The frame of the house with a window
Inserts are small pieces of timber used for additional strength of the frame.
Cross-bars – is a timber laid horizontally in a strictly horizontal position between vertical posts. They are fixed on the rack.
Corners of a frame house with hacks
Racks should be knocked down with nails of 80 mm, at a distance of 450 mm from each other. They are nailed to the trim by 2 nails 120 mm from the top and 2 from the bottom. Using metal corners, the design can be made stronger. All materials used in construction must be treated with a septic tank.
Special attention must be paid to the corners. There is mandatory reinforcement racks.
Frame Wall Cake Scheme
Do not forget to check the geometry of the house after each stage – all horizontal bars should lie horizontally, and the vertical bars should be exactly up. The harness must be laid flat, and for this the surface of the foundation must be even along the entire perimeter – an error of 1 cm is allowed. The upper harness is also checked by level. If there are errors on the foundation – it is added with cement, leveling. If the level shows small irregularities – use parts of the timber, after having carried out the treatment with a septic tank, and level the surface. The evenness of the walls is checked by a plumb.
The frame of the house on the foundation
All components of the frame of the roof
The roof is the most important element, and in a frame house the roof can be mounted with some experience with your own hands. However, before you put the roof, you must make the top wall trim and check its level. On the evenness of the strapping depends on how the overlap will lie. If there are small irregularities, we remove them with our own hands using a chip lining under the low part.
You can install the truss system in two ways:
Both types of truss systems are used in frame construction, but the beams when hanging truss system rely on the mauerlat. Mauerlat is done with his own hands, he is a timber of wood, having a cross section of 10.0 × 10.0 cm, which settles around the perimeter of the building and is fixed to the surface of the bearing walls on the upper row of strapping. On the upper side of the truss legs are attached to each other with a ridge beam.
Roof frame house
The suspended construction is done by hand in a different way; it is not fastened by rafters between itself in the upper part. The rafters rest in the upper part on the longitudinal central wall or specially provided supporting columns.
What rafter system to choose in your case, tell the dimensions of your building. Hanging roofing system is suitable for small buildings, the distance between the bearing walls which are not more than 6 meters.
First you need to collect truss legs in the amount of 2 pieces. Screeds are necessary for the connection of the first truss legs in the lower part of them, they are attached with anchor bolts to the truss legs. Legs are attached to the mauerlat and fixed with the help of the cut grooves. The grooves of the correct shape cut their own hands. In the grooves are installed rafters, the distance between which depends on the size of your roof. Approximate step is about 1 meter.
If your roof is higher than three meters, pay attention to vertical rafters.
Thus, the frame of your roof will consist of:
- support board
- ridge beam
- Attic floor beams, which overlap over the inner bearing wall
- lying down
Installing rafter legs
When the skeleton of the roof is assembled, it is necessary to make crates. This is the most important element of the roof, so making it your own hands, be careful and careful: the crate is not only necessary for attaching the roofing material, but also for bundling together all the structural parts of the roof frame. The lathing ensures the stability of the frame, therefore, prior to its arrangement, it is necessary to arrange a temporary harness on the underside. The batten can be:
The choice of the type of batten depends primarily on the material with which the roof will be covered. Solid crate perform for a soft roof, which is best suited for a frame house. Metal tile or slate can be laid on the intermediate crate.
Basic rules for frame construction
Frame house – the best choice
In order not to get a frame house of poor quality, you must follow some rules:
- Only high quality materials. If you choose wooden construction, use either glued laminated timber or technical drying timber, or don’t undertake building at all. A bar sold at power-saw benches is raw – after 3 years of operation, 90% of the timber will get a crack, and the other 10 will twist in such a way that it will lift the screws.
- You do not know how to do it yourself – trust the professionals. Do not experiment in complex construction work – entrust something to specialists. This is especially true of work at height, the wiring of electricity and other, complex narrow-profile work.
- Do not save on trifles. You won’t save much on trifles, and you can significantly damage your future home. This primarily concerns the impregnation for wood. Make two layers, and choose the European fire safety.
- Down with Chinese materials. Do not buy Chinese insulation and insulation, they are not only of poor quality, but also emit harmful substances. European materials have confirmed certification and safety class.
After reading the article, I realized one thing, I need to contact the experts when building a frame house. After all, only a specialist will distinguish. what is the period of drying of the timber, or that the wood should be soaked in 2 soybeans, and not in one. Although my family and I built the cottage ourselves and wanted to build a frame house ourselves. Still, we have questions. How is the frame connected to the foundation? If brickwork, then reinforcement is laid in the foundation, but what about the frame?
I had no idea that the construction of a frame house is so difficult and so many stages. After reading your article, my husband and I decided to turn to professionals, not to builders from the “street”. I want a house just like in your photo, this is my dream house!
Frame house do it yourself: photos of the stages of construction
Prefabricated houses are attractive because with the ready foundation you can put the house very quickly. For example, the construction of a frame house with your own hands, by two people, is possible in a month without haste. And this is if inexperienced workers are involved with the construction, who only know how to hold a hammer in their hands. All because the assembly takes place step by step: regular repetition of simple actions. It is only important to know how to properly assemble each node. Having the instruction, understanding the principle of construction, the frame house can independently assemble any.
No less attractive frame construction that can get by with minimal cost. How much money is needed specifically for construction depends on the size of the house, on the materials used (type and type of wood, finishing materials). But in any case, it is one of the cheapest methods. (About home building technologies read here)
Timber frame houses are not the only ones. There are regions in which wood is a luxury. They put metal frames. Given that metal is not cheap today, it still turns out to be relatively inexpensive.
An approximate estimate of the frame house 12 * 9 meters, prices are for 2013. You can estimate the current cost of components in your area.
One more thing. Many are interested in whether it is possible to leave an unfinished frame house, and if so at what stages. The answer is that it is possible, and the first stage is known to everyone: the finished foundation is left to spend the winter. Still possible wintering options in the following form:
- foundation + frame + roof (without floor);
- foundation + frame + roof + outer siding OSB + windscreen;
- foundation + frame + roof + exterior lining of OSB + windscreen + mounted and heated floor and ceiling + partitions.
With windows and doors to leave for the winter without supervision is dangerous. In other cases, the postponement of the completion of construction is even not bad: the wood will dry out. In winter, as a rule, low humidity and drying is active. At the same time reveal all the shoals in the already mounted part.
In general, it must be said that it lives well in a frame house in which all the nodes are made correctly. This technology does not forgive mistakes. Even minor. If you want to familiarize yourself with the building codes, find joint venture 31-105-2002, which is called “Design and construction of energy-efficient single-family houses with wooden frames”. There are all descriptions and requirements.
Step by step construction instructions with photos
There are several different technologies for frame housing construction, but the classic method of construction is Canadian. It is also called the platform method, because first the floor of the frame house is assembled, and then the skeleton of the walls is assembled on it, like on a platform. Let us tell you how to build a house using this method. With the rest it will be easy to understand: only the sequence of actions differs.
Step 1: The Foundation of the frame house
The choice of the foundation is a separate complex and voluminous topic. The geological picture of the site, the height of the groundwater, the weight of the building and the seasonality of living in it, the region in which the construction takes place, snow and wind loads are taken into account. But in general, under the carcasses do most often pile, pile-grillage or strip foundations.
In our country, the palm in frame house-building with their own hands belongs to the pile-rostrum foundation. It is quickly built, requires small material investments, correctly calculated and built, it is reliable. Combining the advantages of both pile and belt, it evenly transfers the load to all supports.
More reliable in the construction of pile or pile-grillage foundations are piles TISE. Due to the extended heel, they have a greater bearing capacity and better resist heaving forces.
The device of the pile-grillage foundation with TISE piles
Drilling wells under the piles can be hand-drilled or motorized. As an opabulka, they use rolled roofing material rolled into pipes of the required diameter (at least three layers should be screwed), fixed with scotch tape. Other options are asbestos cement or PVC pipes of suitable diameter. Three or four bars of reinforcement, interconnected in the form of a triangle or a square, are installed inside the piles. The reinforcement rods are cut so that at least 0.7-0.8 meters protrude above the pile surface. All is poured with concrete of a grade not lower than M25 (read about the grades of concrete here).
After casting the piles, the formwork for the tape (grillage) is installed, the fittings are laid and knitted into it. Longitudinal rods are connected with curved reinforcement releases from piles. At this stage, holes are left in the tape for supplying communications and ventilation (insert pieces of plastic pipes across the tape).
The strapping beam will be attached to the foundation tape later. For its installation in the tape fastened studs. They are installed in increments of 1-2 meters. From each corner to both sides retreat by 30 cm. Here studs are required, the rest, depending on the size of the house, but no less than 2 meters. Consider, what exactly hairpins connect a framework of the house with the base. Therefore it is better to deliver more often. And yet: no matter how short the wall, the studs must be at least two.
When everything is ready, concrete is poured.
Flooded grillage. The foundation for a frame house with your own hands is ready
After pouring concrete, so that it does not dry, but gain strength, it is better to cover it with polyethylene (see photo). If the temperature after pouring the foundation is kept within + 20 ° C, after about 3-5 days you can continue construction. During this time, under such conditions, concrete will pick up more than 50% of its strength. You can work with him freely. With a decrease in temperature, the period increases significantly. So at + 17 ° C you need to wait about 10 days.
Step 2: Bottom Rail and Floor
To prevent the wood of the frame from drawing moisture from concrete, a cut-off waterproofing of the foundation is necessary. The most reliable is to make bitumen mastic. And better – in two layers. You can also use roll waterproofing. The roofing material is cheaper, but it eventually breaks. More reliable waterproofing or other similar modern material.
You can miss the grillage once with mastic, and on top roll out waterproofing. Another option for shut-off waterproofing under the frame house – two layers of waterproofing, smeared with mastic: the closer the groundwater is, the more thorough the waterproofing should be.
The first layer is liquid waterproofing. Until it is dry, you can glue a layer of roll on it.
Then stacked – board size 150 * 50 mm. They must be dry, impregnated with bioprotective and flame retardant compounds. The edge of the prone is aligned on the outer edge of the foundation. Holes are drilled in the required places for the studs (the diameter of the hole is 2-3 mm larger than the diameter of the stud). Then the second board is laid. It is laid so as to block the joint of the first row. It turns out the lock.
The second board is stacked so that the joints overlap
In general, it is possible to lay one beam 100-150 cm, but its price is much higher than two boards, which together give the same thickness, and correctly fastened two boards have a greater bearing capacity, although it takes more time to lay them. So that they work as a single timber, they are knocked down with nails in increments of 20 cm in a checkerboard pattern.
We put the strapping and logs
Next to the rail board is attached strapping. Its size is also 150-50 mm, but it is placed on the edge. It is leveled at the outer edge of the foundation, and is nailed with long nails (9 cm) to the sunbath every 40 cm.
Installation of the harness: according to the instructions, the assembly of the frame house continues with the installation of the harness to which. will lag the floor
The next stage is the installation and installation of the lag. These are the same boards 150 * 50 mm, put on the edge. They are attached with two oblique nails (9 cm) in the butt to the trimming board, two nails on the right and left to the bedside. So each lag on both sides.
Installation example floor lag
The photo shows that the first lag is set close to the second – this is how the load on the foundation is transmitted better. It is installed on the second edge of the bed. The installation step is 40-60 cm. It depends on the length of the span and the section of the sawmill used: the longer the length, the smaller the step.
Lay and fixed floor logs
If the lags are long and there is a cross beam, as in the photo above, the lags do not “leave” over the cross beam jumpers are packed. They are equal in length to the installation step lag minus twice the thickness of the board: if the step is lag 55 cm, the thickness of the board is 5 cm, then the jumper will be 45 cm long.
Insulation and flooring
After the base under the flooring is installed, it is time for floor insulation. It can be done in different ways, with different materials. We show the economy option – with expanded polystyrene plates with a density of 15 kg / m3 (more can be, less – no). Of course, it is not environmentally friendly, but the only one is not afraid of moisture and can be mounted without a subfloor. The calculated insulation thickness is 150 mm, two layers are laid: one is 10 cm, the second is 5 cm. The seams of the second layer should not coincide with the seams of the first (they are shifted).
For a start, a cranial bar of 50 * 50 mm is packed on the bottom edge of the log. It will hold the foam.
At the bottom there is a frame from a cranial bar that will prevent polystyrene foam from falling out.
Polyfoam is cut by a usual hacksaw. The canvas can be taken on a tree – it cuts faster, but it turns out a ragged edge or on metal – it goes slower, but the edge is smoother. The cut plates are laid in two layers, the seams overlap. Then, around the perimeter, they are glued with a sealant – to ensure waterproofing.
Next, lay the rough floor of the boards, align it and lay plywood on top (better FSF 5-6 mm). In order not to twist the rough flooring of the boards, lay the boards interspersed with the direction of the wave. If you look at the cross-section of the board, the annual rings go in a semicircle. So, it is necessary for the arc to look up and then down (see photo).
How to properly lay the flooring of the boards
You can do without the flooring of the boards. Then the thickness of the plywood should be at least 15 mm. Consider what is more profitable in your area and choose.
In any case, the sheets should fit into the run – the seams should not be the same (as in the brickwork). Do not forget to leave a gap of 3-5 mm between the sheets of plywood to compensate for changes in size with changing humidity.
Completed the second stage of building a frame house: flooring
Plywood is mounted on screws 35 mm long (preferably white – less waste) around the perimeter with a pitch of 12 cm, inside in a checkerboard pattern with a pitch of 40 cm.
Step 3: Frame Walls
There are two ways: the wall frame is assembled (all or part depends on the size) on the floor, then it rises, is exposed and fixed. Sometimes with this method, OSB, GVL, plywood are fastened directly to the floor on the outside of the frame: the rigidity is greater. This technology is called a frame-shield or “platform”. According to this principle, the factories mainly work: they build ready-made boards according to the project in the workshop, bring them to the site and only install them there. But the frame-shield housing construction is possible with your own hands.
One of the options for assembling a frame wall, the names of the elements
The second way: everything is going gradually, in place. The bar of the lower trim is hammered, the corner posts are set, then intermediate, the upper trim, etc. This is the technology called “frame housing construction” or “ballun”.
Assembling the frame of the walls with their own hands can be done gradually (technology ball) or blocks-shields (technology platform)
Which one is more convenient? It depends on how many people work and whether there is an opportunity, at least periodically, to attract assistants. It is faster and more convenient to work on the floor than to jump up / down the ladder countless times. But if the section is large, it will be difficult to lift it even together. Exit – or call assistants, or break the wall frame into small segments.
Installation step and cross-section of racks
Corner posts should be 150 * 150 mm or 100 * 100 mm depending on the load and the required width of insulation. For a single-story frame house, 100 mm is enough, for a two-story house – at least 150 mm. Intermediate racks in depth are the same as the corner, and their thickness – not less than 50 mm.
The step of installation of racks is chosen taking into account the load, but in reality it is more often selected on the basis of the insulation width. If you insulate with mineral wool in rolls or mats, first find out the actual width of the material. The clearance between the posts should be 2-3 cm less than the width of the insulation. Then there will be almost no waste; there will be no gaps and cracks through which it will be warm too. The density of the installation of insulation in the cage – the main point, because only it will serve as protection from the cold. The slightest violation will lead to the fact that the house will be cold. Therefore, the selection of insulation and its installation must be treated with full attention.
The option of gradual assembly of the frame of the house: the corner posts are set and fixed, the top trim is immediately mounted on them, then with the selected step vertical stands
Fastening racks is possible in several ways: wooden pins, with a hem or on the corners. The hem into the bottom trim should be no more than 50% of its depth. Corners are mounted on both sides. The fastening of the dowels is an old technology, but difficult to perform: they make long dowels, a hole is drilled through a stand and a bar of the bottom trim, a wooden thorn is driven into it, the surplus of which is cut off. It works well if the wood used is dry. If not, shrinking and loss of attachment rigidity are possible. Installation on reinforced corners is much easier.
According to Canadian technology, beams, to which windows and doors are attached, are made double. There is more load here, hence the support should be more powerful.
Reinforced racks near windows and doors are a must. Only in this way a frame house built with your own hands will be reliable.
Trims or bracing
If the outer plating is planned from high-strength plate material – OSB, GVL, GVK, plywood – mowing put temporary and inside the room. They are needed to align and maintain the geometry until the outer skin is attached. The strength of this material is enough to create the required rigidity.
If sheathing is planned to be made up from lining, etc. installation of permanent braids is required. And the best option is not those who put on several racks, but four small pieces each: two on top and two on the bottom (as in the photo below).
Such braces will give sufficient rigidity to the walls of the frame house.
Pay attention to the photo above the national team stand: two boards are knocked together with nails all over in a checkerboard pattern. These racks have an even greater carrying capacity than solid ones, cost less. This is a real way to reduce construction costs without losing quality. But time for construction increases: it is necessary to hammer nails a lot.
Corners of the frame house
Most questions arise when building corners. If you put a timber in the corner, then there seems to be no difficulty, except for the fact that the angle turns cold. In regions with a short and mild winter, this is not a problem, but already in central Russia requires some kind of solution.
Even with this option, the angle will be cooler
There are several ways to make the corner of a frame house warm. All of them are shown in the diagrams, so clearer.
When building a single-storey frame house, you can do so
With a residential second floor, the corners are made in one of these ways.
After assembling the frame, it is usually outside sheathed with OSB, plywood or other similar material.
Step 4: Overlap
Overlapping beams are based on the top trim bar. There are several ways to mount:
- on supporting steel brackets;
- on the corners;
- with sidebar;
Cutting – cutting depth should not exceed 50% of the thickness of the upper trim beam. From above it is hammered with two nails, which should enter into the strapping for not less than 10 cm. Corners – the usual method. It is possible to use reinforced, but not necessarily perforated brackets – the shape may be different. Fixing the ceiling beam with metal brackets
The dimensions of the beams, the pitch of their installation depends on what will be on top. If the second residential floor or attic. the section is taken more, the step is taken less: so that the floor does not sag. If on top only the roof and the attic are supposed to be uninhabited – these are completely different calculations and sizes.
In this one-storeyed frame house, the floor beams are at the same time a support for the rafters. Because they are released at 30 cm for the perimeter of the walls
If the second floor is completed, the overlap is sheathed with a rough floor of the second floor. So working on the creation of the second floor of a frame house will be easier. Its assembly is no different from the construction of the first. Is it only the fact that all the lumber has to be dragged to the second floor.
Step 5: The rafter system and roofing material
When developing a house project on frame technology, the most popular are the gable or mansard roof. Their device is no different. All the same principles and calculations. The only restriction applies to the weight of the roofing: it must be lightweight material from which wooden beams and ceilings can withstand the load.
This is what the frame looks like before the trim. If the walls are not sheathed, slight fluctuations are felt when working on the truss system. The outer skin makes the frame much tougher. A gable roof was chosen with a raised intake. For the convenience of fixing rafter legs along the edge of the floor joists, a bar of 50 * 50 mm was nailed. In the rafters under it was made gash. At installation, they at first simply rested in a bar, then fastened. To fix the rafter in a predetermined position before filling the crate, temporary stitches were used.
Step 6: Warming
It is possible to warm the frame house with any of the materials available on the market with the corresponding characteristics. They are all imperfect, but all problems have standard solutions.
Basalt wool is the most popular insulation for frame walls. It comes in the form of rolls or mats of different densities. It is more convenient to install mats in the walls: they are denser and keep themselves well due to arching force. To do this, as mentioned above, their size should be 2-3 cm longer than the distance between the legs of the frame. Mats, of course, are additionally fixed with special fasteners, but it is more convenient to work than with a soft roll.
The most common cake warming frame wall
Mineral wool has high thermal insulation characteristics, good sound insulation. But there is also a solid drawback: it is afraid of getting wet and it must be protected from all sides not only from moisture (rain), but also from steam penetration. Therefore, from the side of the room, it is covered with a layer of vapor barrier membrane, which prevents the pairs from penetrating inside.
From the side of the street, thermal insulation made of mineral wool is closed by another membrane, but of a different type with different characteristics: a hydro-wind-protective vapor-permeable membrane. It is not blown, from the side of the street it does not allow moisture in the liquid and gaseous state, and the pair can leave the insulation: vapor permeability is one-sided. After installing the insulation, only finishing work remains. Actually, all construction is over.
It looks like a basalt mat installed between the racks
Now you know how to build a frame house. Detailing some of the processes is far from complete, but you have a general assembly sequence. Perhaps you will be helped by another video from a professional carpenter who has been engaged in the construction of frame houses for decades (see below).
Video installation instructions for frame houses
These are three videos of a great carpenter, Larry Khon. Each of them lasting more than an hour. The technology of building a frame house on the finished foundation is painted in great detail.
According to this instruction, self-erection is possible without questions: all stages of building a frame house and small things are commented and explained, to the point of what kind of nails, how long, how many pieces with which step, to hammer in each node. Demonstrates the main problems that may arise and methods for correcting them. If you decide to build a frame house with your own hands, do not take the time – watch the movie. You will become much clearer.
The first part is the bottom trim and the floor.
The second part of the video is the device and assembly of frame walls.
The third part is the construction of the roof of a frame house.
If you still doubt whether it is worth building a frame house, this is probably because you heard that this is a bad technology, that it does not work for us. There is such an opinion. But it is based on the fact that in Canadian and American frame houses they put out of dry forest, humidity. no more than 20-22%. In our conditions, wood from the sawmill brings almost natural moisture, which is up to 60%. Because the house leads and turns, they become cold.
But if you are going to build a house with your own hands, what will prevent you from using dry wood? Chamber drying it is expensive, the difference per cubic is very decent – almost twice. But by folding the wood on the plot into ventilated piles, it can be dried up to the same 20-22% per year. Saturate or not before drying bioprotection you decide for yourself. Dry wood does not rot and is not damaged by fungi, but from insects it is desirable to saturate it with bioprotection.
An example of such an opinion in the video. Explaining why the technology is bad…
Frame house do it yourself. Step-by-step instruction of construction stages
Due to a number of advantages, frame and modular houses confidently lead in the rating of prefabricated structures, suitable not only for country use, but also for permanent residence. Light, not requiring a massive foundation, with high thermal protection, such constructions are not inferior to brick or block houses. In addition, there is always the opportunity to build a frame house with your own hands. Step-by-step instructions will help you understand the main stages of construction.
Competent project – a pledge of comfortable living conditions in the frame house
Frame house do it yourself. Step by Step Construction Instructions
The most affordable and fast construction technology is the construction of a frame house for permanent residence. Therefore, frame houses all over the world are so popular. Construction of the frame house 6×6 with their own hands, starting with the foundation and finishing with finishing works, can be carried out by a brigade of three people within two months.
Construction begins with the development of a competent project. You can build a frame house with your own hands, but it is better to entrust the project to professional designers. It should reflect the constructive, architectural, engineering, engineering sections and schemes of the frame house. It will be easy to embody engineering ideas with your own hands, strictly following all instructions.
Frame construction are becoming increasingly popular in the field of home construction
Photos of frame houses, the projects of which are developed by design organizations, clearly demonstrate the level of professionalism of designers. The network offers a lot of videos on how to build a frame house with his own hands.
Preparation and marking of the site under construction
Starting to build a frame house with their own hands, begin preparing the site for construction. For a qualitative marking the site is free from trees, bushes, grass, stones and debris. If the plot contains slope or unevenness in its relief, it is recommended to level it. All heights are cut to the required level, the ground is poured into the grooves.
Layout plot for the foundation
Starting the construction of a frame house with their own hands from scratch, produce marking for the foundation. To transfer data from the project to nature, it is necessary to mark the external dimensions of the house with the help of wooden pegs, as well as to outline the internal walls. All marking angles must be strictly maintained, since the future of the structure depends on it.
How to build a frame house with your own hands? For familiarization with the construction technology, it is recommended to watch a video lesson.
Video: do-it-yourself frame houses, step by step instructions
Laying the foundation of a frame house: instructions
The process of phased construction of a frame house with their own hands begins with the construction of the foundation. Given the ease of construction being constructed, there is no need to lay a massive foundation under it. For the foundation of a frame house with their own hands, they use columnar, tape (shallow-depth, prefabricated, monolithic), pile and other types of light foundations.
In our case, we take the basement foundation. This is a system of pillars installed in the corners of the future house, at the intersection of partitions and in other bearing points. The pillars are located around the perimeter at a distance of 2-2.5 m from each other. To do this, first arranged a shallow pit and sand pillow. When the foundation pit is ready, check the correctness of the marking with the diagonal method.
3D diagram of the arrangement of the column foundation
With the help of a drilling rig (motobura) or shovels dig holes for the columnar foundation. The formwork is installed, waterproofing is being laid and brick pillars are arranged. For waterproofing, you can use roofing felt or film.
If the posts are made of concrete or cement, reinforcement should be used. It can be equipped by strengthening the pillars on all sides with iron bars 12 mm in diameter. The reinforcement bars should protrude 15 cm above the post – this will ensure the subsequent bundle of posts with the grillage. Reinforcement is horizontal and vertical. Horizontal wire jumpers (wire diameter of 6 mm will fit) are placed at a distance of 20 cm.
Pillar foundation with concrete grillage
The framework of the grillage is made of rods tied with steel wire. Formwork is collected from the boards, the dimensions of which must correspond to the parameters of the trench. Next, proceed to pouring the concrete solution, which is kneaded independently or acquire the finished mixture. Concreting is done in stages, each time stamping the mixture. At the end of the work, 50-cm long pins are inserted into the foundation, onto which the skeleton of the wooden frame house will be attached.
Acquainted with the work on the construction of the foundation can be from the video “How to build a frame house with your own hands.”
Binding of the base of the frame house: step by step instructions
After the foundation work has been completed, it takes at least a week for the concrete to set properly. Next, equip the waterproofing of the foundation of roofing material or waterproofing, laying it in two layers. The trim is made of timber section 150×150 cm
Helpful advice! When choosing a bar for the lower trim, take into account the distance between the supports of the columnar foundation. The larger it is, the thicker the timber should be. This will help avoid sagging.
The prepared timber is laid on the foundation around the perimeter, control the length of the walls, checking the data with the project. If the length of the beam is not enough for laying on one side of the perimeter, it is necessary to join them to each other. The timber is cut and joined so that the docking places fall on the foundation pillars. Docking is done by cutting locks at the ends of the bar (the inlet is 30 cm). In the corners of the uneven bars are connected by the same principle.
Frame house can be built in two months
Next, fix the timber to the foundation with studs or bolts. Drill holes in the timber and in the cap of the foundation. Speakers attachment points as possible deepen. The joints are fixed with nails. The foundation binding under the internal partitions is performed in the same way. For reliability it is recommended to fix the joints with metal corners.
Visually familiarize yourself with the implementation of tying the foundation can be from the video “Frame houses with your own hands.”
Device flooring frame house do it yourself: step by step instructions
Installation of the floor begins with fixing the log to the bars of the finished trim. A log with a cross section of 10×20 cm can be used as a log. In this role, the board can also act, but then it is necessary to install two boards together for rigidity. The frequency of the location of the lag is calculated taking into account the size of insulation plates, which should fit tightly between the lags. For example, if mineral wool with a 61 mm wide sheet will be used for insulation, the lagging pitch is set to 60 cm.
For fixing the log, nails and fixing angles are used. The lags do not fit flush with the timber, but retreating from the edge of the timber about 5 cm, where the boards covering the gap between the lags will then be attached. When all the logs are mounted, one or two transverse boards are nailed between them to make the structure rigid.
The scheme of arrangement of the floor frame house
The next step will be laying on the crate floor membrane waterproofing material, which is covered with the entire surface of the floor frame. On top of the membrane stack plate insulation. Insulation is positioned so that the butt line of the plates of the previous layer is closed with the middle of the plate of the next layer.
Helpful advice! For high-quality vapor and waterproofing, the corresponding material is recommended to overlap in order to avoid ingress of moisture or steam.
A vapor barrier film is laid on top of the insulation and only after that the floor is covered with special slabs. In addition to the plates, you can use plywood or board.
Lathing of the wooden frame of the house on a pile foundation
Numerous photos of the frame house with your hands with a phased fixation of work will help to understand the installation in detail.
The device walls of the frame house
The installation of the walls of a wooden frame house is done by assembling the frame structure. It can be wooden or metal. Oak is most often used for wooden frames, but other wood species can also be used. The frame is assembled according to the construction scheme of the frame house. With his own hands, a wall span first collects on the floor, and then the finished wall element is mounted to the floor.
Arrangement of a floor and walls of the frame house
At this stage, it is important to correctly make all measurements and calculations of the length and height of future walls. The distance between the racks is made on the basis of the width of the insulation plates, so that they clearly enter between the racks. In the case of using mineral wool as a heater, the step is made 1-2 cm less than the width of the material. All vertical racks are nailed to the top and bottom frame member. For reliability, you can also use mounting angles.
When calculating the length of each wall, it is necessary to take into account that each span must be less than the thickness of the rack of the next span. Sometimes the length of the timber is not enough to cover the entire wall. In this case, the span walls form of several parts, which are subsequently connected to each other. The span of the wall, assembled from several parts, is easier to mount if the work is performed by one person.
Elements of construction of the frame house wall
To make the framework of the walls more rigid, jumpers are installed between the vertical posts. They, as a rule, are mounted in a staggered manner: in one space from above, in the other – from below. Lintels can be mounted both on the installed frame, and when the structure is still on the floor. Window and doorways in the frames of the walls are arranged according to the project.
When all the spans of the walls are ready, proceed to their assembly. The first span is mounted to the floor, and supports are installed outside. So alternately collect all the walls, connecting them together with nails. When joining parts of the walls of a single span, it is monitored to match the bottom and top of the structure. To fix the vertical level of the wall, use sticks (diagonally nailed boards).
Installation of walls of the frame house
Helpful advice! To control the verticality of the pillars and the correctness of the corners, use a long level or plumb and a construction square.
To get acquainted in detail with how the frame house is made with your own hands, use photo and video materials on this subject.
Installation of internal partitions and ceiling
When the outer walls are mounted, proceed to the installation of internal partitions. The principle of assembly of internal walls is no different from the installation of main walls, except that their thickness may be somewhat less. As for the heat-insulating layer, here it is used as sound insulation. In addition, the device of such walls does not provide for steam and waterproofing.
Reliable fixation of the frame elements will ensure the strength of the entire structure of the house
Next is the binding of the entire structure on the upper edge. This will contribute to the rigidity of the entire assembled structure and high-quality fixation of all angles. The top trim is made of planks, which are nailed from above along the entire length of the external and internal walls. The important point here is that the connecting lines of the parts of the walls should be covered with a solid board not less than 30 cm.
After that, the surface of all the walls with the outer or inner side is sewn osb-plates. This will give the final rigidity of the whole structure of the wall framework.
The arrangement of the attic in the frame house
The ceiling is mounted on the timber top trim. For this purpose, grooves are made into the timber, into which the ceiling beams are inserted, additionally fastened with nails. In the place where the internal partitions pass, the support bars are mounted, which are connected to the lower and upper trim. Nail ceiling shield, made of grooved boards.
The vapor barrier layer is laid on top of the shield, they are covered with an overlap ceiling beams. Next, flush with the beams laid out the material of thermal insulation (mineral wool, foam, expanded clay). A layer of insulation is covered with a waterproofing film and a board of boards is laid in the direction transverse to the beams. Next is going to the floor, as on the lower floor.
Ceiling arrangement with hydro and vapor insulation, as well as with the use of mineral wool as a heater and sound insulation
As an additional help, use a photo of the construction stages of a frame house with your own hands.
The roof is arranged at the stage when all the walls are built and fixed. Determined by the desired slope and the number of roof slopes. The most common is the gable roof. To increase the usable area, some houses are equipped with a veranda. The project of a frame house with a veranda can provide for two types of roof structure: above the house, a gable, above the veranda, a single slope. These types of roofs are also used for the frame house with an attic and a veranda. For single-storey frame houses with a flat roof, only one-sided construction is used.
Gable design – a popular solution for arranging the roof of a frame house
Rafters are selected with a cross section so that insulation can be laid between them. For the sample, take two boards with a length of 6 m and connect them into an L-shaped structure, lift them onto the roof, rest on the trimming beam so that the overhangs are 35-50 cm. The resulting design is fixed with a transom and used as a model for the rafters. They are mounted at a distance of 70 cm from each other.
The connection of rafters in the ridge is carried out according to the method of “half paws”. The first rafters are installed on the gables, and then a thread is drawn between them, according to the level of which the remaining intermediate rafters are mounted. Next, arrange crate: thinned or solid.
Helpful advice! Whatever the crate, its installation in the skate area should be performed without a gap.
The frame of the house is sheathed with OSB-plates from the outside
For roofing, you can use metal tile or profiled sheeting. This material is easy to install, has low weight and affordable price. In addition, such a roof will always have an attractive appearance.
You can learn more about the roof construction technique by searching the video “How the frame house is built” on the network.
The device for warming a frame house with your own hands: a step by step instruction
To know how to warm the frame house, you need to focus on the seasonality of living in the house. If it is planned to live permanently, then the heat insulating layer should be at least 5 cm thick. For arranging the warming of a frame house with their own hands, they use expanded polystyrene, foam or mineral wool.
The distance between the uprights of the frame should be slightly less than the width of the insulation
From the outside, the OSB slabs are covered with a waterproofing membrane. After that the lattice from rails for ventilation in the frame house is stuffed. With his hands on the inside between the vertical racks fits the necessary layer of insulation. Each subsequent layer of insulation should overlap the junction of the previous layer. To avoid moisture ingress from inside the room, a vapor barrier is filled over the insulation and the walls are sheathed with sheets of osb-plates.
Insulation for the walls of the house outside the siding: choose the material and method of installation. The choice of the type of insulation. Features of materials, their advantages and disadvantages. The main stages of installation.
Next, make the exterior of the house. This may be plaster, wall cladding wagon board or siding. The most acceptable finish is vinyl siding. as it is easily mounted and is able to protect walls from external atmospheric phenomena for a long time.
Siding lining – a good solution for finishing the frame house
The main advantages of frame houses
The construction of frame houses (reviews confirm this) solves the problem of obtaining comfortable and budget housing. The advantages of this technology:
- the most affordable construction technology;
- the ability to use lightweight foundation types;
- fast erection speed;
- sufficiently low thermal conductivity of the structure allows to reduce heating costs;
- low heat capacity allows you to quickly warm up the house to a comfortable temperature in the event of intermittent use of housing;
- excellent sound insulation;
- the possibility of placing communications inside the walls, which has a positive effect on the aesthetic component of the premises;
Sample arrangement of frame house – a sectional view
- Lack of shrinkage allows you to start finishing work immediately after the construction of the house and move into it in the shortest possible time;
- use in the construction of environmentally friendly materials;
- high seismic resistance (up to 9 points);
- no need to heat the house in winter in the case of seasonal residence;
- no need to use special construction equipment;
- the absence of wet construction cycles makes it possible to work regardless of air temperature and water availability;
- quick disassembly if necessary.
Prefabricated frame house with modern building materials
All these advantages contribute to the increasing popularity of frame technologies among the methods of construction of residential buildings. In addition, such technologies allow owners of small-sized houses to build a frame extension to the house with their own hands to increase living space. Such constructions are economical and, with proper construction, provide conditions for comfortable living. They are minimal in cost and can be added to any type of home.
Sources: http://karkasblog.ru/mounting/kak-postroit-karkasnyj-dom.html, http://stroychik.ru/strojmaterialy-i-tehnologii/karkasnyj-dom-svoimi-rukami, http: // remoo. ru / stroitelstvo / karkasnyj-dom-svoimi-rukami-poshagovaya-instrukciya /