The frame of the house with a window
Inserts are small pieces of timber used for additional strength of the frame.
Cross-bars – is a timber laid horizontally in a strictly horizontal position between vertical posts. They are fixed on the rack.
Corners of a frame house with hacks
Racks should be knocked down with nails of 80 mm, at a distance of 450 mm from each other. They are nailed to the trim by 2 nails 120 mm from the top and 2 from the bottom. Using metal corners, the design can be made stronger. All materials used in construction must be treated with a septic tank.
Special attention must be paid to the corners. There is mandatory reinforcement racks.
Frame Wall Cake Scheme
Do not forget to check the geometry of the house after each stage – all horizontal bars should lie horizontally, and the vertical bars should be exactly up. The harness must be laid flat, and for this the surface of the foundation must be even along the entire perimeter – an error of 1 cm is allowed. The upper harness is also checked by level. If there are errors on the foundation – it is added with cement, leveling. If the level shows small irregularities – use parts of the timber, after having carried out the treatment with a septic tank, and level the surface. The evenness of the walls is checked by a plumb.
The frame of the house on the foundation
All components of the frame of the roof
The roof is the most important element, and in a frame house the roof can be mounted with some experience with your own hands. However, before you put the roof, you must make the top wall trim and check its level. On the evenness of the strapping depends on how the overlap will lie. If there are small irregularities, we remove them with our own hands using a chip lining under the low part.
You can install the truss system in two ways:
Both types of truss systems are used in frame construction, but the beams when hanging truss system rely on the mauerlat. Mauerlat is done with his own hands, he is a timber of wood, having a cross section of 10.0 × 10.0 cm, which settles around the perimeter of the building and is fixed to the surface of the bearing walls on the upper row of strapping. On the upper side of the truss legs are attached to each other with a ridge beam.
Roof frame house
The suspended construction is done by hand in a different way; it is not fastened by rafters between itself in the upper part. The rafters rest in the upper part on the longitudinal central wall or specially provided supporting columns.
What rafter system to choose in your case, tell the dimensions of your building. Hanging roofing system is suitable for small buildings, the distance between the bearing walls which are not more than 6 meters.
First you need to collect truss legs in the amount of 2 pieces. Screeds are necessary for the connection of the first truss legs in the lower part of them, they are attached with anchor bolts to the truss legs. Legs are attached to the mauerlat and fixed with the help of the cut grooves. Cut out the grooves of the correct shape with your own hands. In the grooves are installed rafters, the distance between which depends on the size of your roof. Approximate step is about 1 meter.
If your roof is higher than three meters, pay attention to vertical rafters.
Thus, the frame of your roof will consist of:
- support board
- ridge beam
- Attic floor beams, which overlap over the inner bearing wall
- lying down
Installing rafter legs
When the skeleton of the roof is assembled, it is necessary to make crates. This is the most important element of the roof, so making it your own hands, be careful and careful: the crate is not only necessary for attaching the roofing material, but also for bundling together all the structural parts of the roof frame. The lathing ensures the stability of the frame, therefore, prior to its arrangement, it is necessary to arrange a temporary harness on the underside. The batten can be:
The choice of the type of batten depends primarily on the material with which the roof will be covered. Solid crate perform for a soft roof, which is best suited for a frame house. Metal tile or slate can be laid on the intermediate crate.
Basic rules for frame construction
Frame house – the best choice
In order not to get a frame house of poor quality, you must follow some rules:
- Only high quality materials. If you choose wooden construction, use either glued laminated timber or technical drying timber, or don’t undertake building at all. A bar sold at power-saw benches is raw – after 3 years of operation, 90% of the timber will get a crack, and the other 10 will twist in such a way that it will lift the screws.
- You do not know how to do it yourself – trust the professionals. Do not experiment in complex construction work – entrust something to specialists. This is especially true of work at height, the wiring of electricity and other, complex narrow-profile work.
- Do not save on trifles. You won’t save much on trifles, and you can significantly damage your future home. This primarily concerns the impregnation for wood. Make two layers, and choose the European fire safety.
- Down with Chinese materials. Do not buy Chinese insulation and insulation, they are not only of poor quality, but also emit harmful substances. European materials have confirmed certification and safety class.
After reading the article, I realized one thing, I need to contact the experts when building a frame house. After all, only a specialist will distinguish. what is the period of drying of the timber, or that the wood should be soaked in 2 soybeans, and not in one. Although my family and I built the cottage ourselves and wanted to build a frame house ourselves. Still, we have questions. How is the frame connected to the foundation? If brickwork, then reinforcement is laid in the foundation, but what about the frame?
I had no idea that the construction of a frame house is so difficult and so many stages. After reading your article, my husband and I decided to turn to professionals, not to builders from the “street”. I want a house just like in your photo, this is my dream house!
Creating a frame house with your own hands
- Types of frame houses
- How to build a frame house?
- Foundation creation
- Lower piping
- Ground floor overlap
- Installing uprights
- Installation of ceiling beams
- Installation of rafters
- Finishing frame house
Nowadays, frame houses are becoming increasingly common. In these houses, a wooden frame, which is assembled from beams, beams, struts and straps, acts as a supporting base. The frame takes the weight of the roof, floors and walls.
Particular attention in the construction of a frame house should be paid when choosing lumber for the frame, the forest should be dry, geometrically smooth and not contain fungi and pests.
In terms of labor costs and construction materials consumption, frame houses are one of the most economical structures.
Another advantage of such a house – the possibility of building their own hands. All construction works (roofing, installation of door and window blocks, cutting sheet materials, cutting boards and boards, laying a light foundation) do not require special professional construction qualifications. The frame houses do not include heavy elements that require the use of lifting equipment for installation. How to build a frame house, will be discussed in this article.
In comparison with houses from bars and logs, frame houses have a number of operational advantages. Such houses are warmer, they have no grooves between the logs, which require insulation. The frame house will not give precipitation. This facilitates construction and further operation. The frame house is significantly less affected by grinders settling in massive bars and logs. When heating such a house will warm up faster, it has less moisture. All these advantages attract developers to build a frame house.
Types of frame houses
The scheme of the gable frame house.
Depending on the design of the walls, there are 2 types of frame houses: frame-filling and frame-shield. In the frame-shield houses, the walls are separate and fully finished shields, which are made in advance and mounted on the construction site. The walls are usually assembled somewhere in a warm place in autumn or winter.
Made with high precision, on the layout of the template, with a careful laying of wind-insulating materials and insulation, neat interior and exterior plating, they allow you to very quickly mount the house with a high quality construction. The size of the boards is chosen for a length that is equal to the height of the wall. The required width is selected depending on the size of the available cladding material.
Frame-filling houses have walls that are assembled on the construction site from beginning to end. On the uprights of the frame is the inner lining with the laying of a vapor barrier layer (asphalt, plastic wrap can be used). The inner space of the wall is filled with insulating material.
In such structures, bulk insulation is commonly used: perlite sand, peat, sawdust. During the extension of the outer skin insulation is laid. Loose insulation to avoid precipitation and voids tightly rammed.
The type of walls that are selected for the home determines the design of the frame. Wall boards alone cannot carry the load. Frame-filling houses require the creation of a more durable frame.
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How to build a frame house?
Before proceeding to the construction of a frame house, a project is made. According to the project, all necessary materials are calculated. The technology of creating a frame house includes several stages.
Scheme of the dacha frame house.
Tools and materials needed to create a frame house:
- Small and big hammer.
- Electric plane.
- Chisels of various sizes.
- Large and medium nail puller.
- Drill with a set of drills.
- Circular Saw.
- Electric jigsaw.
- Construction level and plumb.
- Marker and pencil.
- Flat and Phillips screwdriver.
- Tassels of different sizes.
- Roofing material for waterproofing.
- Asbestos pipes.
- Armature of various sections.
- Concrete for pouring the foundation.
- Boards of various sections and plates.
- Polyfoam or mineral wool for insulation.
- Lining or siding for exterior trim.
- Gypsum board for interior decoration.
- Protective film.
- Roof covering.
- Materials for summarizing communications: pipes, wires, etc.
- Nails, metal brackets, bolts.
- Antiseptic coating.
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Wall construction diagram.
To build a high-quality home requires a good foundation. To extend its durability, we must not forget to equip waterproofing.
Since the weight of the frame house is small, most often under it create a foundation of asbestos pipes. Along the perimeter of the future construction is the marking of the location of points of supports. It is necessary to monitor the uniformity of the rack.
In the marked places, holes are dug out with a diameter of 200 mm and a depth of 1 m. The pipe is inserted into the hole, its verticality is verified, and then the soil is thoroughly rammed.
After that the reinforcement is laid and the rack is poured with concrete. The same procedure is done with each pillar. After pouring, you need to give the pillars a few days so that they can get a good hold.
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With the laying of the bottom strapping on the foundation, work begins on creating a frame house. It can be made from round wood, baked on 2 edges. It will be even better to use timber with a section of 120×120 mm (it is more convenient to work with it). If there is no suitable timber and logs, the lower and upper trim (and other elements of the frame) can be made of boards 40×120 mm.
The scheme of the bottom strapping.
The wood for the bottom trim, which works in the most adverse conditions, is treated with an antiseptic. This will protect the wood from decay, and therefore extend the life of the structure. The simplest method of treatment is impregnation with a 10% aqueous solution of ferrous or copper sulphate. This impregnation does not clog pores – wood can breathe. Novice builders often make the mistake of infiltrating lags and lower beams with used engine oil and painting with oil paint. This leads to the decay of wood and the formation of house fungus. This is due to the fact that the oil closes the pores and does not allow moisture to evaporate.
If the bottom trim is laid on a solid strip foundation, then it is necessary to lay a dry strong board 50 mm thick, impregnated with hot bitumen, between the beam and it. If a columnar foundation is being erected, then a section of the same board, wrapped with 2 layers of roofing material, is laid between the column and the beam.
Between themselves, the beams are connected in the corners of the half-tree. At least 4 points, the strapping must be fastened to the foundation using embedded metal anchors. It is necessary to strictly control the horizontal with the help of the construction level.
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Ground floor overlap
Having installed the lower trim on the foundation, you can proceed to laying the log, on which the floors will be laid. Usually logs are made from a board 100-120 mm wide and 40-50 mm thick. With a wall module of 1.2 m, they are installed in 0.6 m increments. Lags should be installed on the edge. They should be supported on posts of scrap steel or asbestos cement pipes. After installation, under the logs, you need to enclose the bars, pre-wrapped with roofing felt.
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Fastening the corner racks.
Vertical racks set at a distance of 0.6 m from each other. Thus, every 3 racks create a module of 1.2 m. The module is often selected depending on the width of the available windows.
The magnitude of this indicator produce a breakdown of the strapping. The corner drains are more powerful. The material used is protesanny logs, timber or two boards connected by nails.
Intermediate stands are made of boards 40-50 mm thick. Above the door block, above and below the window block, horizontal bolts from the same boards are placed. The sill bolt is necessarily supported by a short stance. Bars and logs are fastened with staples, and 120 mm long nails are attached to the trim of the rack.
The width of the racks is chosen depending on the heater used. For example, using slabs of mineral wool 100 mm thick, you will need racks 100 mm wide. Too much to increase this size does not make sense, since air voids do not improve thermal insulation, but can lead to slipping and settling of insulation. The use of bulk insulation eliminates such limitations. The width of the racks is chosen according to the size of the available lumber (usually not more than 150 mm).
If the inner and outer wall cladding is done with boards, then it is necessary to make diagonal connections along the uprights between the upper and lower trim. They will protect the house from wind loads, skew and uneven sediments of the foundation. In order for the boards not to interfere with the filling with insulation, it is necessary to cut them perpendicular to the plane of the racks. If sheet material is used as a covering (asbestos cement sheet, chipboard, plywood), then it is not necessary to install wind ties. To give the house the necessary rigidity, sheeting sheets are nailed to the frame. Once the racks are on display, the top trim can be mounted on them. It is done using the same materials and following the same techniques as the bottom one. With the help of nails and staples fasten it with the racks.
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Installation of ceiling beams
These frame parts must have very high strength. If the house is settled attic space, the load becomes even greater. In the presence of large spans, it is necessary that the beam had an initial curvature. In order to further it bent under a large load and took a horizontal position, its convex side is turned up. If this is not done ceilings may have a sagging look. If there is an intermediate support, the beam must be flat. Beams made of planks 150-200 mm wide and 50 mm thick, laid in 0.6 m steps, will give sufficient strength of 3–4 m. The ends of the beams are sawn off flush with the strapping. Fastening is done with nails 120 mm long.
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Installation of rafters
It remains only to install the rafters. When using hanging rafters, it becomes possible to fully utilize the entire attic space. To create the rafters you will need round wood with a diameter of 120-140 mm and a board with a width of 120-150 mm and a thickness of 50 mm. Rafter beam can be made of 2 boards of 30 mm each sewn together.
Installation must begin with mounting end truss pair. Where there are places mates with ceiling beams, zapily arranged. If the rafters and beams are made of planks, then their joints are reinforced with metal or wooden plates. They are screwed onto bolts or nailed to the side. If the rafters and beams are made of timber or round timber, then fastening is carried out with the help of brackets. Rafters connect at the top of the half-timbered tree. After this, the cord is pulled along the ridge.
The technology of installing intermediate rafters is carried out in the same way. If a solid or frequent lathing is laid under the roof and the rafter legs have sufficient strength (made of double board or round timber), then the rafters can be installed in 1.2 m increments.
To make the attic room higher, it is necessary to fully use the length of standard lumber, which is usually 6.5 m. To do this, the lower end of the truss foot needs only to be released slightly beyond the wall line. The desired overhang of the roof, which will prevent the walls from getting wet, can be obtained by attaching fillets to the ends of rafters (small pieces of planks, to which the eaves will be suspended). After that, you can lay the roofing material and construct a drainage system. These works are no different from other roofing work.
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Finishing frame house
The frame must be treated with antiseptic and thoroughly dried. Outside the building can be finished with siding or clapboard. Next, doors and windows are installed, a porch and convenient steps are constructed, communications are brought.
Inside the room can be sheathed with plasterboard, which is whitened, painted or pasted over with wallpaper. Finishing options are completely dependent on your taste and preferences. How to build a frame house, you already know, it remains only to proceed with the construction!
How to build a frame house yourself with your own hands – video and photo
How to build a frame house yourself with your own hands, without involving powerful construction equipment and dozens of hired workers to this process? It’s simple. Just watch a few practical videos on how to build a frame house yourself with your own hands, and scroll through the site, writing down all the recommendations.
Is it really possible to build a frame house alone? As the person who did it, I’ll answer you “yes.” And may I have built a very small skeleton with dimensions of 10 by 6 with an area of only 60 sq.m. but this house is warm and heated by a small pellet boiler.
So, where to start and how to build your own housing alone? To begin, of course you need to plan the site for construction. Choose the highest and driest spot on the plot that you have. If there is no such place, then you will have to haul the soil or the second-hand sandwich maker, lifting the plot under the house.
Next, we need a foundation for the skeleton. I used the trimming of the piles that I bought from the construction organization from the construction site of a large house nearby. Piles brought and threw me to the site for free.
Then I, with the help of two vagas and rollers, moved these piles from 3.0 to 4.0 meters in length according to the scheme, placing them on the building spot. It took me a week.
Then I assembled the bottom trim of the frame, on which I began to expose vertical posts from a board 150 by 50 mm, starting from the corner ones. Of course, you can assemble the walls entirely and then raise them, but this method will require lifting mechanisms.
Next, I made the top trim, installed the strings and sewed the frame from the outside with a 25mm board diagonally. After that, he erected a truss system from a board 150 by 50 mm, a crate from a board 100 by 30 mm, and laid metal roofing.
After that, I put in the windows and doors, filled them up. In the field of this, I warmed my frame with basalt wool 150 mm thick – three layers of 50 mm each with overlapping. Inside protected insulation vapor barrier. After that, he warmed the ceiling with the laying of all films of vapor barrier and windscreen.
Since the “base” of the piles is protected from the outside with foam molding 150 mm thick, I did not make the floor isolated from the ground, but poured the floor over the ground.
After that, sheathed the wall inside and put partitions of plasterboard on a metal frame. Interior decoration, I think, will not be interesting to anyone. Everyone makes it to your taste.
On heating everything is standard. CO compulsory, polypropylene pipes, bimetal radiators, Cooper kettle with pelletron burner. The consumption of pellets is relatively small.
Fully fine finish will finish next year in the spring.
Sergey Putyatin, Lysva, Perm Region.
Sources: http://karkasblog.ru/mounting/kak-postroit-karkasnyj-dom.html, http://moidomkarkas.ru/montazh/kak-samomu-postroit-karkasnyi-dom.html, http: // dompraktika. ru / kak-mozhno-samomu-postroit-karkasnyy /