The gate with which the bucket of water can be lifted can be made of a log with a diameter of 0.2 cm. A hole is made in the central part of each end of the gate, into which an axis and a handle of the gate are then inserted.
Metal components of the gate are usually made separately on order or from improvised means. On the side of the handle of the gate you need to put on 2 washers, and one – on the other side.
Pucks serve to prevent the gate from moving and contribute to its durability. For a more visual idea of what design options for the upper part of the well can be, you can watch the video below.
Now you have all the necessary knowledge about how to carry out the work of digging a well without additional costs and your own hands.
Sobolev Yuri Alekseevich
How to dig a well on the country site itself
Mankind, alas, cannot do without water, it affects physiological needs, and it is also necessary for technical purposes. If your private house is connected to the central water supply or there is a natural reservoir nearby, this is very good. And if not, then you have to either equip the well on the site. or dig the well itself, which will be discussed below.
Beautifully equipped drinking water source on site
Choosing a place
It is desirable that it be close to housing and to places where water will be directly needed.
- it should be understood that the water, after it passes through the upper permeable horizons, can be polluted, especially if there are large sources of various contaminants nearby. Therefore, do not make a well near the compost, garbage and manure heaps, and at the point of discharge of sewage. When you have to dig the well yourself on a slope, it must always be above the source of the pollution;
- consider also the local hydrogeological situation, for example, in a swampy area, well water will not be potable, since water will penetrate from the surface along with everything that gets in its way.
Choosing a place for the source
Where does the water in the well come from
Before you learn how to dig the well yourself correctly, you need to understand at what depth you will be able to get high-quality drinking water or ordinary technical water. After the rains pass, the snow melts, the water begins to accumulate just above the impermeable layer, which consists of thick, thick clay.
Consider the depths of groundwater under the ground:
- overhead – up to 5 m;
- soil – up to 10 m;
- ground – up to 40 m;
- artesian – below 40 m.
We calculate the needs of water and choose the diameter of the well
Water supply of a small suburban area consists of irrigation and own needs, which approximately need 1-2 m 3 of water. It should also be noted that the complete filling of the source after it is drained takes 2-12 hours and depends on its volume, features of the place and season.
Tip: the smaller the diameter of the well, the faster it will fill.
If this source is dried 1 time per day, and the full water column is up to 1 m, the diameter of the concrete rings will be 1.12 m. It should be reminded to the owners of such wells that water has a regeneration time, so get 1.5-2 m 3 liquid you fail.
Know also, frequent filling of the source will affect the quality of water in it, which will not have time to settle, especially. If you need it for drinking. Concrete rings with a lock are best suited for such structures.
They will ensure a good density of connections, allowing you to protect the well shaft from possible displacements. Their only drawback is the price, which is higher than that of ordinary concrete rings without a lock. The term of operation of products is about 50 years.
Time to set up a well
If you decide to start digging it with your own hands in the spring, when the snow has almost melted, you can go wrong with the depth of the source, since the water table is high. Therefore, the April well in the winter time will be dry.
Consider that seasonal fluctuations in the level can be 1-2 m. Because of this, experts recommend starting to dig a well in the fall and winter, at a time when the water horizon is located at the lowest level. When the water horizon suddenly drops, you can deepen the source rings with a smaller diameter.
We start to dig a well in the fall
The most acceptable depth when released into the aquifer is 5-20 m. There are wells up to 30 m, but such a construction is fraught with complications and will be unprofitable compared to the well.
In fact, there are no specifications or SNiPs explaining how to dig a well independently. Usually it builds a team of three people.
Below is a guideline that will visually explain the whole process.
Well device diagram
- Before starting work it is necessary to prepare devices and equipment. You will need a winch for lifting buckets, you will also need a tripod for fastening it.
In the photo – tripod for mounting the winch
- To work in the face need a shovel and a short crowbar. All occurring stones must be tied with a rope and lifted to the surface.
Work in the mine face of the future source
- The assistant raises the bucket and carries the soil to the dump.
- You can connect another person who will periodically change the picker and lifter, since the work is usually done intensively. Consider also that after a depth of 3 m the temperature in the building will drop to 10 ° C and the air will no longer be ventilated.
Tip: for artificial ventilation, you can use an umbrella, which must be lowered into the shaft and raised from it, improving the microclimate.
Well shaft ventilation
- After the pit has been dug by parameters, the first concrete ring with a flat butt or lock is inserted into it. Its weight exceeds 700 kg, so you need to be careful.
Installing the first concrete ring in the mine
- Choose a primer from under it, and it will gently fall below, freeing up space for other rings. If it fails too deeply, you can put one ring on another, but at the same time its manufacturer prescribes that the installation should be carried out with the help of crane equipment. Therefore, all the cracks and chips will be only your fault.
Well of concrete rings, which under their weight fall into the mine
- Continue to build up the column until it reaches the aquifer level. For a shift in dry loam or sand, the team can put 2-3 rings. In heavy soils – stony and wet clay work becomes hard labor.
The approach of the aquifer will be indicated by a noticeable cooling when the temperature drops by another 1-2 ° C, and mini-springs begin to run along the walls. In strong, dry soils, you can first dig a shaft, and then lower the rings into it, using a barbell and a gate.
How to protect the source from overhead
It would be ideal if the rings were pulled together with special metal brackets that would be bolted through the wall of the ring. In addition, to prevent penetration into the source of the water pipe, a flax rope should be laid in the joint between concrete rings and the joints should be sealed with a mixture consisting of cement and liquid glass.
Source protection against overhead
Additionally, outside, after the rings are buried, it is necessary to pick up the source around the perimeter and coat the entire surface with waterproofing material. Do not believe that the quality of water from this deteriorate, it is just the workers do not want to do their work.
The quality of the water can deteriorate due to the fact that the water pipe will enter the mine through the unsealed joints outside. Fill the excavated space with blue clay and warm the concrete with foam to protect the source from freezing.
Since the water intake takes place from below, therefore, after the mortar has hardened, continue the drilling of the well. Place one or two rings in the aquifer.
Then seal all internal joints with a solution, adding liquid glass to it. At the bottom pour a layer of gravel 200-300 mm thick with a fraction of 50-250 mm, which will become a water filter.
Fill up the annular space with sand and gravel, tamp down all the clay, making a kind of clay castle that will prevent melt and rainwater from entering the source. Do not bury the upper ring in the mine to protect the well from dirt and snow, make a thorough waterproofing of the upper joint with the entire column.
Start pumping water from the source when the level in it reaches such that it is possible to lower the pump into it. The duration of the buildup of the well is long. Until the water quality satisfies you.
Remember that when building such a structure you endanger yourself, especially when you decide to dig a well yourself. During this period, there is a high risk of injury, sometimes fatal.
During mine penetration, “quicksands” may occur, when a concrete ring can go sharply to the side and cripple a worker. So when deciding to dig or drill, consider these points.
From above, the well should be completed with a canopy in which to install a wooden gate, with a rope or cord attached to it, with a secure handle. Attach a bucket on a piece of chain, which will give the opportunity to quickly immerse it in water. You can decorate the pommel in the form of a gable roof with a hinged door, and decorate the remaining elements with a facing brick or stone (also read the article “Design of water wells: important principles of creation”).
It will look great source, which is decorated as a log cabin. Do not forget to also make a pavement around the perimeter of the well from paving slabs and install a bench when the ground is seated. It is also possible to equip the structure not with a classic water rise, but with a modern one, using an automatic pump.
High sanitary requirements are imposed on wells, and in and around it must always be clean. Animals at least in the three-meter zone should not approach the source of drinking water, and it is better to make a reliable barrier for them along the perimeter at a distance of 6 m.
Do not allow foliage from trees, insects, frogs, beetles, rain, snow and dust, etc. to enter the open well. for which it should be equipped with a tight lid. You can make it from different materials, as long as dust and water cannot pass through it.
Water should be taken to the surface with one public bucket, which must be fixed inside the well. It is advisable to close it on top with a stainless steel mesh so that animals do not get water from it. To conduct routine inspection and clean the well should be 2-4 times a year.
The source of clean drinking water at a country site is not a whim, but a vital necessity, especially when it is not possible to use the central water supply. You can dig a well yourself, or you can hire a brigade of workers to do this, and you must follow safety precautions while working (see also the article “Reinforced concrete sewer wells: construction and operation features”).
In the presented video in this article you will find additional information on this topic.
More from my site
- How to dig a well in the country – useful tips
- How to equip a well: materials, methods, devices
- How to dig a well: tips, features, walkthrough
- Dig a well – ten steps to make your dream come true
- How to dig a well with your own hands: a guide from “a” to “z”
- How to dig a well – recommendations from personal experience
How to dig a well with your own hands
In the absence of the possibility of connecting to the centralized water supply on the site, the only way left is to dig a well on its own. Not everyone knows how to dig a well on their own to provide access to drinking water. With proper organization of work and the choice of location, you get a reliable source of spring water. If you follow the basic rules and understand the essence of the process, it is quite easy to dig a well with your own hands.
Table of contents:
What is important to know about digging wells
Drinking water, which is expected during the construction of the well, should be clean and tasty, but this does not always work. The well is made according to the rules, and the water in it sometimes comes hard, with an odor or with a bitter aftertaste. In order that the spent efforts were not in vain, it is important to know how and where to dig the well for the inflow of crystal clear water. Groundwater occurs at different levels, respectively, the water in them is also different.
The builders of wells in arid areas since ancient times have been particularly revered by many nations. It was decided to thank heaven and bless their descendants for their work, taking water every time. And those who fell asleep, poisoned or stoned wells – people cursed up to 7 generations. Now, few people remember with a kind word of unknown hard workers, but respect for water sources has survived to the present.
Today, in a private household, many also decide how to find – where to dig a well? In most cases, they try to dig a well as close as possible to the building, but this may adversely affect the foundation of the house or the dacha. The optimal interval is about 5-6 meters.
Far to carry water in buckets is also impractical, but there are options for supplying water under pressure or using pumps. In this case, it is easy to organize the water supply to the house. But it is important to think about the drainage of the slops so that the water supply and sewage discharge are in different places of the site.
A well is dug independently, at observance of all safety regulations, or trust it to experts with equipment. On a plot with a low groundwater level, a few people using a simple tool or equipment do the excavation of a well from a well. A good example is a well-made DIY video at the end of the article.
Pay attention to the neighbors – in your area enough wells at shallow depth? If they have excellent taste of water – it can be done on your site. But it happens that within 2-3 km the water from the wells differs in taste.
Aquifers occur at different levels, so in some places there are wells up to 25 – 30 m deep. In this case, don’t think how many meters to dig a well – it is advisable to drill an artesian well. It is easiest to work on sandy soil, clay is harder to dig, the most difficult to remove stones and lift to the top with a winch. Sometimes the layer of stones is so large, and the rocks are so hard and hard to extract, that you have to abandon the question of how to make a well with your own hands.
The easiest way is to start with a mechanized excavation with a bucket. Then manually deepen until the appearance of water and align the walls under the laying of concrete rings. However, it is not possible to adjust the technique to all places where they are planning to dig a well on the site.
All work can be done by 2-3 people – with a shovel, crowbar and bucket for the soil on the winch. But the more a person can replace each other when digging a well, the faster and easier it is to complete the main stages of work. The soil is first broken with a crowbar or pick, dug with a shovel and selected with a bucket, which is lifted with various tools.
How to determine the optimal place for a well
It happens that none of the neighbors do not have wells in the area – it is worth asking the reason not to waste efforts in vain. The complexity of arranging a source of drinking water depends on many factors, including:
- climatic conditions;
- the type of soils and layers in them;
- hydrogeological conditions;
- inadequate water quality (dirty, turbid, with a strange aftertaste or shade).
Attention: Do not drink putrefactive and contaminated water (headboard), which can get into the well from the marshland, nearby cattle cemeteries, cemeteries, chemical waste dumps, landfills, car washes, wastewater tanks or sewers. You should not dig a well near a farm or a pigsty, especially at the bottom of a noticeable slope of the area. Remember that wells always dig above the source of pollution.
The golden rule: To the well should be at least 30 – 35 m from the cesspool of the toilet, ditch, manure heaps, garbage pits or septic tank. Do not put a well near the sauna or bath and car wash.
Those who develop the uninhabited lands have to drill a special exploration well – for preliminary exploration of the aquifer. Although this is a time consuming and costly method, but it is the most reliable and accurate.
The hardest thing to dig wells in the rocky mountainous terrain is difficult to determine the level of the aquifer. On the way to it can come across large boulders, which are difficult to remove and lift out even with a reliable winch. If the neighbors have wells, you can find out from them:
- the depth of the groundwater section;
- optimum time for excavation;
- features of local breeds.
To determine the place where to dig a well and how to determine the level of groundwater, use not only geological exploration, but also other methods. Some are looking for water rotating frame, others “cause the spirits”, but it is much easier to trust the instruments. The sensitive barometer detects the difference in humidity and atmospheric pressure. In the heat, the meteorological method shows places with wet ground – water from the near layer forms a kind of fog or dew on the ground.
Reveal proximity to the surface of groundwater when using intelligence drilling or with a competent assessment of the relief. At the same time, the ratio of lowlands, valleys and hollows raising the groundwater is important. This method was used by the witches for a long time to find a good place for a new settlement – with enough drinking water.
Wells sometimes do on mountain slopes or on the river bank. Getting to the source of drinking water on a steep slope is difficult, it requires the construction of reliable steps to raise the water at any time of the year! But this method is used in the mountains and in the forest more often, where there is no other possibility to equip a well. There are many flat areas where wells can be dug almost everywhere, but there will be different depths.
Note: Unsuitable places for digging wells – the slopes of beams, ravines, banks of rivers, gutters and other places where groundwater is drained by natural or artificial means.
When is it better to dig a tank for arranging a well
Discussing the question of what time to dig the well, not everyone agrees. It is clear that it is inconvenient to dig frozen ground, but water does not come from below. It is also not advisable to dig the earth during rainstorms and the likelihood of landslides – the excavated soil can slide back into the pit with a stream of mud. It is also undesirable to dig wells during floods and spring thawing of snow, when the ground is still frozen below, and the top layer is saturated with moisture.
In frozen ground there is a high probability to miss the depth of the well. But it is at the end of winter that the aquifer is at its lowest. Experts confirm when it is better to dig a well – in some regions only at the end of winter and before the beginning of autumn there is such an opportunity. Here is a hand-made well scheme:
Varieties of groundwater:
- the uncleaned upper layer is closest to the surface of the ground, it should not fall into the shaft of the well, otherwise the water will be turbid, hard and with a taste;
- groundwater is a subject of search, is shallow and under pressure, often forming springs that can be cleaned and used instead of a well;
- artesian – lies deeper, more like crystal clear mineral water, comes from a well under high pressure, sometimes by a fountain.
Types of wells
Wells are of different types, taking into account the purpose, method of construction and types of external structures:
- drilling rigs;
- key or spring;
- mine (straight rounded recess);
- tubular (column, with the removal of water out).
Each has its own advantages, but it’s harder to equip a well from a pipe in the country with your own hands than an ordinary shaft well. The traditional type of well is easier to dig by yourself, it is easier to correct the depth and width in the course of the work, to arrange the walls and the bottom. In a well shaft, it is easier to work with a shovel, crowbar, or pickaxe — these are precisely the habitual dimensions of the wells that have been familiar since childhood.
The column or tubular type of well is most convenient to do in those places where the aquifer of small diameter lies close. Typically, this is done using a pump and a simple water main. Labor and financial investments in their construction are about the same. But it is necessary to have certain hydrotechnical knowledge so that water from the column enters the house directly from the well.
By filling the shaft-type wells are distinguished:
- deep and shallow;
- complete and incomplete (the water level fluctuates according to the season).
At full wells also equip an additional reservoir – sump, which is designed to ensure its filling of the mine in drought to maintain balance in the flow and use of water.
There are also covered and open wells – the type of purified spring that can be found in the forest. In the Carpathians, for example, it is customary to clean the spring regularly, set pointers, equip with a hanging mug or jug for digging and a bench for rest.
The shaft of the shaft well is strengthened in different ways – with masonry (as in antiquity), with concrete rings or with a monolithic concrete circle. There are samples lined inside with logs of non-decaying wood or with brick walls. But for the well in the country it is most convenient to make a concrete well with your own hands. Separate concrete goods-rings after unloading from transport can be rolled up independently before the dug mine shaft.
The main structural elements of the mine well:
- mine shaft – the main underground part, where the most important is to make a reliable strengthening of the walls in order to avoid the collapse of the whole structure and the admixture of groundwater from precipitation and water pipelines;
- Zumpf or intake – a reservoir for the collection and storage of clean water, and protects from freezing;
- cap – an above-ground structure to protect drinking water from external pollution and facilitate its supply, involves decorative and purely practical elements.
Safety during the construction of the well
1. All work related to excavation is carried out in overalls, mittens and a protective helmet.
2. The used equipment is pre-checked for integrity, the ropes are strong, the bucket is securely fastened, the winch is working perfectly.
3. You should not hurry when digging and when lifting a bucket with earth or strapping with a stone – negligence can lead to a cliff and injury.
4. Bucket is better to cling to a strong rope with a carabiner than to hope for a reliable knot.
5. To a person who is digging at the depth, a safety rope is tied onto the belt, in case of injury and poisoning with methane.
To dig a very deep well is unsafe or unprofitable. There may be problems with methane released from the depths, which is difficult to recognize due to minor symptoms.
Attention: If even a slight dizziness, weakness, nausea, or difficulty in breathing while digging a dimple occurs, an urgent need to raise the digger to the surface with a winch!
Pollution of the mine is checked by a lit candle – it either intensifies the burning, or goes out. The tent stretched on the frame is lowered and lifted several times in the mine for airing. You can use construction equipment for blowing and ventilation.
The process of digging the deepening and equipment of the well shaft
1. The well is dug by a vertical cylinder with a section of about one and a half meters – for the convenience of working with the tool. Under concrete rings, the width of the shaft is calculated according to their diameter. They work as a brigade of 3 people, where the first one digs, the other one takes a bucket with dug earth on the rope, and the third one ships the earth or rests, then changes.
2. It is important to competently dig a hole for laying the first ring – even and rounded walls, the bottom is horizontal. When the first ring is gently lowered into the future water source, the earth is taken out inside the rings. As they dig up the soil they will sag under the weight.
3. When the first ring goes deep enough, you can put the next one on top and one more – until you reach the water level. Sometimes they delay shrinkage if they go unevenly, and to speed up the process, sandbags can be laid on the sides of the upper ring.
4. Rings fasten steel rods or plates. The rods are part of the rings in the form of reinforcement and protrude loops, and they are connected by bolts, the plates are attached to the rings in the prepared holes.
5. The process of excavation continues until the appearance of water and beyond, pumping out the first dirty water by the pump. When the water actively arrives or hits the keys, they stop digging.
6. Before leaving the mine well, they lay clean big stones on the bottom. From above the bottom of the well is leveled with washed rubble or gravel. This layer serves as an infiltration for small particles of soil, so that it does not collect in a bucket of water.
7. It is better to pump the first water from the well, and if there is no such possibility, do not use it for a couple of weeks to drink. The washing of the well is completed after 10 to 18 hours of pumping, that is, until full transparency.
8. It is worthwhile to consider the removal of the soil removed from the mine, especially when the above-ground part of the structure is not completed. Otherwise, with the very first shower, the dirt may penetrate into the well.
9. The design of the top should be provided with a “lock” or small recess for spilling water, which is covered with a blind area. Upon completion, the head or “top” of the well is performed, which can be made modestly and reliably or very beautifully, as an element of landscape design – examples in the photo in this article.
Sources: http://stoki.guru/vodoprovod/kolodec/kak-bystro-vykopat-kolodec-svoimi-rukami.html, http://kolodec.guru/kolodci/ystrojstvo/288-kak-vykopat-kolodec-samomu, http://strport.ru/uchastok/kak-kopat-kolodets-svoimi-rukami