House with a male roof, nineteenth century.
Another feature was the construction of a log house under the very roof, the construction of which in this case was called mats. This type of structure was especially widely distributed in the north of Russia. The logs were raised to the very roof, they built the triangle of the pediment, on which they fastened the slings for tesa.
So, we see the following features that did not allow traditional wooden houses to be made in Russia:
- wall thickness sufficient to maintain heat;
- solidity of the walls, achieved by the density of logs and caulking slots;
- low level of hygroscopicity of wood due to its processing with an ax.
Consider these features as applied to modern homes from timber.
Modern house of timber
Modern house from a bar with a section of 150 mm.
For a normal level of microclimate in the house, when winter frosts run cold, it is necessary to build a house out of a bar with a thickness of 40 cm. If the cross section of the bar is smaller, you will not be able to keep warm; After all, the timber simply by itself will freeze through in extreme cold.
In modern housing construction timber is used with a cross section of 150 mm, so this house has to be insulated from the outside or from the inside. The most appropriate to achieve the desired effect is considered external warming log house.
The level of hygroscopicity is reduced by treating the bar with special impregnations. With the help of various methods of outdoor insulation it will be possible to achieve the effect of solidity and sufficient thickness of the walls, the main thing is to find the right answer to the question of what is better to warm the house from the bar outside.
Advantages of outdoor insulation
The advantages of the house insulation method from the outside are as follows:
- the internal space is not affected, it is possible to carry out works without breaking the usual rhythm of life of owners;
- the ability to perform work on the insulation with their own hands, without the involvement of specialists;
- the possibility of an original solution to the facade of the house;
- heat losses are reduced;
- external walls will be protected from the adverse effects of the environment.
Thermal insulation made of basalt wool – Light Butts.
The modern market is rich in materials that are used for wall insulation:
- basalt insulation;
- glass wool;
- extruded polystyrene foam;
- polyethylene foam;
- polyester fiber insulation;
- sprayed polyurethane foam.
In the photo foil insulation Penofol-A of polyethylene foam.
When deciding how to insulate a house from a bar outside, it is necessary to take into account many factors, take them into account and draw the right conclusions. In this matter, an important role is played by the price, quality and thickness of the insulation.
In order to make the right decision, it is necessary to consider all the comparative mechanical and thermal characteristics of insulation, given that the materials produced by different manufacturers, the characteristics may differ.
What features should be paid attention to when deciding how to insulate a bar-shaped house outside:
- thermal conductivity index;
- compressive strength index;
- indicator of elasticity, elasticity (it is important to understand the ability of the material not to break when bent and to restore its original shape);
- study the installation conditions (for each material the manufacturer’s instructions on how to install this heater are attached).
Council When choosing the thickness of insulation, you can face the choice that mineral wool insulation 50 mm thick will be insufficient for walls of 150 mm according to the requirements of SNiP 23-02-2003 “Thermal protection of buildings”, and with insulation thickness of 100 mm will significantly exceed them.
In this case, you can use a combination of different heaters. For example, use foamed polyethylene, covering them with the facade directly along the vapor barrier. and on it sew bars, between which and strengthen the mineral wool insulation.
The order of the insulation
Consider how to properly insulate the outside of the log house, what stages of work must be performed and in what sequence.
In order for the air vapor passing through the thickness of the beam, did not turn into water in the thickness of the insulation, it is necessary to make a vapor barrier. The best option would be to hold it from the inside of the walls by running from the foil material reflecting heat inside the room.
Variant of warming the walls of the house from a bar with vapor insulation inside the room (1-outer sheathing, 2-counter-rail, 3 windscreen, 4 – insulation, 5 – load-bearing wall).
Consider how to insulate a bar-shaped house outside, when the interior has been completed and it is necessary to provide for a wind insulation device outside (read also the article Finishing a house from a bar inside on its own).
You must do this in the following order:
- we fill the vertical crate on the outer walls of the edged board with a thickness of 40-50 mm;
- we fasten the boards with a continuous sheet with an overlapping vapor barrier membrane;
- we fill the second layer of the lathing on the same boards with a step suitable for the chosen heater;
- we lay a heater between bars;
- we lay a film or membrane for wind protection;
- we fix a wind protection with counter racks;
- Mounted on rails outer lining.
Important. The vapor barrier of the wall should have air ducts arranged below and above. This is necessary for air circulation and balancing the temperature in the area of the gap and the temperature in the interior.
Warming a wooden house from a bar is an important stage in the process of reducing energy costs during exploitation and ensuring a high level of living comfort (read also the article Warming from the inside of a house from a bar: features, work order). In the presented video in this article you will find additional information on this topic.
How and what to make warming log houses outside with their own hands
Due to the severe frosts inherent in a large territory of Russia, when in the winter months outside air temperature reaches 40 degrees below zero, it will take a lot of effort to create high-quality thermal insulation of the walls. It is at this time that the actual question of the weatherization of a house built of timber arises.
In order to properly perform the insulation of the facade of a wooden house, it is necessary to carefully consider the choice of insulation material. Finishing of polyfoam is one of the simplest options, besides its cost is somewhat cheaper than analogues made from other raw materials. But it has several significant flaws, negatively characterizing it in our case. This is a low coefficient of vapor permeability, as well as the fact that when exposed to fire, it melts and releases dangerous vapors.
External insulation of the facade of a block-shaped building, made by hand with the use of mineral (basalt) wool, will achieve the best vapor barrier walls.
Exterior finish of any wooden facade with foam reduces its “breathing” characteristics.
Independent calculation of the material
Correctly perform the calculation of the required amount of material can be easily. For an exact calculation, you will need the dimensions of all the walls that need to be insulated. By simple mathematical operations, determine their area (the length is multiplied by the width minus the area of the window and door openings) and add another 15-20% of the amount received for the stock to it. That is the amount of insulation required for finishing the house outside in a single layer.
If everything is very clear with the calculation of the area, then special calculation programs are used to determine the thickness of the desired insulation layer. They use the temperature indicators of a particular region, the thickness of the walls of a log house, as well as the heat-insulating coefficients of a particular type of insulation.
You can do it yourself or with your head based on the following requirements:
- If the thickness of the walls of the wooden structure is not less than 20 cm and the temperature is not lower than 20 degrees below zero, you can install a 5-cm insulation in one layer;
- When frosts are more than 20 degrees below zero, you need to use two or even three layers of thermal insulation.
This technology involves gluing insulation directly to the surface of the wall. You can do this with a special glue. After that, a protective abrasive mesh is applied to the thermal insulation and plastering or painting of the facade is performed. Important! When doing work independently, all adhesive and paint mixtures must be vapor-permeable. This is necessary in order not to break the vapor barrier walls of the building.
The “wet method” technology with foam as insulation is the most inexpensive way to insulate the facade of log houses.
Ventilated Facade Technology
Warming using a ventilated facade allows you to create a system in which condensate drops will be brought out without causing damage to the structure: load-bearing walls, insulation and finishing material. This will be done as follows: water vapor is deposited on the inner surface of the lining, and due to the air space between it and the heat insulator, it will evaporate and be removed outside the structure.
This technology is the most optimal for use on log buildings.
Mounting of the batten
Before insulating the facade outside it is necessary to conduct an antiseptic treatment of the wall surface. This will prevent the formation of fungi and harmful insects in the wood that destroy the material.
In order to properly perform the thermal insulation of a log house with your own hands, it is necessary to mark the walls in the horizontal and vertical plane. This is done with the help of a level, level, plumb, liquid or laser levels.
The location of the guides depends on the selected cladding material and can be vertical or horizontal. Therefore, putting two extreme bars or profile, stretches the rope (fishing line) on which the installation of the next. Warming a lumber house with your own hands, you need to take a step between the rails not more than the width of the insulation boards, but not less than 40 cm.
useful in work
Thermal insulation outside with wool or foam, suggests a similar action when installing the subsystem.
The profile is fixed using aluminum or galvanized brackets. The timber is fastened using screws.
Installation of insulation
The next step is laying the insulator under the profile or beam. In order to avoid slipping or detachment from the surface of the wall, you need to use special fasteners with a wide cap with a diameter of 5 cm. With their help, you can fix the insulation on a vertical surface with your own hands.
If necessary, to insulate the facade of the building from the outside in two or three layers, the subsequent rows of insulation are superimposed only in a checkerboard pattern. Matching seams on each other is not allowed.
If the warming of a block-like building was carried out using cotton wool, the use of a vapor-permeable moisture barrier is necessary. It will prevent the ingress of moisture to the insulator, as well as prevent it from weathering during the construction of ventilated facades. Use for insulation polystyrene foam or glass wool does not require mounting additional protection.
The membrane is made of a perforated film that lets condensate vapor out of the internal space of the structure and does not let moisture out. Installation is carried out using a construction stapler or screwdriver and small self-tapping screws (when mounted on metal subsystems).
The installation of the membrane is performed with an overlap on the adjacent strips of 10 cm and the obligatory sizing of the joints with the installation tape.
With further installation of cladding material it is necessary to make additional eyelets at the top and bottom of the wall surface. This will allow to achieve a quality result of the work performed.
Sources: http://chudesniydom.ru/uteplenie/sten-brusovogo-doma-snaruzhi-svoimi-rukami.html, http://1brus.ru/operacii/uteplenije/34-kak-uteplit-dom-iz-brusa- snaruzhi, http://fasadec.ru/tehnologiya/uteplenie/brusovogo-doma-snaruzhi.html