How to make a foundation for home

The lack of a foundation for arranging such for an ordinary house can be considered its considerable cost: the cost of materials and the cost of the device itself will require considerable. The foundation is convenient because the building will stand on a single slab with good stiffness, which eliminates the possibility of deformations and cracks.

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Pile foundation

The execution of the pile foundation is made from the group of piles or individual elements that are combined from above by a slab of concrete or reinforced concrete, with a beam grillage. Pile-type foundations are recommended in cases where significant loads are placed on weak ground or when weak ground needs to be pierced and supported on stronger ground. It is advisable to use pile foundations when weak soils lie at great depths: loose sandy, subsiding soils, water-saturated sands. Used piles for large powerful buildings, where the load on the edge of the foundation of 15-25 m². In private construction, they can be made in the form of short piles of reinforced concrete or wood, if the device of another type of foundation is not possible.

According to the material foundation is divided into the following types:

  How to make a foundation for home

The scheme of the device pile foundation of stuffed combined piles.

  • reinforced concrete, which must be made of reinforced concrete, are used for heavy buildings with reinforced concrete construction;
  • wooden pine, processed and protected in accordance with the technology used for lightweight buildings made of wood up to 2 floors;
  • metal, where metal pipes are used, are suitable for heavy buildings, if it is inconvenient or impossible to use reinforced concrete piles;
  • combined – metal and concrete, used for bulky heavy buildings with a height of more than 3 floors under difficult engineering and geological conditions.

Piles by type of production:

  • Driving – they are hammered by a special machine (pile driver). Such constructions are justified to be done only in the case when construction is carried out on undeveloped territory, in the absence of buildings nearby: impact loads when knocking in piles can cause the destruction of the structures of those buildings that are located in the neighborhood;
  • ramming, when the drilled well is filled with concrete;
  • pressed in when a pile is pushed into the ground with the help of hydraulic pumps.

The latter types of piles are designed to be carried out in cramped conditions, they can be made if there are buildings of an older building nearby, this type is used for heavy and large buildings with structures made of brick and reinforced concrete.

You can also mention the screw piles: at their end there is a thread in the form of a blade, they are screwed into the ground with the help of a special machine like a screw. Such piles are used for the support of bridges, power lines, foundations of towers and masts. Screw-type piles can be laid in any soil. But the need to attract special equipment makes it quite expensive.

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General recommendations for foundations

The scheme of the correct laying of the foundation in relation to the level of soil freezing.

It is necessary to begin work on preparing the foundation for the house by carrying out engineering and geological surveys of the site on which the building will be located. The choice of the type of foundation for a house under construction is influenced by multiple factors.

  1. Type and condition of the soil on the prepared site.
  2. The depth of soil freezing.
  3. Presence of groundwater.
  4. The expected load from the supporting structures of the building.
  5. Materials for the foundation device.
  6. The presence on the site of underground communications.

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Good foundation – a pledge of durability

Soils located under the edge of the foundation, can be deformed by the load that creates the building. The better their bearing capacity, the greater the chance of building a good foundation with a long service life. When the soil with a weak bearing capacity to make a better pile or slab foundation cost comes out a lot, but not to do otherwise.

It is impossible to make a ribbon or column foundation on silty, heaving or subsiding soils, in the areas to be washed. You can pass these soils with piles to provide support for a more durable soil.

Sand pillow device diagram.

On such soils it is possible to make a slab foundation. so the load from the building turns into a load distributed on a rectangular section. This reduces the cost of replacing or improving the base. It turns out that the building is located on a solid large pillow.

You should not overuse such type of foundations as pile. With good soil with sufficient design resistance, it is better to make a simple strip foundation.

The zero cycle of building construction in the form of preparation of the foundation, the construction of the foundation itself is a rather expensive process. It is best to order a project where an engineer will reasonably and competently select the type of foundation and material, prove the project’s feasibility economically and generate a need for materials.

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Estimation of the depth of freezing and the type of soil, the presence of groundwater

Such an assessment can be made on the basis of the results of geological studies available in survey organizations. If they are not available, independent research can be carried out: to do this, a hole must be dug or a well must be drilled in the area. It is possible to build a foundation correctly only when you carefully make basic calculations and draw up a competent plan. When inspecting production, the height of the bulk or soil layer should be measured: as a rule, they are not used as a base because of the heterogeneity and small bearing capacity. Before construction, it is often simply removed. The basis will be the bearing layers of soil, which are under the bulk of the soil or soil-plant layer.

Foundation layout with and without drainage.

In winter, as a rule, ground swelling occurs. It should be the same across the entire foundation: in winter, the foundation should rise evenly with the house, in the spring it should also fall evenly. Better, of course, if the foundation does not rise. Dry soil will swell less than wet. Due to the structure, clayey soil will swell less than sandy. Loose soils, with a small amount of them, can be replaced with medium-sized sand or gravel bedding.

So, before starting construction, it is necessary to determine the type of soil on the site. So it will be much easier to choose and build a foundation. Properly chosen foundation helps save both time and financial resources that need to be spent on pouring the foundation.

If finances do not allow to determine the nature of the soil with the help of specialists, you can try to conduct an independent study. To do this, in spring you have to wait until the snow comes down from the site and look at the access roads. When the asphalt road is necessary to pay attention to the failures under the asphalt, cracks – this suggests that the soil is heterogeneous, when it freezes the soil swells. Soils fail due to areas that are strongly compressed at low temperature, the probable reason for this is underground water flows, the soil is uneven in composition.

Of course, such a definition cannot be considered sufficient. Nevertheless, you should try to get an assessment of good specialists.

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How to fill the foundation?

When choosing any type of foundation, one should remember that all communications should be foreseen in advance. When constructing a base of a monolithic type or a concrete grillage, you will need to make “air holes” – holes for ventilation of the space under the house. The operation helps to avoid the occurrence of dampness in this space.

In order to properly build the foundation, the most important thing is the correct execution of the marking, the assembly of the formwork, the framework of the reinforcement. A prerequisite – when marking should be strictly observed right angles.

The scheme of the phased construction of the foundation.

It is necessary to ensure that all the diagonals are equal. Installing the formwork, it is necessary to prop it up with shields, and fasten it together with bars. It is necessary to do this so that when the concrete is poured under the pressure of the mass, the formwork will not collapse.

The frame of the reinforcement must be assembled in advance. When installed in the formwork frame should not be laid directly on the ground it. Much better off if you install it on the stones. In order to prevent the concrete from sticking to the formwork, its walls are upholstered with tar or glass asphalt. After the concrete has been poured into the formwork, air must be removed from it. To do this, the uncured mass in several places is pierced with a piece of reinforcement or a metal pin. After the concrete has set, waterproofing is performed.

To create the foundation of the building waterproofing is a very important stage. It is necessary to treat its implementation carefully: it will help to get a good result. The life of the foundation will depend mainly on this. To reduce the effect of heaving forces on the side walls of the building support, it is necessary to carry out the treatment with waterproofing materials. The top of the base or grillage must also be processed: this helps to prevent the transfer of moisture from the base to the walls so that they do not collapse.

When the house is built, you should certainly perform the blind area. It is best made of concrete, having determined the width of about 0.5 m. At its structure, temperature joints should be provided. It is necessary to attend to the device of storm channels through which water will be drained from the house. Only after this can the foundation filling be considered complete.

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

October 20, 2015

Ivan, in this case, you need to build on a 10-liter bucket. Fill a full bucket with sand and add 1/3 of cement, mix everything 10 liters. or.

October 16, 2015

How is the calculation of finished concrete per 1 sq. M screed 5cm thick? How much sand and cement is required for this? So as not to buy too much. Want.

October 12, 2015

In different grades of concrete, if measured by volume, only the ratio of sand and rubble to cement changes, and water is always taken exactly half of the volume of cement.

A few additions: 1. If you need to perform high-quality waterproofing liquid rubber, it is desirable to apply geotextiles over the entire surface. Consumption.

September 23, 2015

How and what to make the top border of the foundation lining (natural stone. Plitnyak)?

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How to make a foundation for a house: requirements for the base, especially tape, block and screw designs

The question of how to make the foundation for the house itself interests many novice builders. And all because the building – the event is not cheap, and it is quite natural desire to minimize the overhead.

Modern technologies give us such an opportunity, and therefore in this article we will describe several ways of independently arranging the foundation.

Every home needs a solid foundation.

Foundation requirements

Before we talk about how to properly make the foundation for the house, let’s try to deal with the requirements that we put forward to it.

So, what should be considered when building a capital foundation for a residential building?

  • The first is, of course, the carrying capacity. The foundation, regardless of its design features, is required to withstand the load of the structure built on it without destruction and deformation, and preferably with a safety margin.

Tip! When calculating the bearing capacity, it is necessary to take into account not only the mass of the structure, but also the weight loads from furniture, communications, decoration, etc.

  • A very important factor is also the environmental friendliness and safety of the capital base. Since the foundation is laid under a residential building, the use of materials containing volatile, toxic or radioactive substances should be avoided.
  • Thermal and waterproofing characteristics of the supporting structure largely determine the comfort in the room. Arrangement of additional waterproofing circuits, external and internal insulation will provide an acceptable microclimate.

Additional heat and waterproofing does not hurt!

  • Also, when choosing the design features of the foundation, you should pay attention to its manufacturability and ease of installation. Since we are going to do all the construction work with our own hands, preference should be given to the most simple technologies.

And finally, when we decide on the methodology, it is worthwhile to calculate how much it costs to make the foundation for the house of the planned area. This should take into account not only the price of materials, but also the cost of related work, such as excavation, delivery of concrete, etc.

Tape technology

Projection

Choosing how best to make the foundation for the house, it is worth considering several different options. This is exactly what we will do, and first of all we will analyze tape technology – one of the most simple and affordable.

The tape basis for the house represents the strip of the reinforced concrete which is placed under all bearing elements. First of all, these are, of course, external walls, as well as internal capital partitions.

The design of the tape base includes the definition of two main parameters – the depth of embedment into the ground and the width of the support.

By depth of embedding tape constructions are divided into:

  • Shallow – up to 60-70 cm.
  • Recessed – to the level of soil freezing, i.e. one and a half meters and deeper.

In most cases, it is enough to equip a shallow base, since the installation of the support part at the level of soil freezing is required only in the most difficult climatic and soil conditions, and also when you are planning to build a basement or a heated basement.

As for the width of the concrete strip, for most private houses 50-60 cm is enough, and light structures like a shield house cottage can be placed on a forty-centimeter base.

Tip! It is worth paying attention to this technology if you are looking for how to make a foundation for a ready-made house from a bar or a wooden shield. Of course, you have to tinker with the excavation, installation of jacks and filling tapes, but you do not have to disassemble and reassemble the structure.

In the following sections, we will describe how to properly make the foundation of a house using tape technology.

Excavation

The beginning of the construction of any foundation associated with the layout of the site. On the surface with cords, we mark the contours of our future foundation.

Note! The markings for the trenches must be made at least 200 mm wider than the planned base – 100 mm on each side will go to the installation of the formwork.

By marking we begin excavation:

  • We dig trenches either manually or with an excavator.
  • The bottom of the trench is lowered 40-50 cm below the design level and carefully leveled.
  • Then we do the bedding: first we lay and tamp down 30 cm of gravel, and then – 20 cm of sand.
  • On top of the bed is laid either thick polyethylene or roofing felt. These materials will play the role of moisture protection circuit.

Base arrangement

  • Formwork boards are made of ogregannye boards with a minimum thickness of 30 mm or plywood boards of 15-18 mm.

Tip! To minimize the leakage of the solution, as well as to provide additional waterproofing, in some cases, the entire formwork is lined with polyethylene or a waterproof membrane.

  • The height of the boards should be at least 10 cm more than the planned dimensions of the foundation.
  • We install struts inside the formwork, as well as pipe sections filled with sand. Subsequently, in place of these pipes will be laid technological holes for the establishment of communications through the foundation.

Mandatory requirement for the base of the tape type is its internal reinforcement:

  • We use steel ribbed rods with a diameter of 12 mm as reinforcement.
  • The minimum allowable is the arrangement of the upper and lower belts of two rods connected by transverse elements.
  • For the assembly of reinforcement can be used as knitting wire, and spot welding.

Tip! Metal frame set on the bricks placed on the bottom of the trench. This will allow us to avoid contact of the fittings with soil moisture and reduce the risk of corrosion.

Photo of formwork with reinforcement before pouring

Fill the formwork with fittings with concrete of a grade not lower than 300. To arrange the foundation, we will need several cubic meters of mortar, therefore we should either rent a concrete mixer or order ready-made concrete from the manufacturer.

It is advisable to fill in at once, in order to avoid cold bridges. Immediately after pouring, we gut the concrete (pierce with a metal bar) or treat it with a vibrating compactor to remove air.

Pouring mortar from concrete mixer

For complete drying, the strip foundation requires at least 30 days. All this time, it is advisable to cover the surface of concrete with polyethylene to slow down evaporation and more efficient strength building. When the surface under polyethylene starts to crack, it should be moistened additionally.

Block foundation

Preparation for laying

If you do not want to mess around with the construction of the formwork and its subsequent casting, you can build a prefabricated foundation of building blocks. To date, several varieties of structural elements are available, ranging from traditional reinforced concrete products, to reinforced panels and slabs.

Note!When choosing which foundation to make from foam concrete blocks for a house, quite often they propose using the same foam blocks as a base. This should not be done, since the foam concrete is hygroscopic and vapor-permeable, and therefore such a foundation will become entangled with moisture over time and will be deformed when it freezes.

It is worth remembering that the erection of the block foundation necessarily requires the involvement of construction equipment to work, since the mass of the elements does not imply carrying them manually

The installation instructions for the block base imply the following sequence of actions:

  • We dig a trench under all bearing elements – as in the previous case.
  • At the bottom of the trench lay a gravel-sand pillow with a thickness of at least 40 cm. Carefully level and tamp the base.
  • For greater strength, the pillow can be replaced with footing or even reinforced concrete slabs.

Foundation pit with footing

After completing the preparation, you can begin to mount the base itself.

Mounting base

Concrete blocks are laid in a trench on the brickwork principle:

  • First, apply a layer of cement mortar on the base.
  • Then with the help of a crane we place the first corner block, precisely positioning it and aligning it on the plane and vertical.
  • We continue laying along the entire perimeter, carefully controlling the geometry of our base.
  • After laying all the elements and setting the solution perform waterproofing. To protect against moisture, you can use bitumen mastic, roll materials, etc.
  • Also at this stage it is possible to carry out heat insulation, pasting the outer surface of the blocks with foam plates based on polystyrene.

After completion of waterproofing and thermal insulation works we fill trenches or pits. The denser the soil is compacted, the more reliably the foundation will be protected from leakage.

Screw foundation

Schematic diagram

The technologies described above have one rather serious drawback – a large amount of earthworks. That is why, alone, or even with a few assistants, it is rather difficult to implement such projects – you need to involve a brigade of workers.

However, if you are looking for, from which to make a foundation for a house with minimal labor costs, then you should consider the arrangement of the screw pile foundation.

  • The key element of such a support structure is metal screw piles. They are buried in the ground under the main bearing walls and partitions.
  • The pile consists of two elements – a trunk and a tip. The barrel is a hollow tube with a wall thickness of up to 5 mm, in the upper part of which there are holes for attaching handles.

Ground support pattern

  • The tips of most supports are made of hardened steel. The conical nozzle is equipped with a screw blade, which provides burial in the ground during rotation.
  • The cavities of the installed piles are poured with concrete, after which the tip with a metal platform is put on the top of each support.
  • All heads are aligned on a plane, and a horizontal frame of bars or metal beams is trampled on them – the so-called grillage.

Screw foundations are indispensable in those cases when you are looking for how to make a foundation for a house from foam blocks or other light materials, or try to place the structure on a section with a slope.

An important factor in favor of this design is its reasonable price: yes, the piles themselves are not cheap, but their installation does not provide for laying trenches and large pits.

Piling

The foundation of the screw type is assembled quite quickly – in less than a day.

The sequence of works is as follows:

  • Using the yamobur, we make shallow starting holes in the places of the planned installation.
  • In the hole we start the tip of the pile, align it vertically, and then insert it into the grooves on the shaft of the handle.

Depth support in the ground with the help of scrap and ingenuity: two piles play the role of levers

  • To facilitate the work, you can use the machine for screwing supports. It will also help to quickly penetrate the pile using capstan – pipes with special eyelets for long handles.
  • We begin the rotation of the handles, gradually deepening the tip of the support into the ground.

Tip!If the support has to be screwed into a dense clay soil, it is worthwhile to pre-do a well in it, the diameter of which will be less than the diameter of the stem. This will weaken the structure somewhat, but will allow the pile to be lowered to the design depth.

  • All screwed support pruned level with a saw for metal, then fill with cast concrete to the level of the cut.
  • We put on caps on sections and weld them, making sure that the pads are in the same plane.

Base with welded tips

The above-ground part of the pile foundation is treated with a composition that protects the metal from corrosion. Particular attention is paid to weld seams.

On recessed supports we mount a horizontal grillage of beams, rails or channels.

As can be seen from the description, the main advantage is the highest speed of work: no need to wait until the concrete is dry, and you can immediately proceed to the next stage of construction.

We hope that having studied this article, you have understood for yourself how to properly make the foundation for the house in your situation. As you can see, there are several options, and each of them has its own unique features. That is why it is worthwhile to carefully examine all the initial data, decide on priorities – and only then get down to work. In the presented video in this article you will find additional information on this topic.

How to make the right foundation for a house with their own hands: the secrets of construction

To the foundation under the private house was as strong as possible, it is necessary to prepare concrete with the highest rigidity. The harder the solution is in its parameters, the more durable will be the foundation of the house.

Concrete is poured into the formwork; each layer is carefully leveled and pierced to get rid of air bubbles. You can use a deep vibrator, but it can damage the reinforcement cage. Concrete splicing is an important procedure that increases the strength of the foundation being poured.

Poured into the formwork solution gains its strength for 4 weeks. During this time, the foundation needs additional protection: if it is sunny and dry, it must be covered with polyethylene and watered regularly. If it is rainy and damp, just cover it with film or geofabric. When the tape base is completely cured, the formwork is dismantled.

We build the foundation on the pillars

Are there any rules for the construction of the basement column type? First, you need to know some of the nuances: it is advisable to choose such a base on the heaving soil with a deep freezing point. Tapes on moving soil will not withstand permanent deformation, and the pillars will serve property owners for decades.

For the device of the column base the master will need the following materials:

1) pipes made of metal or asbestos cement;

3) sand-cement mixture;

During the construction process, a mortar tank, trowel, shovel will be required. To mark the area will need a level, tape measure, pegs and construction cord.

Marking and ground operations

The sequence of marking is similar to the work on the device tape type foundation. In the same way, points for the location of pillars-supports are carried out to the terrain, using the project documentation of the building. Location of supports: in the corners of the house and in places of highest load (load-bearing walls, stairs, transitions, etc.). The optimal distance between the pillars is from 1.5 to 2 m.

When the marking is completed, you can come to the excavation of the pillars. The diameter of each pit is equal to the cross section of the pipe. Deepening should be below the freezing point of the soil. When the pits are ready, a sand cushion with a height of 10 to 15 cm is arranged in them. It is thoroughly compacted and moistened.

Important: the denser the cushion under the support-pillars, the stronger the future foundation.

Installing pillars and pouring concrete

After completion of the pillow operations under the supports of the future foundation, concrete can be prepared. Preparing a solution in the same proportions as in the case of the strip foundation. The consistency of the finished concrete should resemble thick sour cream.

Next, the installation process of pipes occurs in stages:

  • an asbestos-cement or metal pipe is installed in the pit;
  • some concrete solution is poured into the pipe;
  • the pipe rises so that the concrete is distributed over the sand cushion;
  • the pipe is leveled using a level in an upright position.

. The cut columnar basement type

According to the above algorithm, all the posts are set. Next is their reinforcement. 3-5 reinforcement rods are laid inside the pipes so that they go deep into the sand cushion and the top rises 25-30 cm above the posts. When all the supports are reinforced, they are poured with concrete. If pits remain around the supports, they are carefully filled with soil and well compacted.

Concrete in the support-pipes seizes in 1-2 weeks. After this period, you can go to the device grillage. which will fill the space between the corner supports and increase the reliability of the foundation being built. Subsequently, on the grillage will be placed bearing walls.

Construction of the foundation on homemade stilts

Is there any type of foundation for a house on unstable ground? The way out is the device of the pile foundation. The main characteristics of this design: durability and high strength, the ability to withstand high loads.

A distinctive feature of the construction is the absence of an exhausting stage of excavation and the formation of a pit. Mounted on such a foundation on piles, immersed in the soil. The cost of ready-made piles is not affordable for every craftsman, so many people prefer to make these products on their own.

The following materials will be required during the construction process:

2) cement with sand;

3) steel wire;

Preparation of concrete will require a special tank and vibration. On the terrain, the location of future piles is marked with pegs with the help of a tape measure and level. For the production of recesses will require a hand drill.

Well formation

Independent drilling of wells occurs already in the places of the marking carried out to the site. Step from one pile to another should not exceed 2.5 meters. Manual drill drills the required number of wells. If during the drilling process water appeared in the well, it must be pumped out.

Piling and concrete production

After all the piles have been formed, a formwork of ruberoid rolled up with a straw is inserted into them. The diameter of the homemade pipe should be equal to the cross section of the future pile. The soft steel wire fixes the size of the ruberoid convolution, after which it is carefully inserted into the well.

Formwork for homemade piles

In this way, blanks are made for all wells. The purpose of the formwork is to preserve the strength of improvised piles, preventing the cement jelly from being absorbed by the soil. In addition, if the solution is poured directly into the ground, the pile will have a non-smooth surface. All rough grounds are more susceptible to the forces of frost heaving, rather than even without flaws. The fragile base very quickly begins to collapse, thereby reducing the life of the building.

After immersing the formwork into the wells, it is necessary to fabricate a spatial reinforcement cage. For this, reinforcement bars of 6 mm section are used. To form one skeleton, you will need 3-4 rods bonded every 50 cm to each other. Having established a design in a well, it is necessary to see its top over a surface of the earth. Height of protrusion – from 40 to 60 cm.

Then you can go to the production of concrete. Manufacturing technology is described in the section about strip foundations, repetition is unnecessary. The flow of the solution into the well should occur in batches, filling each time about 0.5 m.

Important: the filling of wells with a solution must be alternated with its splicing, removing excess air.

Splicing is performed with a rod of reinforcement. To improve the quality of work, you can use the vibration set, but very carefully – so as not to damage the reinforcement content.

Within 2-3 weeks the concrete will gain strength, after which it will be possible to tackle a grillage device. The tops of improvised piles do not cut, they provide a better grip on the construction of the grillage and piles.

Construction of the foundation on the finished piles

What are the highlights of the construction of the foundation of the finished, factory piles? The master will need the following set of materials:

  • scrap metal;
  • 2nd pipe;
  • a mixture of sand and cement;
  • metal piles;
  • ready headings;
  • anti-corrosion coating;
  • water.

Of the tools and equipment you need to have at hand a shovel, tape measure, level, welding machine and grinder.

Stages of work

Traditionally, construction begins with the layout of the area. Step between piles – up to 3 m. Then proceed to screwing in the piles. This can be done manually, attracting several assistants, or you can order the drilling of a specialized company. The second option is preferable, but worth a lot of money.

The depth of the wells should exceed 1.6 m, this prevents them from protruding during periods of seasonal deformation of the soil.

It is important: if there is an obstacle on the way of the pile, you should try to get rid of it and continue working. Only until the end of the installed pile 100% ensures the strength of the base.

The screwed piles are carefully cut to an equal height of protrusion from the ground, after which the products are concrete. The finished solution is poured inside the piles, which prevents corrosion of products in the soil. The final stage is welding the tips and coating the junction with an anti-corrosion agent.

There is no need to wait for the final hardening of the concrete with this method of construction, it is fashionable to move on to the device of the grillage and subsequent operations.

Calculation of strip footing

How to make the right foundation for a house with your hands: the secrets of construction updated: January 8, 2017 by: zoomfund

Sources: http://moifundament.ru/montazh/pravilno-sdelat-fundament-dlya-doma.html, http://ofundamentah.com/stroit/201-kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom, http: // rfund.ru/ustrojstvo/kak-sdelat-fundament-dlja-doma.html

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