Usually waterproofing of walls, floor and ceiling is made using roofing material. This rolled material is recommended to be laid in two layers. The overlap between the sheets should be no less than 10-12 cm, and each subsequent row should be perpendicular to the previous one. Under the waterproofing it is necessary to pour a gravel-sand pillow with a thickness of not less than 100-150 mm.
Diagram of the waterproofing cellar
Correctly build a cellar under the house with high-quality waterproofing of walls is possible in the process of laying the foundation.
In this case, the work will not interfere with other structures and elements of the building. In the process of building walls, bitumen mastic is applied on their outer surface, on which, in turn, the roofing material is glued. When performing this operation, the sheets are arranged vertically with an overlap of 8-10 cm.
Fill floors in the cellar with the mandatory reinforcement of a two-layer steel coarse mesh. The screed is poured by a cement-sand compound with the addition of a small fraction of rubble as a filler. The mixture is prepared on site by hand or using a concrete mixer. It is possible to order concrete at a specialized enterprise with delivery to the work site by car with the appropriate equipment.
Diagram of the correct cellar flooring
As the supporting structures of the walls and the floor are ready, you can start building the ceiling above the cellar. Given the fact that the construction of the recessed type, the best material for the floor will be a reinforced concrete slab. The calculation of the required number of them is carried out taking into account the length and width of the structure. When laying the floor slab used heavy construction equipment – crane on the chassis.
Cellar floor plan
Another way to do without lifting mechanisms. Construction of a cellar in a house with this technology involves casting a slab directly on the spot. Wooden formwork for this purpose is made of a board with a minimum thickness of 40-50 mm. It is strengthened by horizontal beams and vertical pillars that abut the floor.
Construction of stairs and entrance equipment
A visit to the cellar located under the house can be arranged in two ways: through the hatch in the ceiling of the cellar or along a normal staircase. The calculation of the direct march with a step length of 20 cm and a height of 250-300 mm shows that its horizontal length when tilted at 45 ° will be equal to the height. In one of the walls is equipped with a doorway, in front of which is arranged a rectangular platform.
Simple wooden staircase
A stairway is established along the outer surface of this wall, resting on one side on it and on the other on an additional pier. The steps of the stairs can be cast from concrete and reinforced with steel wire mesh or made from a metal profile. The use of wood is undesirable due to the high probability of damage by fungi or other pests.
Drawing of a complex concrete staircase leading to the cellar
A lutka with a door leaf opening outward due to the relatively small size of the cellar is installed in the wall opening. Doors should have seals to eliminate heat loss and temperature fluctuations. The process of manufacturing the staircase and its installation is quite complicated.
Ventilation in the basement or cellar
For the organization of high-quality air exchange it is necessary to install two vertical pipes. One of them serves as an exhaust, and the other is necessary for the flow of fresh air. Air is drawn from under the ceiling, and the flow is closer to the floor. In order to create maximum thrust duct should be installed above the ridge of the roof. Natural ventilation of the cellar is made with minimal costs and investments.
Air ducts in the upper part are covered with metal molds to prevent precipitation from entering. As ducts, you can use a steel or asbestos-cement pipe with an inner diameter of over 150 mm. The deflectors are made of galvanized steel sheet with a thickness of 0.55 mm, and are fixed to the end of the pipe with a clamp and support struts.
Inside the cellar it is necessary to plaster and treat with a special antibacterial primer. Instead, it can be used ordinary hydrated lime, which provides the necessary protection against the formation of colonies of pathogenic fungi on the walls. Experts do not recommend sheathing basement walls with clapboard or wood-based composite materials. In the gap between the wall and cladding panels air stagnates with the formation of condensate.
Interior arrangement of the cellar
Cellar arrangement consists of installing shelves for glass jars of different capacities. Shelves preferably made of metal. Wood with insufficient ventilation can be affected by colonies of pathogenic microorganisms. For storage of vegetables: potatoes, carrots and cabbage – wooden boxes are installed on supports for the free passage of air.
The main task of the deep repository is to save the crop from the infield. In the service room, you must create a certain temperature and humidity conditions. In the cellars, the balance is maintained by the heat of the earth, which is, in fact, a huge accumulator of heat. The energy accumulated over a warm period of time is sufficient to smooth out fluctuations in temperature throughout the winter.
To equip a reliable underground in the house is possible on their own, without the involvement of specialists. The best option – to provide for the construction of a house immediately with the cellar. The entrance to the repository can be organized both from the premises and outside from the street. In this case, you must install double insulated doors with seals that prevent the penetration of cold air into the room.
Cellar device in the already finished house
Separate cellars have many problems that can be avoided by building a cellar in the house. For example, the overlap of street storage must be carefully and properly warmed, putting a lot of effort and spending serious funds. There are a lot of solutions for insulating the cellar ceiling, but none of them will guarantee a stable temperature in the storage room throughout the year.
The task of insulation of floors will be much easier if you decide to build a cellar under the apartment building. Building a cellar in a private house with your own hands is a great option, and it is very affordable in all respects. Digging a pit in the basement of the house is quite possible, to equip the cellar too. So who makes you do the cellar on the street?
Site preparation under the house
The cellar in your own house is very convenient. However, certain difficulties await us at the construction stage. How to dig a pit, if the cellar we want to make in the basement, enclosed by walls?
Think in advance about how and where you will remove the excavated soil from the room.
This problem can be solved in two ways:
- The construction of the cellar in the basement is made in the process of building a house. It can be concreted at once, isolated and spent all the work in just a few days.
- When there are already walls and a basement in a private house, then the only solution seems to be digging a hole for the cellar with your own hands. This is hard work that will require some physical effort.
It is necessary to take into account that the device of the pit should not weaken the soil under the foundation of the house. If you dig a foundation pit too close to the walls of a house, this can lead to a building drawdown and its further deformation.
In that case, if the building has a pile foundation, then carrying out excavation and cellar arrangement does not bear any danger, because the entire load from the structure falls on the underlying ground layers, which cannot be reached with a shovel.
Floor in storage
The most common option is to build a concrete floor. Arrangement of such a surface, of course, will not provide 100% waterproofing of the room, although the concrete has a lot of advantages over the dirt floor, which are already visible during the construction phase:
After the reinforcement mesh is assembled, you can pour concrete.
- Anaerobic bacteria can release gases that are potentially dangerous to humans, which will never enter the cellar room through a concrete floor.
- A variety of pests will also not be able to penetrate the storage area through the concrete surface, so arranging such a floor is the right solution if you are worried about this problem.
- Even large rodents will not be able to destroy the concrete floor.
- During the flood, when the dirt floors just begin to slip away from under your feet, the concrete surface will remain in place.
Construction of a concrete floor in a cellar in a private house involves the following steps:
- The first thing you need to dig a pit, determine the size of the cellar and level the bottom of the pit.
- Next, you need to make a sand pillow, the thickness of which should not exceed 20 cm. It is tamped with the help of improvised tools and water. The cushion should be firm and level, otherwise the concrete floor will be deformed in the future.
- Then it is recommended to lay a layer of gravel, which also needs to be properly rammed and made as smooth as possible. Arrangement of this layer will ensure high surface reliability and the cellar under the house will not be subject to deformations.
- A waterproofing material is laid on a gravel-sand pad overlap (special polyethylene or roofing material can be used). This is necessary not only as a barrier against groundwater, but to ensure that the cement milk does not go into the lower layers after pouring the solution. Due to this approach, concrete gains ultimate strength. Of course, this will not give an absolute guarantee against the penetration of moisture into the premises, but at least minimize the risks.
- A stack of reinforcement is placed on the waterproofing layer. The thickness of the bars of the reinforcement should be 5 mm or more. Reinforcement of the floor surface ensures the durability of the surface and its durability during operation.
- At the end, the floor is filled with cement mortar with a thickness of about 10-15 cm. It should be understood that the coating will gain working strength only after a few weeks. The first days after completion of work to walk on such a floor is prohibited.
The walls of any basement are built, as a rule, from brick or foam concrete blocks. When the construction of the cellar is carried out in an already erected house, there may be certain difficulties with waterproofing and backfilling. However, if you carefully consider the work, you can do it yourself.
Concrete is not poured immediately to the top, but a little with the tamping of each layer.
The best solution is to build walls of reinforced concrete. The procedure for the construction of a reinforced concrete structure with your own hands is as follows:
- The first step is to install reinforcing mesh. For these purposes, corrugated reinforcing bars with a cross section of 10-15 mm are usually used. If the rods of this thickness could not be found, you can fasten together two small rods, or use scraps of pipes. In order to tie a reinforcement net of rods, it is recommended to use wire and special hooks, welding is best not to apply.
- The device of vertical formwork with your own hands implies the use of various scrap materials. The slab, plywood sheets, a chipboard perfectly is suitable for these purposes. In principle, even large wooden pruning will do. If there is not enough material for the formwork, the boards can be gradually rearranged as the walls are erected. In this case it will be possible to build a wall in a few days.
- For pouring it is recommended to use concrete of the M200 brand (and more durable). In some cases it is recommended to add some of the rubble in the solution. The formwork must be poured little by little, in layers of several tens of centimeters. In addition, each layer of concrete must be compacted. The wall must be built to the level of overlap.
If the cellar in a private house is done by hand, then the device of thermal insulation of the ceiling seems to many superfluous. This view is erroneous, because a stable temperature within +2, +5 degrees must be maintained inside the cellar, which allows products to remain in their original form for many months.
If the air in the cellar warms up too much, the provisions will instantly deteriorate, and almost all of it. In addition, in the winter, without a qualitatively insulated overlap, the heat will go to the cellar, thereby increasing heating costs.
The overlap is quite possible to make their own hands out of wood, but how to insulate it?
- A peculiar “shield” of planks is attached to the supporting beams below. Boards can be fixed with self-tapping screws for durability or with nails. Nails need to drive in different directions, at an angle, a few nails on each board. Mounting is still better to do on long screws – so it will be more reliable.
- A vapor barrier film is fixed on the shield, which is necessary to prevent the insulating layer from getting wet.
- All the space between the beams must be filled with insulating material. In the case of a basement, mineral wool or glass wool is usually used, which is quite affordable.
- The waterproofing is put on heat-insulating material. Well suited rolled insulator, which can be put overlap. It is recommended to glue all seams with construction tape.
- From above the bearing covering keeps within and everything comes to the end with installation of a floor. If the entrance to the cellar is from the kitchen or living room, then it is necessary to lay the same floor covering on the lid as in the whole room.
How to deal with dampness under the house?
After finishing the device cellar in the house, and starting its operation, many are faced with the problem of dampness. How to make the condensate not accumulate on the walls of the storage, and the moisture does not penetrate into the living room?
You need to understand that water will be leaking into the cellar under the house due to groundwater and water pipelines. No waterproofing can give a 100% guarantee. In addition, during storage, vegetables will release moisture, which will accumulate in the air.
The best solution in this case seems to be an effective ventilation device with your own hands. The cellar ventilation system should consist of two pipes. Fresh air will flow in through one pipe and out through the other. Pipes can be used any: special ventilation or ordinary PVC (which are usually used for sewage).
If your house has a small cellar, then you can do ventilation with just one pipe, which will be responsible for the air flow and for the hood. When the dimensions of the cellar are significant, it is recommended that special devices be installed inside the ventilation pipes, which will force air out of the storage facility, preventing it from stagnating, leading to the formation of condensate.
Insect can enter the cellar through ventilation.
Exhaust pipe must be brought to the roof of the house. The lower part of the exhaust pipe must be installed under the cellar ceiling (in accordance with the laws of physics). The lower part of the supply pipe is installed at a height of 20-30 from the floor of the cellar. and the upper part can be displayed through any window. The supply pipe must be equipped with a metal filter that will protect the cellar from the ingress of debris and pests. In turn, a deflector can be installed in the exhaust pipe, which will increase traction from the cellar in windy weather.
With the help of a high-quality ventilation system, the cellar under the house can be easily operated for more than a dozen years. Properly make a repository with their own hands, even a novice builder.
The author »Ilya Avdeev
Site Editor, Civil Engineer. He graduated from SibSTRIN in 1994, has since worked for more than 14 years in construction companies, after which he started his own business. The owner of the company engaged in suburban construction.
How to make a cellar in the house with your own hands: earthworks, the choice of material and type of entrance, the arrangement of the floor, walls, steps and ventilation
Can you imagine a private house without a cellar? Of course you can, because a person’s fantasy is quite rich. But is it comfortable to live there? This is a completely different question.
Stocks of products for a day, a week, even a month are quite convenient to store in the refrigerator. But what to do with the conservation, designed for years, barrel pickles, which simply do not fit in the refrigerator, the stocks of vegetables for the winter, which also take up too much space? In this article we will look at how to make a cellar in the house and no longer ask the above questions.
Photos of the finished cellar
The whole construction process is completely subject to the implementation of their own hands. This will significantly save the family budget, which is an important factor.
The following instruction will help you to help:
How to make a cellar under the house?
It is required to begin with digging a pit, the dimensions of the future premises must meet the following requirements:
- A comfortable distance from the floor to the ceiling is about two meters, which means you should go deeper by 180 cm.
- Width and length at the discretion of the owners, but not more than three meters.
- The very same pit digs half a meter more than the planned size. This gap between the walls of the cellar and the ground will be used to create lateral waterproofing.
This building is completely underground, in connection with this, there are some requirements for used building materials.
In particular, the most important role is played by:
- Moisture resistance. The level of humidity in the ground is much higher than outside.
- Durability and stability. To withstand the pressure of earth masses and the weight of the whole house.
- Durability. Opportunities to carry out the restoration from the outside you will not have.
Under the above requirements are suitable:
- Natural stone. The interior of the room is very beautiful in the spirit of the medieval castles, recalling the famous wine cellars. But the price of such products rather big.
Stone walls of the dungeon
Advice: if there is a stone quarry near your area, then the rubble stone can be recruited there for free. He will have to betray a certain treatment, but the price issue will be resolved.
- Monolithic concrete. This is a very practical and relatively inexpensive option. A one-piece cement bag will be a safe haven for your stocks.
Monolithic concrete pouring
- Concrete blocks. This material is the most simple to install.
Concrete block construction
It is important to know: in these works, you can use only well-baked products. Ordinary bricks under the influence of moisture will begin to fall apart.
Sample of a suitable brick
Select the type of input
How to make a cellar in the house so that it is convenient to use?
In this case we are talking about a move that can be implemented in two ways:
- Sunroof and vertically leading stairs with rungs. The main advantages of this method are compactness, ease of installation and low cost. But then you have to sacrifice comfort.
- Vertical descent with steps of concrete through the door. Convenient and safe way to enter the cellar. But it is more expensive and limited by the availability of sufficient free space. To implement it, it is necessary to prepare and compact diagonal descent in advance.
Safe and secure
After selecting the materials and the main design, we now analyze how to make the cellar under the house:
Arrangement of the bottom of the pit
It all starts, of course, from the floor:
- We fall asleep a layer of gravel in three centimeters and carefully ram it, thereby compacting the bottom.
- Cooking concrete. To do this, we knead the cement, not weaker than the brand M 400, sand and gravel in proportions 1: 3: 4.
- Pour about seven centimeters of the solution on the rammed base.
- Stele the top of the frozen cement roofing material in a couple of layers on the molten bitumen to create a waterproofing. At the same time observe the release of ten centimeters.
- From above we lay the reinforced lattice and fill in three centimeters of concrete.
- We deduce from the selected material the walls of the basement up to two meters.
- Outside we cover roofing material for protection against moisture, connecting the sheets with edges protruding from the base. So we get a kind of waterproofing bag for the basement.
- Gently rub all the seams on the inner surface of the walls and cover with a solution of lime.
- We fill the gap between the cellar and the ground with soft clay, ramming it every 20 cm. Dense clay does not let water through.
- On the prepared descent, we install the reinforcement and formwork in the form of steps as shown in the figure:
Example of the preparation of steps for the subsequent pouring of concrete
- We make the same solution as for concreting the floor.
- Fill the concrete and wait for full cure for 28 days.
Tip: for a better setting of the concrete, it is recommended to cover it with plastic wrap and pour it with water during the entire period of maturation.
Without proper ventilation, the fungus will spread, which can migrate to the residential part of the building.
Therefore, we do the following:
- We install one plastic pipe twenty centimeters from the floor and bring it outside so that it rises above the cellar at least 30 cm.
- The second is placed in twenty centimeters from the ceiling and also we take out its other edge to the surface.
- At the pipe outlets we install protection against precipitation.
We considered how to properly make the cellar under the house. With proper perseverance and attentiveness, you will have a beautiful room made with your own hands. You will be able to store stocks in the winter or even a few years, barrel preservation of vegetables and fruits, as well as saving refrigerator resources.
The main points are the correct and reliable implementation of waterproofing, the choice of building materials and arrangement of the entrance to the basement. Also do not forget about high-quality ventilation, which is very important for underground spaces.
The result of the work done
The video in this article will acquaint you with additional materials on this topic.
Successful to you construction work!
Sources: http://proekt-sam.ru/construction/pogreb-v-chastnom-dome.html, http://podvaldoma.ru/stroitelstvo/pogreb/obustrojstvo-v-dome.html, http: // moypodval. com / ustroystvo / 273-kak-sdelat-pogreb-v-dome-svoimi-rukami