December 28, 2014
In modern society, it is impossible to imagine a house without electricity, therefore, in every room it is necessary to have high-quality wiring. It is best to entrust the production of such works to professional electricians, but it is possible to do electrical installation with your own hands. To do this, you must be well informed in this matter.
Layout of electrical cable
Electrical installation begins with the preparation of the layout of switches, wires, sockets, meter and other devices. Having made such a project, you will be able to more accurately calculate the amount of material. In the future, you will be easier to make in accordance with the established standards and GOSTs installation of electrical wiring with your own hands. Schemes to draw work will not be.
When making a plan, consider the following:
- All items must be located in an accessible place for ease of further service. There must be permanent access to distribution boxes in case of damage. It is not recommended to install the wiring elements in hard-to-reach places.
- Switches should be located in open areas. No need to block cabinets and other furnishings. In order to turn on the light, no need to reach out or bend over. Existing to-date GOSTs do not impose serious requirements on the installation height, so electricians are advised to install switches at a height of 100 cm from the floor. This will undoubtedly add convenience.
- Before installing sockets, you need to think in advance about the location of electrical appliances, in order not to give yourself any discomfort when using extension cords. Do not install sockets closer than 50 cm to metal objects. According to the norms, one outlet for 6 m² is needed, of course, they need more in the kitchen. For the sake of their own safety during installation, it is necessary to retreat from the floor at least 25 cm.
- The electric cable can be placed in the room at the top or bottom, with a 15 cm indent from the baseboard or ceiling. Lines should be marked vertically or horizontally. Since the wooden houses do external wiring, it is necessary to think in advance about the location of the eaves. All ends of the power lines are displayed in a junction box in which they are interconnected.
After the preparation of the schematic diagram of electrical lines, you can begin the installation of electrical wiring with your own hands. After the smallest details are considered, it is time to start acquiring the necessary material. Do-it-yourself wiring in the apartment will also require creating a circuit before work.
Material for wiring in a wooden house
In order not to constantly run to the store, in order to purchase the goods necessary for the work, you should immediately prepare everything you need. In the presence of the scheme it will not be difficult. Installation of open electrical wiring with your own hands will require more materials than closed. Since the house is built of wood, the internal electrical lines need to be forgotten. In any case, special attention should be paid to the quality of the material. The cheaper the material, the more likely it is of poor quality.
For work we need:
- Tools with insulated handles in order not to get an electric shock. You will need screwdrivers, pliers, a hammer and a sharp knife to expose the cable.
- Electrical board. It is made from plastic and metal. For a wooden house you need a metal shield. The size depends on the number of relays. In residential buildings, mainly use guards for up to 12 places. It is necessary to leave 1 blank space, if in the future there will be any changes in the wiring.
- Electrical cable. In order to determine the cable section, you need to know the power of electricity in the house. VVG 3 x 2.5 is suitable for a wooden house, where 3 is the number of lived in the cable, and 2.5 is its cross section. You need to purchase a three-core cable with a conductor for grounding. If the house has more power than stated on the cable label, a double line must be laid.
- You shouldn’t focus on the number of sockets and switches, since everything is already counted in the scheme. You need to decide on the color and texture that will suit your interior. For security purposes, it is better to use elements with a ceramic base and brass contacts for a wooden house. A variety of types of sockets and switches on the market will not leave indifferent even the most avid designer.
- Do-it-yourself wiring in a private wooden house will require additional investments in cable channels or baseboards. Undoubtedly, these elements will give the interior more beauty than just hanging wire. In some cases it will be necessary to put the cable in a plastic tube. Carefully hold the cable through the house and in the corrugation.
- Junction boxes will be required in which wires will be connected using PPE (special clamps). The cable can be connected in a twist and wrap with tape.
- Counter. It is better to choose with a good accuracy class – from 2.0 and above. The meter can be one-rate and two-tariff. The first one considers electricity consumption constantly the same, the second one calculates at two tariffs: day and night. In terms of savings, the 2nd type will be more advantageous in that it will be possible to control electricity depending on the time of day.
- Also for installation will require screws, clips of the desired diameter under the corrugation, additional fasteners.
- Since installing your own electrical wiring in a new building will require a large amount of material, everything can be purchased in one place in bulk.
Safety during the work
In the production of any construction activities should pay special attention to personal safety. Before starting work, take care of the availability of personal protective equipment. It is necessary to work in a helmet and special tight clothes. Installation of electrical wiring is made with de-energized lines. If the work is connected with electricity, you will need rubber gloves that can prevent an electric shock. Installation at height must be performed with insurance on fully serviceable supports. Do not allow to stay on unstable stepladders. The issue of safety must be approached with full responsibility.
Do-it-yourself wiring installation in a wooden house
There are several main stages of work:
- Laying the lines of electrical cable.
- Installation of junction boxes.
- Installation of sockets and switches.
- Installation of lighting.
- Panel connection.
- Conclusion and installation of the grounding circuit.
Electric cable laying
Installation of electrical wiring with your own hands in the apartment can be done in plinths. This will completely hide the wire from the eyes. It is especially convenient to install the cable in the baseboard under the outlet. Electrical wiring lines are laid in plastic pipes for greater safety. If you want to hold the light in the garage, you can make electrical installation with your own hands in the corrugation, because in this room an aesthetic look is not particularly needed.
Installation of junction boxes
In places where it is necessary to make a branch from the main electrical line to connect the outlet, a junction box is placed. It should be located where it is convenient to serve. Inside the distributor, the cables are interconnected in various ways:
- With PPE. One of the easiest ways. For this type of connection, each wire is cleaned by 2-3 cm, twisted and put on them PPE. In the box, the ends are laid so that they do not touch each other.
- Connection wagami. They differ in the number and cross-section of the holes. For installation, it is necessary to strip each wire by 10 mm. Then the ends must be inserted into the holes until they click. Take the ends in different directions and lay so that they are not in contact with each other.
- Of course, the cheapest way is to twist the ends together and wrap them with insulating tape. As in the previous methods, no contact should be allowed here.
Installation of switches and sockets
Installation of electrical wiring with his own hands in a wooden house is carried out right at the surface of the wall. Accordingly, the sockets are also attached to the wall. Mount securely to the socket is not loose. The yellow or green wire must be clamped in the earth contact, and the other two in the power contacts. Switches are connected in the same way. Only in the wire going to the switch may not be the grounding conductor. To save money the wire going to the switch, you can take strong and with a smaller section.
Installation of lighting
Recently, for the lighting of residential premises are increasingly used lamps. Beautiful spot lighting adds elegance to the home. Brightness can be adjusted using special devices.
In most cases, for home lighting use:
- recessed lights;
Connect lamps yellow-green veins. Each device has a clamp for this type of connection. Fixtures of one group must be connected in parallel.
Electrical panel – the main element in the wiring of the whole house. On how it is mounted, depends on the performance and safety of the entire wiring as a whole. In the dashboard must be installed automatic machines that allow de-energize the group by simply pressing a button. For a cable with a cross section of 2.5, it is necessary to set the relay to 25A. If there are any violations in the work, the machine will automatically turn off the circuit, or simply knock it out. Electrical boards are available in various types, come with transparent windows or solid. Upon completion of the installation, each group within the shield must be signed. For this, most boxes come with a special sticker. In order to connect the core to the machine, it is necessary to clean it and plug it into a specialized hole until it clicks. This is the final and most difficult stage of the installation of wiring in the house of wood. This process should be given special attention, because the wrong sequence of connecting the wires can lead to a short circuit.
Ground Circuit Installation
Installation of electrical wiring with his own hands in a private house must be done with the conclusion of the ground loop on the street. To do this, retreat from the building a small distance and dig a trench 2.5-3 meters long and about half a meter deep. At the same distance from each other, it is necessary to drive 3 reinforcement rods, which are interconnected by a metal wire. Then in the wall of the house you need to drive a metal base, to which you need to lead the wire from the rods and the ground wire. At the clogged base, all these wires must be connected to each other. If there is a lightning rod on the roof of the house, the wire from it must also be connected to the base. Dug out the ditch should be covered with sand, and the top layer of earth.
In urban environments, wooden houses are rarely found. Basically, dacha settlements are built of wood. Installation of electrical wiring at the cottage is done in the same way as in a wooden house. Since the wooden house is a fire hazardous object, electrical wiring must be open.
Ways of cable laying in the country wooden house:
- The wire can be mounted on insulators, as was done before. The wire makes an incision between the conductors and sits on the roller. Nowadays, this method will look unaesthetic, unless you plan to retro-design.
- There is the possibility of fixing the wire on the bracket. The store has a large selection of different cable fasteners. There are brackets that are nailed to the surface with small nails, and there are those that are inserted into the drilled hole.
- The wire is wound into the corrugation and fixed to the wall with clips. The complexity of the process depends on the length of the wire, which must be tucked into the PVC-sheath. Accordingly, the longer, the more difficult. With this method, you will need an assistant.
- It is easy to hold the cable along plastic pipes. And access to the cable will be practically closed to external influence.
- Metal pipes will protect the cable from rodents. Basically, the method is used in areas of large concentrations of rats and mice, for example, at grain terminals.
- Through plastic boxes or wide cable channels. When the cable section is large or it is necessary to lay a large number of wires, this method is used. All wires are placed in a box and together with PVC harnesses, so that the wires do not crumble, but are constantly in a tight bundle.
- Laying the wires in the cable channels will give a neat look. It is possible to cut through the tree grooves the size of a canal and insert it flush with the wall, but the process is very laborious.
It is desirable that all elements of PVC were non-flammable. Passing cable or wires through wooden walls is possible only through an iron tunnel, driven in advance. Thus, the installation of electrical wiring is completed. Photos presented in the article may be useful in the future.
This type of wiring is usually done in non-residential premises. Installation of electrical wiring with his own hands in the garage is also an open method.
At the end of work
At the end of all the work it is necessary to check the performance of the newly laid lines. To do this, you can invite experts from the electrical laboratory for the production of all necessary measurements. Professionals in this field will issue a conclusion about the good posting in a wooden house.
Workers of the electrical laboratory should do the following:
- check the insulation resistance and grounding resistance;
- measure the RCD and loop phase-zero;
- load machines primary current;
- check the operation of all electrical wiring systems.
Prices for the production of works range from 200 to 350 rubles per point. The points can include sockets, switches, boxes and other wiring elements. If you contact the company, they will charge you at least 300 rubles for one point. Private employees, of course, will react to the price more loyally. The final price is easy to calculate using the scheme. In any case, the master performing the work must give a guarantee of quality. To be completely confident in the quality of the work, it is best to try to do it yourself.
As you can see from the article, do-it-yourself electrical installation does not take much time and effort. But it is necessary to approach this process very seriously, and especially to safety engineering. Pay attention to every little thing, because it is more difficult to fix than to do it normally initially. Since the wooden house is more vulnerable to fire, you need to take care of safety. No need to ignore the requirements established by the regulations. This article highlights all the nuances of electrical installation in a wooden house. With certain skills, it will not be difficult to do all the work, and the family budget will not suffer much. Many people are mistaken in thinking that open wiring is ugly. If you run the wire on the plinth, it will not be visible at all, as with the closed wiring. Cable channels will also hide it without harming the beautiful look of your room. The main advantage of open wiring is that with any malfunction it can be immediately detected and eliminated.
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Electrical installation in a wooden house with their own hands
All electrical work requires from the performer accuracy, attention, close adherence to technical regulations and established standards. When planning and conducting the electrification of a wooden house, you should receive advice from a qualified electrician, familiarize yourself with the regulatory documents, basic requirements and the sequence of laying the electric wire.
Requirements for wiring in a wooden house
The installation of electrical wiring in wooden houses has some differences and features from the electrification of stone houses. When designing and laying cables, priority must be safety. There are a number of basic rules that require strict implementation:
- Careful insulation of electrical conductors by non-combustible materials (NYM, VVGng, VVGng-LS).
- Aluminum conductors must be replaced with copper conductors with a cross section of at least 16 mm.kv. The cable must penetrate the house through the metal sheath. Wire transfer from one room to another is done through a rigid metal pipe.
- Electrification of a wooden house is desirable to perform an “open” method.
- It is necessary to conduct an accurate calculation of the cable thickness, leaving a margin of at least 30%.
- Particular attention should be paid to the quality of the materials used. Choose a cable with non-flammable insulation.
- If necessary, installation of hidden wiring is required to use a metal pipe. Laying cable in corrugated pipes is prohibited.
- Requires installation of the RCD, ground loop and lightning conductor. In this case, not only electrical appliances, but also metal pipes, in which the cable is laid, should be grounded.
- The input unit – the switchboard should be isolated as much as possible from the wooden structures of the house. Sometimes you have to build a brick wall, and the floors are made of cement / concrete screed.
Wiring options in a wooden house
Installation of electrical wiring in a wooden house with your own hands, namely, cabling, can be done in three ways:
- Outdoor (open) wiring is installed on special insulators. This is the safest and most economical option that does not require a lot of investment. Wires are conducted on the surface of the ceiling and walls. Retro electrical wiring is quite practical, but with complex installation schemes it is not able to provide an adequate level of functionality.
- Wiring wires in the cable channels – a type of open type. Special boxes are attached to the wall every half meter. The electric plinth is considered to be the most effective – fixing cables is carried out inside the case. Thanks to convenient fasteners, you can quickly electrify a villa or a wooden house.
- Hidden (closed) wiring requires the laying of metal pipes during the construction phase. Installation in this way is more costly and time consuming. Cables are placed in metal pipes (preferably in copper). It is important to completely eliminate the mechanical effect and pressure on the cable, and this is difficult to do, since the wooden structure shrinks with time.
Electrical wiring in a wooden house do it yourself: schemes
According to current regulations for the electrification of a private house without installing a transformer, the power consumption cannot be more than 15 kW. This indicator is calculated by summing the power of simultaneously switched on electrical appliances. If the result obtained is less than 15 kW, then install an introductory automat on 25A, otherwise a transformer will be additionally required.
In developing the wiring diagram, the connection points are divided into different consumption groups. For example, lighting devices are powered from one automatic machine, a separate device is required for sockets, an additional one – for street lighting.
It is desirable to equip personal automatic machines and a separate power supply branch for powerful electric equipment: an electric stove, a boiler or an electric boiler. Separate power supply machines and require free standing outbuildings.
Important! For security reasons, it is better to increase the number of power supply branches — such a measure helps to reduce potentially dangerous parts of the connection.
Below is an exemplary wiring diagram in a private wooden house with their own hands.
Some nuances in the development of the scheme:
- The introductory automat and meter of the organization of power supply require to be placed on the street for the convenience of monitoring electricity consumption.
- For outdoor placement, the meter and automatic protection must be in a sealed enclosure that prevents the ingress of moisture, dirt and dust. Boxing protection class is at least IP-55. The requirements for the boxes installed inside the wooden structure are slightly lower – IP-44, the main condition – the implementation of the body of metal.
- For an emergency power outage, it is necessary to place the RCD – the device will operate in case of short circuit in the network.
Electrical installation in a wooden house with their own hands: step by step instructions
Development of power supply project
To develop an individual project in the electricity supplying organization (RES), it is necessary to obtain the technical conditions that will be the basis for further work.
The design of supplying a wooden house is performed in the following sequence:
- The power of all electrical devices is calculated as accurately as possible. The table below shows the average power consumption of household equipment.
- Technical drawing of the whole house. On the project, schematically display the points of location of lamps, sockets, switches and devices with separate connections. At this stage it is already necessary to plan the interior of the room, the location of furniture and lighting points.
- Determine the type of cable for each electric point. When using sockets with grounding and switches, a three-core wire is connected to two keys.
- The project displays the installation points of distribution boxes. For two adjacent rooms it is better to install one box.
- On the scheme, you must specify the power of each appliance. Moreover, if the equipment is equipped with an electric motor, then the project takes into account the starting power of the engine.
- The distance from the window, door, floor and ceiling opening to the cable passage line is schematically indicated. Such labels will help prevent damage to the wiring during the repair and installation work.
When organizing electricity supply and drawing up a project, one should be guided not only by personal wishes, but also by certain requirements:
- Only vertical or horizontal wiring is allowed.
- All wire turns perform strictly at right angles.
- Sockets, switches and junction boxes should be freely available.
- According to the rules, the installation of switches is carried out at a distance of 0.6-1.5 meters from the floor level, the cable is fed from above.
- The optimal placement of sockets – 0.5-0.8 m from the floor, the recommended number of sockets – 1 pc. on 6 sq.m. In rooms with a large number of household appliances outlets will be more.
- Wires should not be allowed closer than 10 cm from door / window openings. It is necessary to exclude the contact of wires with metal elements and adjacent wires (the minimum allowable distance is 0.5 cm).
Selection of equipment and cables
To avoid complex calculations to determine the appropriate cable, you can use the reference to electrical engineering. The conductor cross section of the wire is directly dependent on the expected loads.
The power consumption of equipment and electrical appliances is indicated in the technical passport or instruction manual. Based on these values, and selects the wire with the wires of the desired cross section. To determine the size of the input cable, it is necessary to sum up the power of installed electrical appliances.
CouncilFor a wooden house, you should choose a cable labeled “NG” (do not support combustion) and “LS” (reduced smoke emission). Usually, wires with a cross section of 2.5 mm and 1.5 mm are used for internal wiring.
The introductory circuit breaker is selected with a rating that is sufficient so that at maximum load the power to the house is not turned off, and the circuit is broken to prevent a short circuit.
For single-phase power, the circuit breaker is selected as follows:
- Calculate the total power of electrical devices and determine the maximum current using the formula IHOM = P / U * cosf. The cosf parameter equates to 0.8. The resulting value is increased by 10% and get the current rate at which the machine will work. As a rule, this value is not more than 25 A.
- Determine the value of short-circuit current, applying the formula Ikz = 3260 * S / L, where S is the cable cross-sectional area, L is the cable length. The calculation must be performed for the network section with the maximum length at the smallest cross-section of the cores.
- The characteristic of the automaton is determined by the ratio of short-circuit current (SC) to the nominal current value. For networks with a mixed load (private homes) are best suited type “C” circuit breakers.
When choosing switches and sockets, some parameters are taken into account:
- the amount of current for which the equipment is designed;
- installation option: external / hidden wiring;
- the number of keys – for switches, the number of places – for sockets.
Additional recommendations on the choice of sockets and dimmers:
- Household appliances with high power (electric stoves, washing machines, boilers, fireplaces, refrigerators, etc.) are subject to mandatory grounding. In such situations, it is advisable to use sockets with a terminal for connecting the ground wire.
- It is necessary to avoid “tees”. For the simultaneous connection of several electrical appliances, a group of sockets or dual models are installed.
- The choice of switches is determined by the lighting mode. For simultaneous switching on of several light sources or one lamp, set the switch to one key, for different modes – two-and three-key.
Installation of the automatic machine and input of power supply
According to the developed scheme, they install junction boxes, mark the attachment points for switches, sockets and lighting devices. In the designated place mount the body of the electrical panel and perform the following actions:
- Installation in the case of the meter.
- Installation of the input machine on a metal profile (din-rail). Lead to bipolar phase and neutral automaton.
- The terminals (output terminals) of the meter are connected to the input of the input automaton.
- Plant the cable into the house and connect it to the input terminals of the meter.
- On the din-rail installed voltage relay, RCD, machines for different power groups (lighting, sockets).
Cable entry into the house is done underground or over the air. The second option is cheaper, but such a supply is considered less reliable. In the “air” input used self-supporting insulated wires. The main condition is the installation of a fireproof sleeve in the entry area in the house.
In the underground method, a metal pipe is used to enter, protecting the supply cable from various influences. Laying the cable in this way must necessarily be consistent with the distributing power company.
Cable laying, installation of switches and sockets
The wire of the chosen section according to the layout plan is laid in a closed or open way.
The technology of internal wiring wiring in a wooden house with their own hands:
- Prepare a cable route – make shafts. To install junction boxes at the points of cable connection, ensuring free access to them even after “sewing” the walls.
- Use metal sleeves with plugs to penetrate walls.
- Install metal sleeves for switches and sockets – such measures will significantly reduce the likelihood of fire in case of short circuit.
- The internal diameter of the pipes under the cable route must be no more than 40% filled. Cuts of metal pipes must be cleaned, polished, so that the sharp edges do not damage the cable sheath.
- Attach the pipes with hose clamps to the walls. Fixing with metal sleeves occurs by flaring the pipe inside the sleeve.
- Pull the cable through the pipe and check the insulation of the wires to the metal pipe body.
- Cut the cable, leaving a margin of 20 cm and more in distribution boxes. The conductors of the wire are connected in a twist, insulated with PPE caps.
- Subsequently, the wires are connected to sockets and switches.
Consider step by step how to use the wall cable channels to do electrical wiring in a wooden house with your own hands:
- According to the existing plan, mark the lines of the cable run.
- Choose a cable channel, the cross section of which depends on the number of passing wires.
- Remove the box cover and fasten it with screws on the wall or ceiling (according to the plan). Mounting pitch – 0.5 m, turns are additionally fixed with screws.
- Install junction boxes in specified locations.
- Lay the wires in the cable channels and snap the lid on. To connect sockets and switches leave a cable reserve.
- Connect the wires of sockets, switches, with terminals of the machines and in the junction box by one of the methods:
- using self-tightening terminals (Wago); Terminals are selected according to the size of the cable section, together with the insulation; for connection, it is enough to remove 10 cm of the insulation coating;
- fastening the wiring with insulating caps (the length of the bare cable for twisting should not exceed the length of the cap); inside the device there is a conical spring that reliably clamps the wire;
- tight twisting of bare wires – in this case, the insulation is cleaned from the cable by 4 cm; all the joints of the wires must be soldered and then wrapped with insulating tape.
Important! The number of connections affects the ability of the system to transfer loads – the more of them, the worse the load capacity.
RCD and grounding
Arrangement of the grounding circuit involves the following actions:
- Preparation of metal rods diameter 3 cm / length 3 m.
- Dig a trench 30 cm deep, triangular in shape, where the length of each side is 1 m. Install metal rods at the corners of the formed triangle.
- Connection of reinforcement between each other with metal corners by welding.
- Weld an eyelet (loop) to one corner and fix a steel bar with a thickness of 1 cm on it.
- The rod is laid so that it is connected with the ground conductor in the electrical panel. Isolation of the grounding veins of cables of yellow-green color.
After the metering device in the shield it is desirable to place the RCD. This device will protect a person from electric shock in case of leakage to the equipment case. RCD parameters are selected based on the value of the rated current in the network. Such a protective device is especially important for rooms with a high level of humidity (bathroom, bath, pool, etc.).
Wiring in a wooden house with their own hands: video
Common Beginner Mistakes
The electrification of a wooden house is a responsible event. According to statistics from fire organizations, the majority of wooden structures ignite primarily due to a fault in the electrical wiring. Some novice masters can ignore the advice of professionals and make a number of gross errors:
- Hiding wiring under wooden ceiling structures.
- Laying cables under the plinth.
- Use for laying wire corrugated PVC pipes. Despite the practical qualities of the material and the ease of its installation, PVC pipes are prohibited to be used for the electrification of wooden buildings.
- The location of the insulated cable in the grotto without the use of a metal pipe.
- The use of plastic boxes for sockets and switches.
Sources: http://blog.marisrub.ru/engineering-systems/elektroprovodka-v-derevyannom-dome/, http://fb.ru/article/162812/montaj-elektroprovodki-svoimi-rukami-v-derevyannom-dome -iv-kvartire, http://strport.ru/elektrooborudovanie-svet-osveshchenie/elektroprovodka-v-derevyannom-dome-svoimi-rukami