Insulation for walls inside the house allows you to increase the thermal performance of the design. Works are carried out from inside the premises. Warming from the inside – unconventional technology. Usually use outdoor. But there are situations when there is no other way out.
Internal insulation is recommended when it is not possible to conduct external insulation.
Most often, the interior wall insulation experts recommend in extreme cases, when there is simply no other way out. Also, the option is relevant for apartment buildings. It helps not only to increase the comfort of housing, but also to prevent the occurrence of such troubles as mold or fungus.
Warming the walls from the inside with their own hands has a number of drawbacks. For this reason, the method has many opponents. Ways of wall insulation from the inside cause such problems as:
- The walls are not protected from the cold. The main supporting structure of the building continues to contact with the outside air. This can lead to its rapid destruction. Cracks will begin to appear on the surface. Insulation of the walls from the inside not only does not protect the outer part from the cold, but also takes away some of the heat from it. Before the events, part of the heat from the room warmed the wall, but when insulated from inside the walls, this flow is blocked.
- Condensation Condensate is droplets of moisture that fall on a cold surface when in contact with warm air. Heat engineers call the place of condensate dew point. The main task of insulation to move the dew point for the redistribution of the wall. Thermal insulation of the walls inside ensures the dew point offset to the boundary between the wall and the insulation. This process is hidden, so the owners of the house do not notice it. But humidity will be an excellent condition for the reproduction of various microorganisms. Because of this, the walls are covered with fungus or mold.
- Reducing the area of the premises. Modern types of insulation for walls from the inside have good efficiency. But science has not yet invented such a good material that its thickness was quite a bit. To insulate the inside of the house, it will take from 5 to 10 cm of material. It eats up the square quite strongly. This is not so noticeable to the eye, but if you calculate the loss for the entire building, the figure is relatively large.
With internal insulation, the dew point shifts to the boundary between the wall and the insulation
Before insulating the walls of your house with your own hands inside, it is recommended that you carefully consider these problems. This will allow them to be solved at the initial stage. In this case, ignorance is no excuse, since the result of inattention will be felt in the first years of operation.
The technology of wall insulation from the inside allows you to use different materials. Each of them has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. Most often use the following options for wall insulation from the inside:
- wood fiber boards.
Polyfoam and penoplex
The material is inexpensive and has good performance. In most cases, 5 cm will be enough to ensure a comfortable microclimate. Thermal insulation of the interior walls with foam plastic is a fairly common phenomenon for apartments in high-rise buildings. It allows you to perform work quickly, without complicated processing and additional tools.
Polyfoam – an inexpensive and effective heat insulator
But such insulation for interior walls has significant drawbacks:
- low strength;
- poor vapor permeability – foam can turn a house into a real greenhouse.
To avoid the last forecast, a forced ventilation device will be required. Such activities will require additional financial and labor costs. Read a detailed article about foam insulation from the inside.
Extruded polystyrene foam (penoplex) became the closest relative of the foam. It is very similar in appearance, but has an orange color instead of white. It is also worth noting that the penoplex has greater strength and durability. But such disadvantages as flammability and poor vapor permeability, have not gone away. Internal insulation of the wall of the penfolex house will not allow him to breathe and will require additional ventilation.
Penoplex is stronger than polyfoam and lasts longer
Is it possible to warm the house from the inside of polystyrene foam? Yes you can. But you need to prepare for the negative consequences and eliminate them in time. This option is more suitable for brick or lightweight concrete. Tree walls are usually chosen precisely for its ability to breathe. Polyfoam or penoplex will easily block the air flow and negate the advantage of wood. Check out Penoplex’s wall insulation information from the inside.
Such insulation for walls are widespread. This variety is relatively inexpensive. In addition, the heat insulator has a high vapor permeability. It is recommended to choose basalt mineral wool, which is produced in hard slabs. It is easy to install, does not burn, has a sufficiently high strength.
But to have a warming layer inside the room should be careful. Such material for wall insulation has low moisture resistance. Cotton wool perfectly absorbs water, after which it practically ceases to perform its direct functions. For reliable protection from moisture should provide a vapor barrier on the side of warm air and waterproofing on the cold side.
Basalt mineral wool is easier to install and does not ignite
Steam insulation and waterproofing materials traditionally come in two forms: films and membranes. The first have low vapor permeability. The cheapest example is ordinary plastic film. In order not to block the movement of air inside the walls, it is recommended to choose modern membranes. Read the step-by-step instructions on the wall insulation of mineral wool from the inside.
To insulate the walls of the house from the inside can be fiberboard plates. Option does not guarantee that in the future there will be no difficulties listed earlier, but has the following advantages:
- good thermal insulation and sound absorption;
- unattractiveness for insects and rodents;
- good resistance to moisture and temperature extremes;
- ease of processing, you can use any tools;
- simple installation;
- Convenience for wiring.
Fiberboard is resistant to temperature and high humidity
But it is important to remember that the material is treated with toxic substances. They can be dangerous to humans. For this reason, MDF boards are more widely used as exterior finishes.
Material selection criteria
Before you properly insulate the walls from the inside, you need to choose thermal insulation. Criteria for indoor walls may differ from exterior materials. For this reason, it is worthwhile to show care and caution.
Insulation of the walls of the house from the inside must meet the following criteria:
- environmental friendliness;
- fire resistance (for materials that are not resistant to high temperatures, select the appropriate finish);
- efficiency, low thermal conductivity;
- good moisture resistance (or additional protection against it).
Material for internal insulation must have good vapor permeability.
Also worth checking vapor permeability. How to insulate the house for many years? You need to think about good ventilation. Without this, the building will suffer from high humidity and microclimate. The problem can be solved, but you need to think about it at the initial stage.
Before you properly warm the building, you should think about the need for activities on the part of warm air. This is decided even before the question, the better to warm the house. The following are significant reasons for choosing the technology in question:
- the house is already built, there is no possibility to remove the decoration and perform insulation outside;
- there is no opportunity to carry out work at height;
- insulation of the apartment in a high-rise building, when it is necessary to preserve the architectural integrity of the facade and avoid attracting industrial climbers.
In the constructed house of timber it is impossible to perform external insulation
For private homes use two methods of securing the material. Both of them are relevant when deciding the question, what better way to insulate the walls, in favor of mineral wool, foam plastic or foam plastic:
The second option allows you not to align a carefully insulated surface. In addition, it allows you to easily mount finishing materials. For example, for cladding with plasterboard, in any case, it will be necessary to construct a framework. You can insulate the wall under plywood or plaster. Then the need to use the frame disappears. The choice of the way in which it is better to warm the house from the inside depends on the method of further finishing. Be sure to consider what the base is required.
Before you properly warm the design of a country house, you need to thoroughly clean it from dirt, grease and dust. All this can significantly reduce the quality of adhesion of the insulating material with the base. Further work is performed in the following order:
- level the surface, knock down the projections, cover up the cracks and cavities;
- process the surface with antiseptic composition;
- put a coat of primer;
- glue the sheet, the adhesive composition is applied with a roller on the wall and material;
- give the glue to dry;
- fix the material to the wall with dowels.
Foam sheets glued to the wall in a staggered manner.
Sheets of polystyrene foam and slabs of mineral wool are fixed in a checkerboard pattern. After fixing the insulation, you can begin to finish the walls.
This option can be called more laborious, but also more reliable. It allows you to protect the insulation from mechanical stress. This is especially true when using fragile foam.
Before starting work, the wall is cleaned of impurities and treated with an antiseptic. After that, you need to build a good frame of wooden bars or aluminum metal profiles. Fastening racks to the wall perform on the screws. The pitch of the elements is selected depending on the width of the insulation. For mineral wool, such a step will be required so that 58 cm is left in the light. For foam plastic and foam plastic, the clear distance should be 60 cm (usually).
Wooden frames or metal profiles are used as a frame.
After installing the frame insulation is laid between the racks. Additional mounting perform on glue. The joints between the polystyrene foam and the frame is filled with mounting foam. After that, you can proceed to the finish.
When working on any of these technologies with the use of mineral wool, it is important not to forget about the insulation from moisture. Waterproofing is mounted directly on the wall before mounting the wool, and the vapor barrier covers the material and protects it from internal steam. Fastening layers are usually made a construction stapler. The length of the material overlap must be at least 10 cm.
Building or repairing your house, it is not recommended to save on materials. Thermal insulation is selected not only by cost, but also by technical characteristics.
Than to warm the walls from inside the house: choose the best insulation
Each owner has his own, individual requirements for what should be his house or apartment. The exception to the rule is warm. Especially in the cold season, when the outside temperature changes to minus indicators.
With the fact that housing should be not only beautiful, but also able to maintain a comfortable temperature, even with a large minus, everyone agrees.
The reason for this unanimity lies not only in the desire to avoid the need to be at home in warm clothes that hold down the movement.
The main problems following the freezing of walls are condensate, mold and fungi, which affect the health status of residents.
In addition, the walls themselves suffer. If the mold and fungus can be eliminated, then it is not always possible to restore the quality of the affected wall.
The way out of the situation is internal wall insulation that protects against cold during frosts. and from condensate during thaw periods.
Advantages and disadvantages of thermal insulation
As a rule, the culprits of reducing the comfortable temperature level in the room are heating systems, poorly insulated windows, or the roof of a house. If heating, windows and roofing are normal, then the problem is really in freezing walls that require additional thermal insulation.
The indisputable advantages of internal protection of walls against freezing include:
- the ability to warm any room;
- performance of work at any time of the year;
- the ability to carry out all the work yourself (substantial savings);
- increase soundproofing homes.
The disadvantages include:
- mandatory requirements for ensuring vapor barrier;
- the need to use insulation with excessive thickness;
- consequences in the form of internal drafts;
- the need for additional ventilation due to increased humidity;
to content ↑
Is it possible to warm the walls inside the apartment?
Despite the fact that the option of internal insulation seems, at first glance, the most effective and profitable, experts recommend resorting to it only in the most extreme cases. if there is no other way out.
Protection of walls from the cold from the inside is not recommended by building codes. specified in the Code of Rules SP 23-101-2004.
If the operating organization for years promises to carry out outdoor insulation, and the residents do not have their own funds, then everything that is not recommended can be carried out, since it does not have a strict ban.
Read also the article about modern materials for wall insulation outside.
Find a more comfortable and warm housing, if there is an opportunity to insulate an existing apartment, very few people agree.
An additional incentive is:
- Established by the authorities a ban on making any changes to the facade of the house, due to the cultural value of the building, facing the main street and other reasons.
- The presence of a deformed seam between buildings.
- The elevator shaft, or any unheated room, located behind the wall and deprived of the possibility to be insulated from the inside.
- The possibility of internal thermal insulation work is incorporated in the construction project, provided that an identical heat insulator is used, which was used during construction work.
The list of the main disadvantages that experts refer to is a reduction in the service life of buildings. in connection with the process of defrosting and freezing of bearing and enclosing structures.
Another disadvantage directly affecting the tenants is a reduction in the usable area of the room, since ultrathin, having a thickness of up to ten millimeters, insulators are still in the category of nonexistent.
Types of materials
The choice of insulation is not limited to the numbers indicated on the price tag. First of all, the material should be:
- have a certificate of fire and health safety;
- resistant to aging;
- biologically resistant (protected from rodents, moths and mold);
- able to maintain the original shape for a long time;
- have good heat-shielding characteristics.
to content ↑
Leads among heat-shielding materials due to low cost, as well as compliance with all basic requirements.
The process of creating a heat insulating layer is the installation of a metal frame and placement between the racks of the design of mineral wool panels. The work is completed by covering the frame, filled with insulation, sheets of drywall.
A significant minus of mineral wool is its ability to absorb moisture. The resulting dampness is an excellent breeding ground for pathogenic bacteria. In addition, excess water reduces heat engineering priorities.
For a panel house, for example, the choice in favor of mineral wool will not be the most successful. However, if it is necessary to warm the walls of a wooden structure, it is better not to find mineral wool.
This natural organic material is capable of spontaneously expelling the generated steam beyond the contour of the structure, protecting the wood used for construction.
One of the most important characteristics of insulation materials is moisture resistance and low specific weight.
If mineral wool cannot boast the ability to resist moisture, then polystyrene foam, both foamed and extruded (EPS), fully satisfies the demand.
The advantages of the material also include a small proportion of sheets and the absence of the need to install a metal frame.
All that is required is the insulation of the joints between the sheets of polystyrene foam and the walls through the use of polyurethane wool.
The sheets of polystyrene foam themselves should be fixed to the wall with glue or dowels.
Obtained by foaming the suspension polymer.
It has a specific structural structure that determines the high strength and durability. exceeding a similar characteristic of popular mineral wool.
Polyfoam, in spite of its high popularity, has both significant advantages and disadvantages.
- high moisture resistance;
- excellent thermal insulation properties;
- resistant to mold and fungus;
- convenient in processing and installation;
- additional waterproofing is not required;
- It is highly resistant to temperature changes, heat, frost;
- provides good sound insulation;
- needs protection against mechanical damage due to limited mechanical strength;
- does not pass air;
- fire hazardous;
- no interaction with nitrocolors and nitrolacs should be allowed;
to content ↑
This material is considered a leader among modern heaters due to its reliability. Among the minuses of polyurethane foam marked the need to install frames.
Adoption of additional security measures in connection with the application of a liquid two-component substance by spraying, as well as plastering with the additional use of nylon nets.
Among the advantages of polyurethane foam: high moisture resistance. minimum setting time, no need to use fasteners.
According to the characteristics similar to mineral wool. The advantages include a lower cost than mineral wool. The main disadvantage is shrinkage over time. In addition, glass wool has a high brittleness of the fibers. This complicates installation and requires careful compliance with safety regulations.
We are talking about such unusual materials as straw, reed, gypsum panels. Despite the difficulties with the acquisition and search for a contractor, this option of insulation is becoming increasingly popular.
But if there is no particular desire to search for material and the performer, then you can use no less environmentally friendly materials – cork insulation or fiberboard, which is made from wood chips.
In this article you can learn how to make noise insulation of the walls in the apartment.
Criterias of choice
In order to choose the most successful variant of insulation, intended for internal wall insulation, it is necessary first of all to pay attention to the following characteristics:
- Resistance to high temperatures and exposure to open fire (fire safety).
- Low thermal conductivity, preventing the outflow of heat from the room.
- Safety (absence of toxic substances and toxic impurities).
- Durability and ability to retain the original shape for a long time.
- Resistant to moisture and aggressive substances.
Also an important role is played by the material from which the walls are made, and its characteristics.
For a panel house, it is recommended to choose the material depending on the future decoration of the room walls.
If you plan to plaster the walls, it is best to insulate them with extruded polystyrene foam. Feature – the group of flammability of EPS should not exceed G1.
The choice in favor of expanded polystyrene is also justified by the minimal capture of the usable space.
If the walls are sheathed with plasterboard, then they can be insulated with mineral wool and other soft insulation, with the obligatory laying of the vapor barrier layer.
It is not recommended to insulate walls in panel houses with polyfoam due to its high flammability and ability to accumulate moisture.
The main task of internal insulation of a foam block house is to provide a vapor barrier for thermal insulation material from both sides. Also necessarily done plating (second wall). For this purpose, use drywall or wall paneling.
Accordingly, soft cotton wool insulation or polystyrene foam will not do. It is best to use polyurethane foam, foam and foam.
The wooden house is made of environmentally friendly material. and the choice of insulation focuses on this characteristic. The best option for warming the wooden walls of a private house – laying eco wool. It is also possible to use foam and foam, which can not be said about polystyrene foam.
During operation, expanded polystyrene begins to release carcinogenic substances harmful to humans and animals.
Mineral wool is well suited for insulation of the apartment, if it permits. You can also use foam, provided that a layer of liquid waterproofing is applied to the prepared wall surface.
However, polystyrene, as well as polyfoam or foil penofol, refers to waterproof materials that increase the risk of mold and fungus.
Great for insulation of apartment walls cork material, warm plaster or fiberboard. This is only a small part of the warming materials available on the market, so the choice must be made on the basis of the characteristics of the exterior wall of the apartment. as well as options for finishing the room.
How to insulate the walls with your own hands?
The algorithm for wall insulation in an apartment from the inside depends on the type of house and the selected insulation. However, the main stages of work remain unchanged in all cases:
- Fully prepare a well-dried wall by removing the old wallpaper, removing the paint, the remnants of the decor or facing.
- Treat the wall surface with an antiseptic. Let the wall dry.
- Primed. Primer should be deep penetration.
- Plaster the wall if foam will be laid.
- Dry plaster for several days primed.
- Instead of plaster, in the case of wall insulation made of concrete, seal the joints with a special mastic or sealant.
- Mounting the batten if mineral wool is selected.
- Lay a heater, or apply according to individual technology.
- Let the construction dry.
- Mount false-wall.
Warming of walls from within polyfoam: video instruction.
Plaster on a heater
The protective leveling layer on the surface of polystyrene insulation is created with the help of a reinforcing mesh and a special mass intended for this type of materials.
Experts recommend purchasing a universal mixture. used for gluing on the plates of the insulation of reinforcing mesh and the subsequent alignment of surfaces from manufacturers Stolit, Ecomix, Ceresite.
Grid.not allowing in the future to deform the decorative coating, glued with a thin layer of plaster. Then apply a thin leveling layer of universal mass. The treated surface is left to dry for at least a day.
After drying, the surface can be wiped. After rubbing, the treated surface is primed. The last stage of work – decorative design.
Sources: http://remontami.ru/chem-uteplit-steny-doma-iznutri-vybiraem-vnutrennij-uteplitel/, http://domzastroika.ru/walls/uteplenie-sten-iznutri-v-chastnom-dome.html, http://moistenki.ru/izolyatsiya/chem-uteplyat-steny-iznutri-doma.html