to the second – this is how the load on the foundation is transmitted better. It is installed on the second edge of the bed. The installation step is 40-60 cm. It depends on the length of the span and the section of the sawmill used: the longer the length, the smaller the step.
Lay and fixed floor logs
If the lags are long and there is a cross beam, as in the photo above, the lags do not “leave” over the cross beam jumpers are packed. They are equal in length to the installation step lag minus twice the thickness of the board: if the step is lag 55 cm, the thickness of the board is 5 cm, then the jumper will be 45 cm long.
Insulation and flooring
After the base under the flooring is installed, it is time for floor insulation. It can be done in different ways, with different materials. We show the economy option – with expanded polystyrene plates with a density of 15 kg / m3 (more can be, less – no). Of course, it is not environmentally friendly, but the only one is not afraid of moisture and can be mounted without a subfloor. The calculated insulation thickness is 150 mm, two layers are laid: one is 10 cm, the second is 5 cm. The seams of the second layer should not coincide with the seams of the first (they are shifted).
For a start, a cranial bar of 50 * 50 mm is packed on the bottom edge of the log. It will hold the foam.
At the bottom there is a frame from a cranial bar that will prevent polystyrene foam from falling out.
Polyfoam is cut by a usual hacksaw. The canvas can be taken on a tree – it cuts faster, but it turns out a ragged edge or on metal – it goes slower, but the edge is smoother. The cut plates are laid in two layers, the seams overlap. Then, around the perimeter, they are glued with sealant – to ensure waterproofing.
Next, lay the rough floor of the boards, align it and lay plywood on top (better FSF 5-6 mm). In order not to twist the rough flooring of the boards, lay the boards interspersed with the direction of the wave. If you look at the cross-section of the board, the annual rings go in a semicircle. So, it is necessary for the arc to look up and then down (see photo).
How to properly lay the flooring of the boards
You can do without the flooring of the boards. Then the thickness of the plywood should be at least 15 mm. Consider what is more profitable in your area and choose.
In any case, the sheets should fit into the run – the seams should not be the same (as in the brickwork). Do not forget to leave a gap of 3-5 mm between the sheets of plywood to compensate for changes in size with changes in humidity.
Completed the second stage of building a frame house: flooring
Plywood is mounted on screws 35 mm long (better white – less waste) along the perimeter with a pitch of 12 cm, inside in a checkerboard pattern with a pitch of 40 cm.
Step 3: Frame Walls
There are two ways: the wall frame is assembled (all or part depends on the size) on the floor, then it rises, is exposed and fixed. Sometimes with this method, OSB, GVL, plywood are fastened directly to the floor on the outside of the frame: the rigidity is greater. This technology is called a frame-shield or “platform”. According to this principle, the factories mainly work: they build ready-made boards according to the project in the workshop, bring them to the site and only install them there. But the frame-shield housing construction is possible with your own hands.
One of the options for assembling a frame wall, the names of the elements
The second way: everything is going gradually, in place. The bar of the lower trim is hammered, the corner posts are set, then intermediate, the upper trim, etc. This is the technology called “frame housing construction” or “ballun”.
Assembling the frame of the walls with their own hands can be done gradually (technology ball) or blocks-shields (technology platform)
Which one is more convenient? It depends on how many people work and whether there is an opportunity, at least periodically, to attract assistants. It is faster and more convenient to work on the floor than to jump up / down the ladder countless times. But if the section is large, it will be difficult to lift it even together. Exit – or call assistants, or break the wall frame into small segments.
Installation step and cross-section of racks
Corner posts should be 150 * 150 mm or 100 * 100 mm depending on the load and the required width of insulation. For a single-story frame house, 100 mm is enough, for a two-story house – at least 150 mm. Intermediate racks in depth are the same as the corner, and their thickness – not less than 50 mm.
The step of installation of racks is chosen taking into account the load, but in reality it is more often selected on the basis of the insulation width. If you insulate with mineral wool in rolls or mats, first find out the actual width of the material. The clearance between the posts should be 2-3 cm less than the width of the insulation. Then there will be almost no waste; there will be no gaps and cracks through which it will be warm too. The density of the installation of insulation in the cage – the main point, because only it will serve as protection from the cold. The slightest violation will lead to the fact that the house will be cold. Therefore, the selection of insulation and its installation must be treated with full attention.
The option of gradual assembly of the frame of the house: the corner posts are set and fixed, the top trim is immediately mounted on them, then with the selected step vertical stands
Fastening racks is possible in several ways: wooden pins, with a hem or on the corners. The hem into the bottom trim should be no more than 50% of its depth. Corners are mounted on both sides. The fastening of the dowels is an old technology, but difficult to perform: they make long dowels, a hole is drilled through a stand and a bar of the bottom trim, a wooden thorn is driven into it, the surplus of which is cut off. It works well if the wood used is dry. If not, shrinking and loss of attachment rigidity are possible. Installation on reinforced corners is much easier.
According to Canadian technology, beams, to which windows and doors are attached, are made double. There is more load here, hence the support should be more powerful.
Reinforced racks near windows and doors are a must. Only in this way a frame house built with your own hands will be reliable.
Trims or bracing
If the outer plating is planned from high-strength plate material – OSB, GVL, GVK, plywood – mowing put temporary and inside the room. They are needed to align and maintain the geometry until the outer skin is attached. The strength of this material is enough to create the required rigidity.
If sheathing is planned to be made up from lining, etc. installation of permanent braids is required. And the best option is not those who put on several racks, but four small pieces each: two on top and two on the bottom (as in the photo below).
Such braces will give sufficient rigidity to the walls of the frame house.
Pay attention to the photo above the national team stand: two boards are knocked together with nails all over in a checkerboard pattern. These racks have an even greater carrying capacity than solid ones, cost less. This is a real way to reduce construction costs without losing quality. But time for construction increases: it is necessary to hammer nails a lot.
Corners of the frame house
Most questions arise when building corners. If you put a timber in the corner, then there seems to be no difficulty, except for the fact that the angle turns cold. In regions with a short and mild winter, this is not a problem, but already in central Russia requires some kind of solution.
Even with this option, the angle will be cooler
There are several ways to make the corner of a frame house warm. All of them are shown in the diagrams, so clearer.
When building a single-storey frame house, you can do so
With a residential second floor, the corners are made in one of these ways.
After assembling the frame, it is usually outside sheathed with OSB, plywood or other similar material.
Step 4: Overlap
Overlapping beams are based on the top trim bar. There are several ways to mount:
- on supporting steel brackets;
- on the corners;
- with sidebar;
Cutting – cutting depth should not exceed 50% of the thickness of the upper trim beam. From above it is hammered with two nails, which should enter the strapping not less than 10 cm. Corners – the usual method. You can use enhanced, but not necessarily Perforated staples – the shape may be different Ceiling Beam Mounting with Metal Brackets
The dimensions of the beams, the pitch of their installation depends on what will be on top. If the second residential floor or attic. the section is taken more, the step is taken less: so that the floor does not sag. If on top only the roof and the attic are supposed to be uninhabited – these are completely different calculations and sizes.
In this one-storeyed frame house, the floor beams are at the same time a support for the rafters. Because they are released at 30 cm for the perimeter of the walls
If the second floor is completed, the overlap is sheathed with a rough floor of the second floor. So working on the creation of the second floor of a frame house will be easier. Its assembly is no different from the construction of the first. Is it only the fact that all the lumber has to be dragged to the second floor.
Step 5: The rafter system and roofing material
When developing a house project on frame technology, the most popular are the gable or mansard roof. Their device is no different. All the same principles and calculations. The only restriction applies to the weight of the roofing: it must be lightweight material from which wooden beams and ceilings can withstand the load.
This is what the frame looks like before the trim. If the walls are not sheathed, slight fluctuations are felt when working on the truss system. The outer skin makes the frame much tougher. A gable roof with a raised puff was chosen. For the convenience of fixing truss legs along the edge of the floor joists, a bar of 50 * 50 mm was nailed. In the rafters under it was made gash. At installation, they at first simply rested in a bar, then fastened For fixing the rafters in a predetermined position before filling the crate, temporary jibs were used.
Step 6: Warming
It is possible to warm the frame house with any of the materials available on the market with the corresponding characteristics. They are all imperfect, but all problems have standard solutions.
Basalt wool is the most popular insulation for frame walls. It comes in the form of rolls or mats of different densities. It is more convenient to install mats in the walls: they are denser and keep themselves well due to arching force. To do this, as mentioned above, their size should be 2-3 cm longer than the distance between the legs of the frame. Mats, of course, are additionally fixed with special fasteners, but it is more convenient to work than with a soft roll.
The most common cake warming frame wall
Mineral wool has high thermal insulation characteristics, good sound insulation. But there is also a solid drawback: it is afraid of getting wet and it must be protected from all sides not only from moisture (rain), but also from steam penetration. Therefore, from the side of the room, it is covered with a layer of vapor barrier membrane, which prevents the pairs from penetrating inside.
From the side of the street, thermal insulation made of mineral wool is closed by another membrane, but of a different type with different characteristics: a hydro-wind-protective vapor-permeable membrane. It is not blown, from the side of the street it does not allow moisture in the liquid and gaseous state, and the pair can leave the insulation: vapor permeability is one-sided. After installing the insulation, only finishing work remains. Actually, all construction is over.
It looks like a basalt mat installed between the racks
Now you know how to build a frame house. Detailing some of the processes is far from complete, but you have a general assembly sequence. Perhaps you will be helped by another video from a professional carpenter who has been engaged in the construction of frame houses for decades (see below).
Video installation instructions for frame houses
These are three videos of a great carpenter, Larry Khon. Each of them lasting more than an hour. The technology of building a frame house on the finished foundation is painted in great detail.
According to this instruction, self-erection is possible without questions: all stages of building a frame house and small things are commented and explained, to the point of what kind of nails, how long, how many pieces with which step, to hammer in each node. Demonstrates the main problems that may arise and methods for correcting them. If you decide to build a frame house with your own hands, do not take the time – watch the movie. You will become much clearer.
The first part is the bottom trim and the floor.
The second part of the video is the device and assembly of frame walls.
The third part is the construction of the roof of a frame house.
If you still doubt whether it is worth building a frame house, this is probably because you heard that this is a bad technology, that it does not work for us. There is such an opinion. But it is based on the fact that in Canadian and American frame houses they put out of dry forest, humidity. no more than 20-22%. In our conditions, wood from the sawmill brings almost natural moisture, which is up to 60%. Because the house leads and turns, they become cold.
But if you are going to build a house with your own hands, what will prevent you from using dry wood? Chamber drying it is expensive, the difference per cubic is very decent – almost twice. But by folding the wood on the plot into ventilated piles, it can be dried up to the same 20-22% per year. Saturate or not before drying bioprotection you decide for yourself. Dry wood does not rot and is not damaged by fungi, but from insects it is desirable to saturate it with bioprotection.
An example of such an opinion in the video. Explaining why the technology is bad…
Frame house do it yourself. Step-by-step instruction of construction stages
Due to a number of advantages, frame and modular houses confidently lead in the rating of prefabricated structures, suitable not only for country use, but also for permanent residence. Light, not requiring a massive foundation, with high thermal protection, such constructions are not inferior to brick or block houses. In addition, there is always the opportunity to build a frame house with your own hands. Step-by-step instructions will help you understand the main stages of construction.
Competent project – a pledge of comfortable living conditions in the frame house
Frame house do it yourself. Step by Step Construction Instructions
The most affordable and fast construction technology is the construction of a frame house for permanent residence. Therefore, frame houses all over the world are so popular. Construction of the frame house 6×6 with their own hands, starting with the foundation and finishing with finishing works, can be carried out by a brigade of three people within two months.
Construction begins with the development of a competent project. You can build a frame house with your own hands, but it is better to entrust the project to professional designers. It should reflect the constructive, architectural, engineering, engineering sections and schemes of the frame house. It will be easy to embody engineering ideas with your own hands, strictly following all instructions.
Frame construction are becoming increasingly popular in the field of home construction
Photos of frame houses, the projects of which are developed by design organizations, clearly demonstrate the level of professionalism of designers. The network offers a lot of videos on how to build a frame house with his own hands.
Preparation and marking of the site under construction
Starting to build a frame house with their own hands, begin preparing the site for construction. For a qualitative marking the site is free from trees, bushes, grass, stones and debris. If the plot contains slope or unevenness in its relief, it is recommended to level it. All heights are cut to the required level, the ground is poured into the grooves.
Layout plot for the foundation
Starting the construction of a frame house with their own hands from scratch, produce marking for the foundation. To transfer data from the project to nature, it is necessary to mark the external dimensions of the house with the help of wooden pegs, as well as to outline the internal walls. All marking angles must be strictly maintained, since the future of the structure depends on it.
How to build a frame house with your own hands? For familiarization with the construction technology, it is recommended to watch a video lesson.
Video: do-it-yourself frame houses, step by step instructions
Laying the foundation of a frame house: instructions
The process of phased construction of a frame house with their own hands begins with the construction of the foundation. Given the ease of construction being constructed, there is no need to lay a massive foundation under it. For the foundation of a frame house with their own hands, they use columnar, tape (shallow-depth, prefabricated, monolithic), pile and other types of light foundations.
In our case, we take the basement foundation. This is a system of pillars installed in the corners of the future house, at the intersection of partitions and in other bearing points. The pillars are located around the perimeter at a distance of 2-2.5 m from each other. To do this, first arranged a shallow pit and sand pillow. When the foundation pit is ready, check the correctness of the marking with the diagonal method.
3D diagram of the arrangement of the column foundation
With the help of a drilling rig (motobura) or shovels dig holes for the columnar foundation. The formwork is installed, waterproofing is being laid and brick pillars are arranged. For waterproofing, you can use roofing felt or film.
If the posts are made of concrete or cement, reinforcement should be used. It can be equipped by strengthening the pillars on all sides with iron bars 12 mm in diameter. The reinforcement bars should protrude 15 cm above the post – this will provide a subsequent bundle of posts with a grillage. Reinforcement is horizontal and vertical. Horizontal wire jumpers (wire diameter of 6 mm will fit) are placed at a distance of 20 cm.
Pillar foundation with concrete grillage
The framework of the grillage is made of rods tied with steel wire. Formwork is collected from the boards, the dimensions of which must correspond to the parameters of the trench. Next, proceed to pouring the concrete solution, which is kneaded independently or acquire the finished mixture. Concreting is done in stages, each time stamping the mixture. At the end of the work, 50-cm long pins are inserted into the foundation, onto which the skeleton of the wooden frame house will be attached.
Acquainted with the work on the construction of the foundation can be from the video “How to build a frame house with your own hands.”
Binding of the base of the frame house: step by step instructions
After the foundation work has been completed, it takes at least a week for the concrete to set properly. Next, equip the waterproofing of the foundation of roofing material or waterproofing, laying it in two layers. The trim is made of timber section 150×150 cm
Helpful advice! When choosing a bar for the lower trim, take into account the distance between the supports of the columnar foundation. The larger it is, the thicker the timber should be. This will help avoid sagging.
The prepared timber is laid on the foundation around the perimeter, control the length of the walls, checking the data with the project. If the length of the beam is not enough for laying on one side of the perimeter, it is necessary to join them to each other. The timber is cut and joined so that the docking places fall on the foundation pillars. Docking is done by cutting locks at the ends of the bar (the inlet is 30 cm). In the corners of the uneven bars are connected by the same principle.
Frame house can be built in two months
Next, fix the timber to the foundation with studs or bolts. Drill holes in the timber and in the cap of the foundation. Speakers attachment points as possible deepen. The joints are fixed with nails. The foundation binding under the internal partitions is performed in the same way. For reliability it is recommended to fix the joints with metal corners.
Visually familiarize yourself with the implementation of tying the foundation can be from the video “Frame houses with your own hands.”
Device flooring frame house do it yourself: step by step instructions
Installation of the floor begins with fixing the log to the bars of the finished trim. A log with a section of 10×20 cm can be used as a log. In this role, the board can also act, but then it is necessary to install two boards together for rigidity. The frequency of the location of the lag is calculated taking into account the size of insulation plates, which should fit tightly between the lags. For example, if mineral wool with a 61 mm wide sheet will be used for insulation, the lagging pitch is set to 60 cm.
For fixing the log, nails and fixing angles are used. The lags do not fit flush with the timber, but retreating from the edge of the timber about 5 cm, where the boards covering the gap between the lags will then be attached. When all the logs are mounted, one or two transverse boards are nailed between them to make the structure rigid.
The scheme of arrangement of the floor frame house
The next step will be laying on the crate floor membrane waterproofing material, which is covered with the entire surface of the floor frame. On top of the membrane stack plate insulation. Insulation is positioned so that the butt line of the plates of the previous layer is closed with the middle of the plate of the next layer.
Helpful advice! For high-quality vapor and waterproofing, the corresponding material is recommended to overlap in order to avoid ingress of moisture or steam.
A vapor barrier film is laid on top of the insulation and only after that the floor is covered with special slabs. In addition to the plates, you can use plywood or board.
Lathing of the wooden frame of the house on a pile foundation
Numerous photos of the frame house with your hands with a phased fixation of work will help to understand the installation in detail.
The device walls of the frame house
The installation of the walls of a wooden frame house is done by assembling the frame structure. It can be wooden or metal. Oak is most often used for wooden frames, but other wood species can also be used. The frame is assembled according to the construction scheme of the frame house. With his own hands, a wall span first collects on the floor, and then the finished wall element is mounted to the floor.
Arrangement of a floor and walls of the frame house
At this stage, it is important to correctly make all measurements and calculations of the length and height of future walls. The distance between the racks is made on the basis of the width of the insulation plates, so that they clearly enter between the racks. In the case of using mineral wool as a heater, the step is made 1-2 cm less than the width of the material. All vertical racks are nailed to the top and bottom frame member. For reliability, you can also use mounting angles.
When calculating the length of each wall, it is necessary to take into account that each span must be less than the thickness of the rack of the next span. Sometimes the length of the timber is not enough to cover the entire wall. In this case, the span walls form of several parts, which are subsequently connected to each other. The span of the wall, assembled from several parts, is easier to mount if the work is performed by one person.
Elements of construction of the frame house wall
To make the framework of the walls more rigid, jumpers are installed between the vertical posts. They, as a rule, are mounted in a staggered manner: in one space from above, in the other – from below. Lintels can be mounted both on the installed frame, and when the structure is still on the floor. Window and doorways in the frames of the walls are arranged according to the project.
When all the spans of the walls are ready, proceed to their assembly. The first span is mounted to the floor, and supports are installed outside. So alternately collect all the walls, connecting them together with nails. When joining parts of the walls of a single span, it is monitored to match the bottom and top of the structure. To fix the vertical level of the wall, use sticks (diagonally nailed boards).
Installation of walls of the frame house
Helpful advice! To control the verticality of the pillars and the correctness of the corners, use a long level or plumb and a construction square.
To get acquainted in detail with how the frame house is made with your own hands, use photo and video materials on this subject.
Installation of internal partitions and ceiling
When the outer walls are mounted, proceed to the installation of internal partitions. The principle of assembly of internal walls is no different from the installation of main walls, except that their thickness may be somewhat less. As for the heat-insulating layer, here it is used as sound insulation. In addition, the device of such walls does not provide for steam and waterproofing.
Reliable fixation of the frame elements will ensure the strength of the entire structure of the house
Next is the binding of the entire structure on the upper edge. This will contribute to the rigidity of the entire assembled structure and high-quality fixation of all angles. The top trim is made of planks, which are nailed from above along the entire length of the external and internal walls. The important point here is that the connecting lines of the parts of the walls should be covered with a solid board not less than 30 cm.
After that, the surface of all the walls with the outer or inner side is sewn osb-plates. This will give the final rigidity of the whole structure of the wall framework.
The arrangement of the attic in the frame house
The ceiling is mounted on the timber top trim. For this purpose, grooves are made into the timber, into which the ceiling beams are inserted, additionally fastened with nails. In the place where the internal partitions pass, the support bars are mounted, which are connected to the lower and upper trim. Nail ceiling shield, made of grooved boards.
The vapor barrier layer is laid on top of the shield, they are covered with an overlap ceiling beams. Next, flush with the beams laid out the material of thermal insulation (mineral wool, foam, expanded clay). A layer of insulation is covered with a waterproofing film and a board of boards is laid in the direction transverse to the beams. Next is going to the floor, as on the lower floor.
Ceiling arrangement with hydro and vapor insulation, as well as with the use of mineral wool as a heater and sound insulation
As an additional help, use a photo of the construction stages of a frame house with your own hands.
The roof is arranged at the stage when all the walls are built and fixed. Determined by the desired slope and the number of roof slopes. The most common is the gable roof. To increase the usable area, some houses are equipped with a veranda. The project of a frame house with a veranda can provide for two types of roof structure: above the house, a gable, above the veranda, a single slope. These types of roofs are also used for the frame house with an attic and a veranda. For single-storey frame houses with a flat roof, only one-sided construction is used.
Gable design – a popular solution for arranging the roof of a frame house
Rafters are selected with a cross section so that insulation can be laid between them. For the sample, take two boards with a length of 6 m and connect them into an L-shaped structure, lift them onto the roof, rest on the trimming bar so that the overhangs are 35-50 cm. They are mounted at a distance of 70 cm from each other.
The connection of rafters in the ridge is carried out according to the method of “half paws”. The first rafters are installed on the gables, and then a thread is drawn between them, according to the level of which the remaining intermediate rafters are mounted. Next, arrange crate: thinned or solid.
Helpful advice! Whatever the crate, its installation in the skate area should be performed without a gap.
The frame of the house is sheathed with OSB-plates from the outside
For roofing, you can use metal tile or profiled sheeting. This material is easy to install, has low weight and affordable price. In addition, such a roof will always have an attractive appearance.
You can learn more about the roof construction technique by searching the video “How the frame house is built” on the network.
The device for warming a frame house with your own hands: a step by step instruction
To know how to warm the frame house, you need to focus on the seasonality of living in the house. If it is planned to live permanently, then the heat insulating layer should be at least 5 cm thick. For arranging the warming of a frame house with their own hands, they use expanded polystyrene, foam or mineral wool.
The distance between the uprights of the frame should be slightly less than the width of the insulation
From the outside, the OSB slabs are covered with a waterproofing membrane. After that the lattice from rails for ventilation in the frame house is stuffed. With his hands on the inside between the vertical racks fits the necessary layer of insulation. Each subsequent layer of insulation should overlap the junction of the previous layer. To avoid moisture ingress from inside the room, a vapor barrier is filled over the insulation and the walls are sheathed with sheets of osb-plates.
Insulation for the walls of the house outside the siding: choose the material and method of installation. The choice of the type of insulation. Features of materials, their advantages and disadvantages. The main stages of installation.
Next, make the exterior of the house. This may be plaster, wall cladding wagon board or siding. The most acceptable finish is vinyl siding. as it is easily mounted and is able to protect walls from external atmospheric phenomena for a long time.
Siding lining – a good solution for finishing the frame house
The main advantages of frame houses
The construction of frame houses (reviews confirm this) solves the problem of obtaining comfortable and budget housing. The advantages of this technology:
- the most affordable construction technology;
- the ability to use lightweight foundation types;
- fast erection speed;
- sufficiently low thermal conductivity of the structure allows to reduce heating costs;
- low heat capacity allows you to quickly warm up the house to a comfortable temperature in the event of intermittent use of housing;
- excellent sound insulation;
- the possibility of placing communications inside the walls, which has a positive effect on the aesthetic component of the premises;
Sample arrangement of frame house – a sectional view
- Lack of shrinkage allows you to start finishing work immediately after the construction of the house and move into it in the shortest possible time;
- use in the construction of environmentally friendly materials;
- high seismic resistance (up to 9 points);
- no need to heat the house in winter in the case of seasonal residence;
- no need to use special construction equipment;
- the absence of wet construction cycles makes it possible to work regardless of air temperature and water availability;
- quick disassembly if necessary.
Prefabricated frame house with modern building materials
All these advantages contribute to the increasing popularity of frame technologies among the methods of construction of residential buildings. In addition, such technologies allow owners of small-sized houses to build a frame extension to the house with their own hands to increase living space. Such constructions are economical and, with proper construction, provide conditions for comfortable living. They are minimal in cost and can be added to any type of home.
How to build a frame at home?
- What wood species are best used for the frame?
- Laying the foundation under the frame
- Materials for the arrangement of the frame house
- Tools and equipment:
- How to make a frame for the house?
- How to fix the lower strapping bars?
- Vertical installation racks
- Fastening timber under the top trim
- Strengthening the frame structure
- Installation of ceiling beams
- Important points when building a house with your own hands
Why does low-rise frame construction become more demanded every year regardless of the technology used (Swedish or Canadian)?
When building a frame house, coniferous wood is used: spruce, pine, fir.
The answer lies in the simplicity of the technology of construction, in the efficient use of building materials, and, importantly, in saving money for construction (low cost of housing).
The demand for frame-type houses is so great that many start building such a house, mastering the latest achievements of building technologies on their own.
And in fact, all the expectations of the builders justify themselves, because this process is not as difficult as it may seem at first. Because the technology does not require special technical knowledge.
Houses that are made on the basis of the frame, quite strong. Living in such a family house will be comfortable and cozy all year round.
Consider the construction of a frame for the construction of the house with your own hands, starting with laying the foundation. To the case you need to go only after, when on hand there is a drawing with a project at home.
What wood species are best used for the frame?
Mostly used coniferous tree: spruce, pine, fir. This is explained by the fact that the coniferous composition includes resins. Therefore, their resistance to moisture and decay is much higher than that of hardwood. Fir and spruce are completed together and delivered together due to the similarity of their natural properties. The most resistant to weathering pine is considered.
Larch is not used for the reason that it does not quite fit, because when hammering nails into it, it easily cracks. Hardwood is harder to process because of the abundance of a large number of knots, although it is denser and less susceptible to swelling and shrinkage. Hardwood is used to create small fasteners: pins and wedges.
Back to table of contents
Laying the foundation under the frame
The scheme of the base of the frame house.
Any construction of the house begins with the construction of the foundation for future construction. For lightweight houses (houses from the frame exactly such) it is not rational to equip deep-laid foundations. The most optimal options for the base under the frame house are: ribbon shallow depth, columnar, prefabricated blocks. Such foundations are designed to perform an important function – the creation of a rigid frame in space. This is achieved in different types of bases with the help of:
- durable and reliable fittings in the tape type;
- monolithic grillage in the column base;
- strong and reliable fastening to all reinforced concrete blocks of the lower binding.
Let us dwell on the pillar method of laying the base of the pipes.
- Holes are made in the ground with a depth of 1 m, a diameter of 20 cm, at a distance of about 70 cm from each other along the perimeter of the future construction.
- Asbestos pipes (1.5 m high) are inserted into the prepared recesses.
- Carefully fill pipes with earth from all sides.
- Pour the concrete mixture inside.
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Materials for the arrangement of the frame house
- Timber (wood is better from conifers: pine, fir, spruce; from hardwood – oak) – timber with a section of 150 by 150 mm.
- Regular roofing material without ultraviolet stabilization and dressing (it is cheaper).
- 10 kg of nails (100 mm – 3 kg, 120 mm – 5 kg, 50 mm – 1 kg);
- Self-tapping screws: 100 mm – 500 pieces, 50 mm – 100 pieces.
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Tools and equipment:
Tools required for work: tape measure, level, hammer, handsaw, shuropovert.
- circular saw (or chain saw);
- miter saw (desirable);
- roulette (short and long);
- shovel, scrap;
- whipping cord;
- electric planer;
- set of building pencils.
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How to make a frame for the house?
The preliminary stage of work involves preparation for construction.
At the initial stage, lumber must be harvested and treated with an antiseptic. You need to buy roofing material and all the necessary fasteners (nails, screws). Prepare the tool. It is necessary to pre-plan the thickness of the insulation for the floor, walls, floors, to prevent an increase in the size of the frame.
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How to fix the lower strapping bars?
The scheme of fasteners timber lower strapping.
First, the ruberoid is laid on the grillage. After 7 days after the foundation has stood, you can begin to assemble the skeleton. Although full strength concrete pick up only after 28 days. But 7 days is enough for safe work on a solidified base.
Next, it is necessary (before starting the laying of the timber) to measure with the help of the level the evenness of the horizontal plane of the grillage. Waterproofing and timber can be laid, if it is perfectly smooth. In the presence of irregularities:
- less than 1 cm – you need to put the planks under the bars, because such a thickness of the solution does not grasp enough with the frame and eventually crumble;
- more than 1 cm – they are leveled with a solution of cement and allowed to stand for a week, then the waterproofing and the bottom rail are fastened.
With each other, the lower strapping bars are joined by a sampling method at the corners. There are quite a few different sampling options. It is recommended to use 2: sample in the paw and sample in the half-tree. Both are proven and reliable options. You can use any of them.
Algorithm of joining bars by the method of sampling at the corners
Fixation of the bars between each other is carried out in the place of the corner joints. You can use the method of connecting the bars anchor, which also fastens the bars of the bottom trim to the base.
To do this, the bars are interconnected by nails (length not less than 150 mm). At each corner should be 4 nails. They need to be positioned by indenting 1.5 or 2 cm from the edge of the beam.
Scheme of overlapping of the frame house.
Drill a hole at the junction of the bars, the diameter of which must be at least 20 mm. With the help of a hammer a wooden dab is driven into the hole (dried oak pin). Its protruding part above the surface of the timber should remain at 8-10 cm for mounting the frame racks in the future. The diameter of the dowel should be the diameter of the hole. Nagel can be both round and square. Square – with a side slightly larger than the size of the hole.
Fastening with a dowel strapping lower bar
As well as among themselves, binding lower bars attach to the base. If at the stage of concreting the grillage for studs were laid studs, then the anchors will not be needed. In this case, you can start by drilling holes in the bar under the studs in those places that will coincide with the location of the concreted studs. The stage described below should be skipped and proceed directly to the work outlined in the next section.
Anchor bolts with a diameter of 16 mm will come in handy if the studs were not provided for when laying the foundation. At a depth of not less than 100 mm anchor must enter the foundation. It is very simple to calculate the length of the anchor: you need to add 100 mm to the height of the strapping lower bar. For example, if the strapping height is 100 mm, then 100 + 100 = 200.
Anchoring the bottom trim
In the frozen concrete grillage holes are drilled for anchors. Then in the binding boards drill holes in the locations of the bolts.
With the help of nuts with bulk washers, timber is attached to the foundation. The washer increases the size of the area where the nut contacts the tree. Drowning in wood can be caused by the use of nuts without washers. And this is absolutely not desirable. The nut must have 6 faces so that it can be twisted with a key. An unacceptable option is a square and round nut for a screwdriver.
In the corner, the anchor is installed at the junction of the lower binding bars in the case if the angular connection of the bars is not fastened with pins and nails. If fastened, the first anchors are installed on the conventional extension line of the inner contour of the base frame. And then – between the corners on the boards, making a step of 1-1.2 m. The step can be a larger gap, but not more than 2.4 m. Another important rule: at least 2 bolts should be installed on one lower binding band., regardless of the length of the wall itself (even if it is short).
It is necessary to check the angles, diagonals and levels of the harness. Small irregularities on the upper surface can be smoothed with an electric planer.
After installing the strapping bars from the bottom side, attaching them to the foundation and fastening them together, you can proceed to mounting the frame posts vertically.
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Vertical installation racks
The installation scheme of the vertical uprights of the frame.
Mounting racks in the corners
The corner posts of the frame are installed first. Their section must be different from the section of other racks. The type of attachment of the uprights in the corners will depend on how the lower strapping bars were fastened.
- If the connection of the timber at the corners was made with an anchor or nails, the corner post is fastened using steel corners. Corners for this are selected reinforced.
- If the lower harness was fastened with a dowel. In this case, the loose ends (up to 10 cm) of the pins should have remained. On these pins, you need to fit the corner posts of the frame.
To this end, a hole is drilled in the lower end of the rack with a diameter that corresponds to the diameter of the dowel (d is 20 mm or more). The depth of the hole is large in 1 cm (9-11 cm). We put each strut on the nog and support it with temporary laths. When fastening the rack on the corner with steel corners, temporary braces will be required.
Mounting intermediate racks
The structure of the panel.
It is necessary to choose the method of mounting racks.
Suitable 2 options: the first (more economical) – a method of cutting (cutting on the floor or full cutting). The second is with galvanized steel corners (about 2 mm thick). The second option is considered to be more reliable, faster and simpler, since the lower binding strand remains solid, without being weakened by post cuts. But this option is also more expensive, since the cost of fixtures affects the estimate.
Attaching corners does not present any difficulties: for this, galvanized self-tapping screws for wood or non-galvanized are used, if the first ones are not purchased.
Let us consider in more detail the fastening frame racks method of cutting.
Make the markup on the bar of the bottom strapping and on its basis the grooves in accordance with the size of the rack and a height of 30-50% of the thickness of the bar of the lower strapping. If a 100 mm thick timber is selected, the cutting down to depth will be 30 or 50 mm.
Non-angular pillars also need to be loosened with temporary stubs, regardless of the mounting method chosen. You can install 1 elbow boom, capturing several racks at once, or install 2 short braces for each rack. The use of temporary strings is caused by the need to create a stable rack-bottom connection so that it does not loosen even before the upper strap is installed and the permanent stubs are installed.
If the layout of the framework for all walls was not made in advance (it was planned to perform work without a drawing), then at this stage it is necessary to sketch the location of the walls and the dimension of the important elements of the framework. This is necessary in order to determine the pillar racks at the location of the door and window openings. Because here it may differ from the usual.
It is important to note that if the fastening was applied by corners, then the height of the floor will be equal to the height of the vertical pillar. When using the cutting method, the height of the floor is less than the vertical stand by 2 depths of the cut.
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Fastening timber under the top trim
The scheme of fastening the upper trim.
In the places of the corner joint, the upper straps are joined by the method of cutting, and they are attached to the vertical posts in the same way that was chosen for attaching the legs to the lower binding legs (steel corners or by cutting).
Fastening angles does not represent any features, apply screws on the tree.
Fastening by cutting
If this method is chosen, then you first need to make grooves for each rack (as for the bars of the bottom trim), and only then put the bars on the vertical posts. It is necessary to ensure a uniform vertical arrangement of these grooves relative to the lower binding strands. The uniformity of the grooves will serve as a guarantee that the vertical frame racks will be really like that. Otherwise, the individual columns and the whole structure may become skewed.
You can start laying the timber in its place (on the racks vertically) after the grooves are ready. And fasten it to the frame. Mounting produce for each rack vertically with 2 nails. At least 10 cm of the nail should go into the rack.
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Strengthening the frame structure
To make the frame resistant to loads from the wind and other things, stiffness in space, it needs to provide additional reinforcement with ties along the diagonal — braids (or braces). They are recommended to do without fail. At this stage, you also need to check all the verticals and diagonals in order to timely correct the arising curvature of the frame structure. With the help of a plumb and level, the frame is finally set. Further, each beam is fixed with 4 cuts (2 at the top, 2 at the bottom). Dismantle temporary treads.
Mowing is better to attach to the inner lining of the frame, if their cross section is smaller than that of the main racks. In this case, you can put a heater between the strut and lining from the outside.
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Installation of ceiling beams
The scheme of the roof frame house.
Here also apply several types of fastening.
- Installation by cutting method.
- Fastening with perforated steel girder brackets.
- Installation using steel corners.
Upper harness serves as a support for floor beams. You must first make a groove at the end of each beam with a width corresponding to the width of the upper tie strand. 30-50% should be the depth of this slot from the height of the beam. With the help of 2 nails each edge of the beam is fastened. 10 cm must enter the nail in the rack.
It is advisable to make (on the ground) the marking of the following fastening points of the beams for the overlap on the upper harness bar. This work at a height of 3 m will be much more difficult to do, and it will take more time.
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Important points when building a house with your own hands
Fold lumber in such a way that trimming and short trimming are visible to you all the time. Then do not have to cut new short parts.
Save lumber. For this purpose, it is advisable to use defective boards (warped, curved), which will necessarily be present in the batch of sawn timber, or trimming of long boards.
Use materials several times. For example, temporary cuts can be cut in the future and used as permanent. Or, on the contrary, fragments of the foundation formwork can be taken as temporary strife.
Store lumber so that it is not wetted or stained.
Sources: http://stroychik.ru/strojmaterialy-i-tehnologii/karkasnyj-dom-svoimi-rukami, http://remoo.ru/stroitelstvo/karkasnyj-dom-svoimi-rukami-poshagovaya-instrukciya/, http: / /moidomkarkas.ru/montazh/kak-sdelat-karkas-doma.html