Well on limestone or artesian well. It is much less common. The reason for this may be: the high cost of the work and the need to agree on a drilling project in local licensing organizations (such as KP Vodokanal). Well construction solution is more complicated. It consists of two columns – casing, and working. The first is set to limestone, the second – directly in limestone. The artesian well has a larger debit from 7 to 40 cubic meters. per hour (depending on the diameter of the pipe) and serves up to 50 years. Drilling takes place with the involvement of technology, and the depth can reach 320 meters.
Since it is supposed to do it yourself, let us consider in more detail the installation of wells in the sand, as the most accessible in terms of independent implementation.
Water Well Drilling – Step by Step Guide
1. Determination of depth
- a shallow (up to 3 m) well is broken in if the aquifer is close to the ground surface and the water is supposed to be used only for technical needs or irrigation. For drilling such a well enough drill, casing and hand pump;
- A mid-deep (up to 7 m) well will provide an opportunity to get water suitable for human consumption. In addition to the drill, it will take a spade and time to drill a hole on your own. The hole (pit) with dimensions of 1.5×1.5×1.5 is designed to facilitate drilling to great depths. For convenience, it can be strengthened with plywood or boards. After completion of the work, the pit falls asleep. Water is supplied by a pump;
- deep (more than 7 m) well. will completely cover the need for water of all residents of a private house or cottage. At the same time, water will be enough not only for individual consumption, but also for technical needs, sanitary requirements, irrigation, maintenance of a pool or pond (reservoir).
In general, the choice of the type of water intake is determined after a geological study of the place of organization of the well. We propose to consider the last option – a device for a deep well do it yourself, as the most complex one presented.
2. Methods of drilling wells
The listed types of wells (this does not apply to artesian or “lime” wells) can be drilled using the following methods (technologies):
Auger drilling for water Auger drilling using auger drill.
Core drilling for water Core drilling (a ring-shaped drill is used).
Shock-wire drilling for water Shock-wire drilling. In this case, a drill bit is used, which is driven into the soil without excavation. The soil is simply compacted to the side of the axis of the bit. A chisel is driven by a tripod with a winch.
Shock-rotational drilling of a well on water Shock-rotational drilling. Work of the drill is supplemented with washing away of soil by water. The method is time consuming for individual use.
Rotary drilling of water wells Rotary drilling (provided by a mobile drilling rig).
The photo shows a small-sized drilling rig MGB50P-02S with a movable hydraulic rotator, produced by the company Horizontal.
3. Project for drilling water wells
In that case, if the exact depth of the aquifer is known, you can drill directly to the size of the drill for the casing. If not, you will first need to find out at what depth the aquifer lies.
Thus, any well is an individual project, which is influenced by such parameters:
- geological structure of the soil;
- selected drilling method;
- requirements that apply to the quantity and quality of water;
- the requirement to maintain the necessary distance to the places of pollution (arrangement of the “sanitary zone”);
- depth of the aquifer. Moreover, I mean not the first vein to which the drill reached, but the one that will meet the conditions of use in terms of ensuring the debit of the well.
4. Water Well Drilling Tools
Since the hammer-drill method of manual drilling is described, its advantages should be noted:
- preservation of most of the useful soil layer in the original state. Those. heavy machinery does not damage plantings on the site;
- no restrictions on the drilling site. Manual drill can be drilled in almost any part of the site;
- simplicity of equipment and minimum requirements for the qualification of the driller.
To work will require:
- the drill with the strengthened cutting part. Tip: the drill can be strengthened by welding the incisors onto the screw, the role of which can be played by the elements of a file or metal bar. In addition, the cutters can be sharpened using a grinder;
- the cart for export of the taken out soil;
- pump type “baby” with a hose;
For the arrangement will be useful:
- crushed stone or gravel for pillows;
- steel wire for the filter;
- wire for arrangement of the bottom filter.
5. The choice of location and device hole
With the help of hired specialists or folk methods (dowsing, barometric method, using silica gel, by the number of rossi, exploratory drilling, etc.) we determine the place where the aquifer is closest to the surface.
Digging a hole under the well into the water Next, we dig a hole. This is the development of soil of a certain depth, the purpose of which is to facilitate the process of drilling a well.
The arrangement of the hole is an important stage for two reasons.
First, the drilling depth is reduced by the drill.
Secondly, the possibility of soil collapse around the well is excluded.
The size of the hole is determined by the driller, but usually are 1.5×1.5 and 1.5-2.5 m. in depth. So that the soil is not sprinkled, the hole is strengthened with plywood, boards or metal.
6. First method: tripod – drilling rig
Installation for drilling water wells Tripod – shock-rope mechanism for drilling water wells. The support structure will be needed in order to facilitate the drilling process through the use of a drill glass.
Diagram of a tripod device for drilling A tripod can be made from wood (knots are excluded) or a metal pipe (or profile). The length of the timber or pipe should be 4-5 m. How to make a tripod for drilling can be seen in the diagram.
Drilling glass for drilling Next to the tripod is mounted mechanical winch with a cable, which is fixed to the drill glass.
Such a drilling rig is compact and has a significant margin of safety. The principle of the installation is simple: the glass falling into the ground absorbs the ground. Depending on the composition of the soil in one stroke, you can choose from 20 cm to 1 m. Of soil. It is possible to facilitate the work by filling the drilling site with water. From time to time the drill should be cleaned from the soil stuffed into it.
Caution: The cable on which the drill is attached must be longer than the depth of the well. Otherwise, it will break, and the drill will remain at the bottom.
The casing pipe can be installed simultaneously with advancing to a depth or after all the work is done.
7. The second method – casing and drill
During the drilling process, you can immediately install the casing. Then its diameter must be greater than the diameter of the drill so that the drill can move freely in the pipe.
In carrying out the work, it is necessary to constantly monitor the humidity of the excavated soil in order not to miss the aquifer (otherwise it can be closed by a pipe). The main features below.
Material prepared for the site moydomik.net
Pumping dirty water After an aquifer is detected, it is necessary to pump out dirty water in order to understand whether there is enough water in a given vein. For this, a submersible or manual pump is used.
If after pumping out 2-3 buckets of turbid water, the net has not yet appeared, continue drilling to a more capacious layer.
Important: the pump is not designed for such working conditions, so after cleaning the water it can break. It is recommended to use only high-quality pump.
8. Casing hole
Steel or plastic pipes can be used for casing (service life up to 50 years). But the use of galvanized pipes is not recommended because of the risk of water contamination with zinc impurities.
The value of the casing is as follows:
- preventing shedding of the walls of the well;
- preemption of the siltation of the well;
- elimination of the possibility of penetration into the well of upper watering (water of the upper layers, melt or rain water);
- elimination of the risk of clogged wells.
Installation of the casing is performed immediately after completion of the work or directly during the drilling process.
Tip: if the pipes go “squeaking” you need to attach a sledgehammer to them.
9. Flushing the well into the water after drilling
Installation of the casing is not the end. Now you need to wash the well. For this, a pipe is lowered into it through which water is supplied under pressure. Due to the water pressure, a layer of clay and sand will be washed out of the well, which must be pumped out. After the appearance of pure water, it must be passed for analysis. Requirements for the quality of water from a well are regulated by the norms of SanPiN 126.96.36.1994-01 (Russia) or DSANP_N 2.2.4-171-10 (Ukraine). With satisfactory water quality, work can continue.
10. Bottom filter for sand well
The purpose of the filter is to protect the pipe from silting.
Filter for a well – notches How to make a filter for a well?
The hands can make a slotted filter, for this you need to make notches (cuts) grinder at the end of the pipe.
Tip: for notches you need to use a thin disk (0.8 mm). Pay attention – many cuts will weaken the pipe.
Well filter – drilling holes As an option, you can drill holes in the pipe. Next, the place of the notches / drilling need to be wrapped with wire or mesh. The filter thus obtained is placed on a rubble pad, the backfill of which will prevent the filter from silting.
Tip: the diameter of the filter pipe must be less than the diameter of the main pipes in order to be able to dive into the well without problems.
The simplest option would be to purchase a finished filter.
Important: well without filter will not work for a long time. Its absence is justified only in deepwater wells (more than 40 m)
11. Debit wells on water
To get a complete picture of the capacity of the well on the sand you need to wait a day, and then check the level of the water that has entered. If the water flow is sufficient for the needs of users, you can fill the distance between the soil and the casing. The hole also buries.
12. The buildup of the well on the water after drilling
This is a mandatory step. To perform the buildup or simply the final cleaning of the well, you need to install a high-capacity centrifugal pump and periodically pump out the water for 1.5-2 weeks.
Tip: you should decide in advance where the pumped water will be redirected.
13. Do it yourself water well drilling – video
Manual technology using the shock-cable method of punching.
14. Installing a well pump for water
Please note that surface type pumps are not designed for installation in the well. Due to the depth limit of 8 m. For this purpose, only a submersible pump will be suitable – centrifugal or vibratory. Each of the subspecies has its advantages, and the final choice can be made by analyzing the influence of such factors as:
- well depth;
- water level in the well;
- casing diameter;
- well debit;
- water pressure in the well;
- well pump cost.
15. Putting the well into operation
If the well was being drilled under water, not independently, but with the involvement of a third-party organization, then before accepting the work, you need to require such documents:
- hydrogeological conclusion on the possibility of implementing a well project for water;
- sanitation sanitation station (checks the water quality and compliance of the sanitary zone requirements);
- certificate of completion.
If all the work will be done independently, the main thing is not to hurry, but to maintain the technology and observe all the key points of the process of drilling a well into the water. At the same time, do not forget that only the use of quality materials (in particular, pipes and a pump) will be the key to long-term well operation.
Well into the water with their own hands
Country houses are increasingly reminiscent of a completely independent system in the field of water supply and sanitation. After all, many happy owners of their own home want to live in comfort even where there are no centralized water supply and wastewater disposal systems. It’s even more pleasant to have a well of pure drinking water on the site.
Content step by step instructions:
Types of wells
We are accustomed to the fact that the well water is understood as artesian water. But besides the artesian there are also a sand well and the “Abyssinian well”. Below is a description of each of these groundwater sources in more detail.
This type of drinking source is known for a long time. The depth of the Abyssinian well can be 8-12 m. The Abyssinka has a very simple structure:
- the body of the well is formed by a pipe whose diameter is equal to an inch;
- this pipe goes to the bottom of the pointed tip filter;
- hand or electric water-lifting equipment is installed on the surface.
- Such a well can be made inside the house, which will allow it to be used even in the winter period. If your site there are interruptions in the supply of electricity, you can install both electric and manual pump.
- Despite its small size, the Abyssinian well is an excellent source of drinking water for the dacha. Indeed, in connection with a simple design, an abyssina can be easily reproduced on its own in just 10 hours.
- Abyssinian well called conventionally. It is not subject to such influence of overheading, surface runoff, therefore often the water in the well has better performance than well water. Especially in microbiology.
- At the same time, in terms of the mineral composition, the water in the Abyssinian well often outperforms the artesian well. This applies to inorganic iron and hardness salts.
- For the arrangement of this well is not required to obtain a license and enter it into the registry.
- If necessary, all components of the abyssinka can be disassembled with little effort and moved to another location.
- The construction of such a well will cost you less than other types of water wells.
But before you make an Abyssinian well in your area, you must take into account a number of features.
- The aquifer should not pass below the eight-meter depth. This is due to the fact that the well is very narrow, so the water-lifting equipment to it can be installed only outside.
- Even with the observance of all installation rules, the water in the abyssina may undergo a compositional change due to the infiltration of pollutants through a relatively small soil layer. For this reason, potential contaminants should not be located near the well.
- It is impossible to drill the Abyssinian well in the rocks, as the drill cannot cope with them. The best option for soil is medium and coarse sand, in which the well is less prone to siltation.
Well in the sand
Well in the sand
The aquifer of this well is in the sandy layer. Its arrangement is resorted to when the water layer is more than ten meters deep, a maximum of 50 m.
This is another source of drinking water supply, which can be equipped by our own efforts without significant material costs. The composition of the sand well includes the following elements:
- bottom filter;
- submersible pump;
- casing and simultaneously water supply pipe;
A well of this type can produce up to 20 cubic meters of water per day, which may well provide the needs of a small house.
But there are a number of nuances in the installation and operation of a well in the sand that need to be taken into account.
- The chemical composition of water does not always comply with sanitary standards, therefore it is necessary to carry out cleaning to use it for drinking purposes.
- The maximum lifetime of the gerbil is 15 years. It all depends on the soil in which the filter is located: a large fraction is silt protection, extending the life of the well.
- In addition, the gerbil needs constant exploitation. Therefore, if it is not possible to regularly pump it, it is better to abandon this well.
- If your neighbors have drilled a similar well at the same depth, then the debit of your water source will decrease significantly.
- Filter wells need to be washed annually. Sometimes it is necessary to perform washing every six months.
The wells mentioned above are suitable for small houses. If you are a happy owner of a country house of impressive size or for other reasons, the gerbil and abyssinian do not suit you, then the only way out can be drilling and arranging an artesian well.
Well connection diagram
It is impossible to drill this source on your own, you need to hire professionals whose services are not cheap. But since the well production rate is high, it is possible to skip off the services of drillers with neighbors.
Artesian water is extracted from a layer that passes at a depth of 0.1 km and more. It is not subject to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms, petroleum products, copper, zinc, and has a low content of organic matter.
But at the same time, artesian water is often characterized by excess in hardness and content of non-oxidized inorganic iron and manganese. Water can also have a characteristic odor associated with the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the water. In connection with this, artesian water often needs to be subjected to additional purification.
Another significant drawback of the artesian is the need to obtain a license to drill and use the well, as well as strict observance of sanitary protection belts. Standards along the radius of the latter are unlikely to equip a well in a small area.
Therefore, the best option is to drill one well to service several houses.
Abyssinian and gerbil do it yourself
Abyssinian well (hand-drilled well)
Abyssinian well (hand-drilled well).
Despite its simplicity, the Abyssinian well is very popular among the owners of country houses. After all, often his debit is higher than that of the gerbil, and it is much easier to drill and equip it. But if the aquifer is below the level from which an external pump can lift water, then it is possible to equip a sand well. Let us consider in more detail the installation of these two types of wells.
Before starting the abyssinks, this is the name of the process for obtaining this water source, it is necessary to prepare all the elements of this well. They are sold in finished form, but to make them yourself is not particularly difficult.
Step 1. From the meter pipe, whose diameter is an inch, make the basis of the filter. To do this, in the pipe walls for 80 cm every 20 mm from each other cut holes in the form of a slit.
Step 2. On the filter tube wind the wire and tighten the net of filter weaving. The last need to fix the clamps every 100 mm.
Manual drilling rig
Step 3. At the far end of the filter set the steel cone, the diameter of the base which is larger than the diameter of the pipe, and the height is 100 mm. The tip can be ordered from a turner, and the cone can be securely fixed to the filter pipe with tin solder.
In the same way additionally secure the grid.
Variety of homemade design for shallow drilling
Step 4. For the body of the well prepare meter or one and a half meter inch pipes with threads at both ends for the connection.
At the preparatory stage, you can make a grandmother – a tool for driving. To do this, take a small piece of pipe with a thick wall, centimeter base is welded to one end of the tube, and handles on the side. The weight of the headstock must be at least 30 kg.
At the preparatory stage, you can make a grandmother – a tool for driving
After the preparatory activities begin to drive.
Step 1. In the place chosen for the well, a pit is being dug out with an area of 1 square meter and a depth of half a meter.
The simplest version of the unit for drilling
Step 2. In the pit, they begin to drill with a garden drill, the length of which is gradually increased with the help of half-inch pipes, which are connected to each other by means of couplings and bolts.
Various options for the manufacture of improvised drills, adapted to a particular type of soil
Step 3. From the moment of the appearance of moisture-saturated sand go directly to the driving. For this, the prepared filter is connected with a thread to the first pipe. At the free end of the pipe wind the coupling with the end, which protects the pipe from the action of impact. Strung grandmother and sharply hit her.
Photo impact tip
The hammering can also be done with a sledgehammer, but in this case the probability of bending the pipe is higher.
Important! Blockage should be combined with sprinkling the pipe with soil and sealing it.
Step 4. During the blocking, constantly pour water into the well and listen. This is necessary in order not to drill past a layer of water. The wiretap is made like this: every half meter, the well pipe is turned clockwise and the sound is heard. So, rustling and gnashing testify to the horizon of sand of small and large fraction, respectively.
Step 5. As soon as noise appears, add more water and look at how fast it seeps into the ground:
- if slowly, then they are buried by another half a meter;
- quickly – you need to go deeper by 30 cm.
When the blockage is completed, proceed to install the pump.
Equipment for well construction
How to make a filter well
The first thing to do before drilling a filter well is to interview the nearest neighbors if they have a similar water source. The main thing is to find out from what depth they extract water. If you have to get drilled for more than twenty meters, you will have to hire a team of professionals or rent special equipment.
In the case of the location of a layer of water at a shallow depth, you can do with improvised tools.
Having chosen a convenient place remote from heaps of garbage, cesspools and other pollutants, dig a hole 150x150x150 cm. It is recommended to strengthen its walls with sheets of wood or metal.
Winch and tripod for impact drill
Now you need to build a tripod, which subsequently secure the winch. Below is an instruction on how to build this structure, necessary for lifting the drill.
Drilling rig, well drilling, rotary type
Step 1. At the ends of the three bars with a twenty-centimeter cross-section, cut holes for the tube, which will connect these tripod supports.
Step 2. Put the tripod over the drilling site, securing the supports to protect them from burial in the ground during operation.
Step 3. Attach the winch to the tripod: electric top, mechanical bottom.
Step 4. To winch cling drill.
You can start drilling, which is a cycle that repeats until the aquifer is reached, and includes the following actions:
- a handle is attached to a strictly vertical bora;
- two workers move clockwise, screwing the drill into the soil;
- approximately every half meter the drill is lifted to shake off the ground from it;
- when an aquifer is reached, a pump is pumped into a drilled well for pumping dirty water.
Pumping dirty water
As soon as clean water begins to flow, it is possible to start the construction of a well, including the filling of a bottom filter, installation of casing pipes, pumping equipment, a tip, and a caisson.
Thus, you can drill a hole in the sand or an Abyssinian well yourself, using the equipment at hand. If you need more water debit, you will have to allocate a substantial amount of funds and hire an organization whose activity is related to the drilling of artesian wells.
When choosing a driller, it is better to stay with the company that has several drilling rigs and does not offer plastic casing. In addition, this company must have a hydrologist.
Video – Abyssinian well inside the house
Video – Drilling in the sand. Well into the water with their own hands
Sources: http://aquagroup.ru/articles/skvazhina-na-vodu-svoimi-rukami.html, http://moydomik.net/kommunik/vodosnabzhenie/306-skvazhina-na-vodu-burenie.html, http: //svoimi-rykami.ru/stroitelstvo-doma/skvazhina-i-kolodec/skvazhina-na-vodu-svoimi-rukami.html