In order to obtain high-strength concrete, and hence a high-quality strip foundation, it is necessary to make it rigid, while making maximum efforts with mixing with a shovel. If construction is carried out in the winter, which is undesirable, concrete requires warming when setting. This is done with straw, sawdust, glass wool, or you can simply warm up. It is impossible to pour concrete from a height of more than 1.5 m, otherwise the mixture will separate.
If butobeton is used as a mixture, it is necessary to follow the joining of rubble stones, they should fit tightly to each other. This choice will take considerable time, especially if done with your own hands, as the stones are precisely selected and adjusted. This technology is reduced to the alternation of operations for laying layers and their compaction, and between them is poured concrete binder, which should be finely filled.
Diagram of the columnar foundation.
After the concrete completely hardens (at least 10 days), the formwork can be removed. For waterproofing it is recommended to use bitumen mastic. She coat the outer walls and then install waterproofing material. As a waterproofing perfectly suitable roofing material. At this stage, it is necessary to carefully monitor the quality of the installation so that the waterproofing material does not depart from the walls of the foundation.
If holes and detachments are found, they must be removed. There is another way, more simple, to provide waterproofing. Sinuses carrying the base are filled with clay, which is well compacted. After that, it is recommended to treat the soil, which is adjacent to the foundation, with polymer mixtures, then you can be sure of the strength of the base.
Scheme drainage stepped foundation.
After a layer of waterproofing is made, backfilling of the sinuses of the supporting base is performed. For this we need medium sand. Each layer is carefully rammed and watered. This operation must be done carefully with your own hands so as not to damage the waterproofing layer. Waterproofing is protected by a drainage membrane or geotextile. If there is a basement in the project and it is necessary to warm it, then it is recommended to use a layer of insulation over the waterproofing. Then the waterproofing layer will be reliably protected from mechanical impact during backfilling.
See also: Construction of aerated concrete partitions
This category of carrier is a pillar, which is immersed to the required depth provided by the project. On top of the pillars connect the foundation beams of reinforced concrete. Pillar foundation foundation is used for individual construction of houses (no more than 2 floors), which are built from wood or other lightweight material. Most often, the column foundation is used for the construction of a frame house or a light country cottage.
According to the type of performance, they can be divided into:
- national teams;
- monolithic concrete (B10 and B20).
The following materials are used for the pillars:
- Tree. It can be treated oak or pine. It is used for small buildings.
- Brick made of clay on a solution of cement and bricks. It is used for 2-storey brick buildings.
- Natural stone of high strength. It is used for heavy brick buildings.
- Concrete (B15, B25) with reinforcing cages. It is used for heavy premises without a basement or industrial structures.
The order of construction of this type of foundation begins with the markup, for this you need tools:
- construction cord;
- wooden pegs (50 cm long);
The marking starts from the anchor point or from an arbitrarily selected one of the corners along the internal contour, it is there that the first peg clogs. Then the outer sides of the foundation are measured. On the one hand, the size is equal to the longitudinal wall (length), and on the other – transverse. At the intersection of the axes set the remaining pegs. Diagonal measurements are achieved keeping right angles.
After that, digging the pits of the columnar foundation at a distance of 3-4 meters, installing formwork and pouring concrete. This will require the following materials:
For formwork will need boards with a thickness of 20 mm, from which to create a shield. A box is made of shields and inserted into prepared pits in the ground at the support site. Reinforcement is produced by fittings with a diameter of 14 mm, it is inserted inside the box, so that the edges do not reach the formwork of 5 mm. The longitudinal rods are mounted to the horizontal with a step of 40 cm. At the final stage they make the pouring of concrete and grouting.
Foundation fill pattern.
The bearing base has the appearance of a reinforced concrete slab laid on the ground. It should be from 30 to 10 cm. This plate is reinforced with fittings with a diameter of 12 to 25 mm. For leveling the soil used lightweight concrete (V7, 5) or sand. This type of foundation allows you to redistribute the load of the building over the entire area of the plate.
Such a bearing base is used for weak soils, where sand, bulk dumps and uneven compressibility. The foundation is applicable for 2 or 3-storey buildings with a high load under the sheet set. The foundation is also suitable if the building has a complex shape or a large length, then expansion joints are applied. These seams cut each slab into smaller sizes.
At the finish all parts of the plate will work as one unit. Even with an uneven draft on the plate, no cracks will arise, and the carrying capacity remains reliable. The only disadvantage of this type of foundation is its high cost, but the costs will be blocked by long-term operation.
Pile foundation device
The construction of strip foundations.
This carrier is made from a whole group of piles. Often use individual piles, which are interconnected on top of reinforced concrete or concrete slab, or grillage (beam). Pile carrier base is used in cases when it is necessary to transfer a large load to very weak soil or to support the building on a more durable one by piercing the upper layer. When weak soils (water-saturated, subsiding, loose, sandy) are deposited at great depths, a pile bearing foundation comes to the rescue.
Piles are used for powerful buildings up to 25 tons per square meter, but it is possible to use them in individual construction, where the soil base is very weak and, except for piles, nothing fits. If we take into account the material, we can distinguish the following types of foundation:
- Reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete for heavy structures made of reinforced concrete.
- The tree from the processed pine is applied to an easy 2-storeyed design.
- Metal pipes are used for heavy structures, where it is inconvenient to use reinforced concrete piles.
- Combined piles of concrete and metal are used in difficult geodesic conditions for high-rise buildings.
Piles are of the following types:
Drift piles are used in the case when the site is not fully investigated. And indented and printed are designed for very cramped conditions. Screws are used for the supports of towers, masts, bridges and are laid in any soils. The disadvantage is the high cost, it is virtually impossible to do it yourself, it is necessary to attract special equipment.
How to make a foundation for a house: requirements for the base, especially tape, block and screw designs
The question of how to make the foundation for the house itself interests many novice builders. And all because the building – the event is not cheap, and it is quite natural desire to minimize the overhead.
Modern technologies give us such an opportunity, and therefore in this article we will describe several ways of independently arranging the foundation.
Every home needs a solid foundation.
Before we talk about how to properly make the foundation for the house, let’s try to deal with the requirements that we put forward to it.
So, what should be considered when building a capital foundation for a residential building?
- The first is, of course, the carrying capacity. The foundation, regardless of its design features, is required to withstand the load of the structure built on it without destruction and deformation, and preferably with a safety margin.
Tip! When calculating the bearing capacity, it is necessary to take into account not only the mass of the structure, but also the weight loads from furniture, communications, decoration, etc.
- A very important factor is also the environmental friendliness and safety of the capital base. Since the foundation is laid under a residential building, the use of materials containing volatile, toxic or radioactive substances should be avoided.
- Thermal and waterproofing characteristics of the supporting structure largely determine the comfort in the room. Arrangement of additional waterproofing circuits, external and internal insulation will provide an acceptable microclimate.
Additional heat and waterproofing does not hurt!
- Also, when choosing the design features of the foundation, you should pay attention to its manufacturability and ease of installation. Since we are going to do all the construction work with our own hands, preference should be given to the most simple technologies.
And finally, when we decide on the methodology, it is worthwhile to calculate how much it costs to make the foundation for the house of the planned area. This should take into account not only the price of materials, but also the cost of related work, such as excavation, delivery of concrete, etc.
Choosing how best to make the foundation for the house, it is worth considering several different options. This is exactly what we will do, and first of all we will analyze tape technology – one of the most simple and affordable.
The tape basis for the house represents the strip of the reinforced concrete which is placed under all bearing elements. First of all, these are, of course, external walls, as well as internal capital partitions.
The design of the tape base includes the definition of two main parameters – the depth of embedment into the ground and the width of the support.
By depth of embedding tape constructions are divided into:
- Shallow – up to 60-70 cm.
- Recessed – to the level of soil freezing, i.e. one and a half meters and deeper.
In most cases, it is enough to equip a shallow base, since the installation of the support part at the level of soil freezing is required only in the most difficult climatic and soil conditions, and also when you are planning to build a basement or heated basement.
As for the width of the concrete strip, for most private houses 50-60 cm is enough, and light structures like a shield house cottage can be placed on a forty-centimeter base.
Tip! It is worth paying attention to this technology if you are looking for how to make a foundation for a ready-made house from a bar or a wooden shield. Of course, you have to tinker with the excavation, installation of jacks and filling tapes, but you do not have to disassemble and reassemble the structure.
In the following sections, we will describe how to properly make the foundation of a house using tape technology.
The beginning of the construction of any foundation associated with the layout of the site. On the surface with cords, we mark the contours of our future foundation.
Note! The markings for the trenches must be made at least 200 mm wider than the planned base – 100 mm on each side will go to the installation of the formwork.
By marking we begin excavation:
- We dig trenches either manually or with an excavator.
- The bottom of the trench is lowered 40-50 cm below the design level and carefully leveled.
- Then we do the bedding: first we lay and tamp down 30 cm of gravel, and then – 20 cm of sand.
- On top of the bed is laid either thick polyethylene or roofing felt. These materials will play the role of moisture protection circuit.
- Formwork boards are made of ogregannye boards with a minimum thickness of 30 mm or plywood boards of 15-18 mm.
Tip! To minimize the leakage of the solution, as well as to provide additional waterproofing, in some cases, the entire formwork is lined with polyethylene or a waterproof membrane.
- The height of the boards should be at least 10 cm more than the planned dimensions of the foundation.
- We install struts inside the formwork, as well as pipe sections filled with sand. Subsequently, in place of these pipes will be laid technological holes for the establishment of communications through the foundation.
Mandatory requirement for the base of the tape type is its internal reinforcement:
- We use steel ribbed rods with a diameter of 12 mm as reinforcement.
- The minimum allowable is the arrangement of the upper and lower belts of two rods connected by transverse elements.
- For the assembly of reinforcement can be used as knitting wire, and spot welding.
Tip! Metal frame set on the bricks placed on the bottom of the trench. This will allow us to avoid contact of the fittings with soil moisture and reduce the risk of corrosion.
Photo of formwork with reinforcement before pouring
Fill the formwork with fittings with concrete of a grade not lower than 300. To arrange the foundation, we will need several cubic meters of mortar, therefore we should either rent a concrete mixer or order ready-made concrete from the manufacturer.
It is advisable to fill in at once, in order to avoid cold bridges. Immediately after pouring, we gut the concrete (pierce with a metal bar) or treat it with a vibrating compactor to remove air.
Pouring mortar from concrete mixer
For complete drying, the strip foundation requires at least 30 days. All this time, it is advisable to cover the surface of concrete with polyethylene to slow down evaporation and more efficient strength building. When the surface under polyethylene starts to crack, it should be moistened additionally.
Preparation for laying
If you do not want to mess around with the construction of the formwork and its subsequent casting, you can build a prefabricated foundation of building blocks. To date, several varieties of structural elements are available, ranging from traditional reinforced concrete products, to reinforced panels and slabs.
Note! When choosing which foundation to make from foam concrete blocks for a house, quite often they propose using the same foam blocks as a base. This should not be done, since the foam concrete is hygroscopic and vapor-permeable, and therefore such a foundation will become entangled with moisture over time and will be deformed when it freezes.
It is worth remembering that the erection of the block foundation necessarily requires the involvement of construction equipment to work, since the mass of the elements does not imply carrying them manually
The installation instructions for the block base imply the following sequence of actions:
- We dig a trench under all bearing elements – as in the previous case.
- At the bottom of the trench lay a gravel-sand pillow with a thickness of at least 40 cm. Carefully level and tamp the base.
- For greater strength, the pillow can be replaced with footing or even reinforced concrete slabs.
Foundation pit with footing
After completing the preparation, you can begin to mount the base itself.
Concrete blocks are laid in a trench on the brickwork principle:
- First, apply a layer of cement mortar on the base.
- Then with the help of a crane we place the first corner block, precisely positioning it and aligning it on the plane and vertical.
- We continue laying along the entire perimeter, carefully controlling the geometry of our base.
- After laying all the elements and setting the solution perform waterproofing. To protect against moisture, you can use bitumen mastic, roll materials, etc.
- Also at this stage it is possible to carry out heat insulation, pasting the outer surface of the blocks with foam plates based on polystyrene.
After completion of waterproofing and thermal insulation works we fill trenches or pits. The denser the soil is compacted, the more reliably the foundation will be protected from leakage.
The technologies described above have one rather serious drawback – a large amount of earthworks. That is why, alone, or even with a few assistants, it is rather difficult to implement such projects – you need to involve a brigade of workers.
However, if you are looking for, from which to make a foundation for a house with minimal labor costs, then you should consider the arrangement of the screw pile foundation.
- The key element of such a support structure is metal screw piles. They are buried in the ground under the main bearing walls and partitions.
- The pile consists of two elements – a trunk and a tip. The barrel is a hollow tube with a wall thickness of up to 5 mm, in the upper part of which there are holes for attaching handles.
Ground support pattern
- The tips of most supports are made of hardened steel. The conical nozzle is equipped with a screw blade, which provides burial in the ground during rotation.
- The cavities of the installed piles are poured with concrete, after which the tip with a metal platform is put on the top of each support.
- All heads are aligned on a plane, and a horizontal frame of bars or metal beams is trampled on them – the so-called grillage.
Screw foundations are indispensable in those cases when you are looking for how to make a foundation for a house from foam blocks or other light materials, or try to place the structure on a section with a slope.
An important factor in favor of this design is its reasonable price: yes, the piles themselves are not cheap, but their installation does not provide for laying trenches and large pits.
The foundation of the screw type is assembled quite quickly – in less than a day.
The sequence of works is as follows:
- Using the yamobur, we make shallow starting holes in the places of the planned installation.
- In the hole we start the tip of the pile, align it vertically, and then insert it into the grooves on the shaft of the handle.
Depth support in the ground with the help of scrap and ingenuity: two piles play the role of levers
- To facilitate the work, you can use the machine for screwing supports. It will also help to quickly penetrate the pile using capstan – pipes with special eyelets for long handles.
- We begin the rotation of the handles, gradually deepening the tip of the support into the ground.
Tip!If the support has to be screwed into a dense clay soil, it is worthwhile to pre-do a well in it, the diameter of which will be less than the diameter of the stem. This will weaken the structure somewhat, but will allow the pile to be lowered to the design depth.
- All screwed support pruned level with a saw for metal, then fill with cast concrete to the level of the cut.
- We put on caps on sections and weld them, making sure that the pads are in the same plane.
Base with welded tips
The above-ground part of the pile foundation is treated with a composition that protects the metal from corrosion. Particular attention is paid to weld seams.
On recessed supports we mount a horizontal grillage of beams, rails or channels.
As can be seen from the description, the main advantage is the highest speed of work: no need to wait until the concrete is dry, and you can immediately proceed to the next stage of construction.
We hope that having studied this article, you have understood for yourself how to properly make the foundation for the house in your situation. As you can see, there are several options, and each of them has its own unique features. That is why it is worthwhile to carefully examine all the initial data, decide on priorities – and only then get down to work. In the presented video in this article you will find additional information on this topic.
How to build a foundation?
It is difficult to imagine modern construction without a foundation. It is a support part that transfers the load of the upstream structures to the ground. The performance of the building – durability and capital, are directly dependent on the reliable construction of the foundation. How to build a foundation, and what factors should be taken into account? Let’s talk on this topic.
The gradual lowering of the foundation into the ground, under the influence of overhead loads, is called the subsidence of the foundation. Sinking is rarely found in a low-rise building. Often, the reference area of the erected foundation can significantly exceed the calculated area. But, almost always, it provides a stable condition on non-sinking soils.
Unfortunately, not every site is suitable for the construction of a building. Always take into account the composition of the soil. What is the depth of groundwater, as well as what is the depth of freezing of the soil itself. Choosing the type and depth of the foundation, you need to build on, above all, the properties of the earth. Yes, construction is possible on any soils. But it is his type that determines the technical solution that will be needed for the construction of a strong and stable foundation. And, of course, financial costs are directly dependent on the soil of the soil. Therefore, be attentive to the analysis of the soil before you build a foundation for a house or any other structure.
The first couple of years the ground sags under the weight of the object. In view of this, the designer does not need to eliminate the drawdown of the building, but simply needs to make it uniform. Otherwise, some parts of the object will flatten out unevenly, and this leads to a distortion of the building. Distortion – the cause of the destruction of floors and walls of the house. As a result of skewing, cracks and cracks may form.
However, the main factor in the displacements that lead to damage and deformations is the freezing force of water. When it is cold, the soil saturated with water swells up, that is, it increases in its volumes. And squeezing the foundation, he “tries” to push him to the surface. At the same time, the ground can add so much in size that it can lift a completely massive structure. The ejection force can reach 10-15 tons per square meter. The frost heaving force can reach 100-150 tons, with a total base area of about 10 square meters. m. And this is taking into account the fact that the weight of a building that can be built on this foundation is at least 10 times less.
Sometimes the forces of frost heaving can destroy the foundation. In this case, its lower part comes off from the top. The foundation can also tip over with the object. This is possible when the lateral displacement of individual layers of soil is present. For example, the house is located on a hill (inclined location).
In the spring, when the ground thaws, the foundation sags, but not always then returns to its original position. In general, displacements occur due to the uneven density of the soil, and, of course, with the very uneven processes of thawing and freezing.
How to build a foundation with your own hands? As in the process of any construction, the laying of the foundation can be made after you have all the necessary materials to build a house. It is highly desirable to complete all construction work, as well as to commission the facility within one season. Otherwise, without loading the walls on the foundation, it can be deformed in winter.
Before any construction works, it is necessary to place materials near the construction site. Any type of construction work begins with planning on the ground. The technology of land works entirely depends on the level of groundwater, the composition of the soil, as well as the type of foundation.
Before you build a foundation for the house, you need to determine the type of foundation that is most suitable at the moment. Then you will need to determine the depth and size. Be sure to take into account not only the state and depth of soil freezing, but also the parameters and properties of the object itself (weight, dimensions, design).
Another important factor for the design of the foundation, are your plans: whether the object will be operated continuously or seasonally. Strangely enough, there is not always a need for a massive, deep, and expensive foundation. Taking into account all the related moments, you can draw conclusions about the characteristics of the foundation for a particular object. Foundation types can be divided according to their pressure on the ground. To date, there are the following types: slab, pile, belt and columnar.
Strip foundations are the most popular today. With their help, you can build a house of any type, including heavy walls, basements and basements. This type of foundation is a wall, both high and not very. It is laid under all internal and external capital walls.
Plate foundations are distinguished by their high cost, due to the huge costs of earthworks, metal fittings and concrete. In view of this, they are rarely used in low-rise wooden construction. The exception is the presence of a basement in the object. Pile foundation type is used where the upper layer of soil is not able to withstand heavy loads. To clear it up to stronger layers, and then lay a foundation on them, a very expensive pleasure. The columnar view of the basement is brought under wooden houses with light walls and no basement.
Foundation construction. Stages.
No one wants to make mistakes when building a foundation. Therefore, the question of how to properly build a foundation is always relevant.
The first step is to determine the composition of the soil, as well as the height of its waters. To understand the type of soil, it is necessary to dig a hole, not less than a meter deep. If water is present in the pit, then the depth of the foundation, in this case, should be in the range of 0.5 to 1.2 meters. If there is no water (a large depth of water), and the soil is a mixture of gravel, stone and sand, then you can use a standard strip foundation. Next, you need to remove the fertile soil layer and make a plot of the site. To do this, dig a trench around the perimeter of the building of the desired depth. And the bottom of the trench is leveled with a sand layer.
The next step is to fill the foundation. For it will need a formwork, which is made of plywood sheets or boards. Filling is carried out on the basis of cement mixture. In its composition are present: one part of cement, three parts of coarse sand and four or five parts of gravel. This composition is diluted with water to the state of density, similar to sour cream. It should be noted that the strength of the foundation depends on the thickness of the solution. In the case when stone, bricks or blocks are used for the foundation, the laying is carried out, starting with a sand pad, on a cement mortar. Anyway, you still need to reinforce the foundation with metal rods, which are fastened with knitting wire.
In order to know how to properly build a foundation, it is necessary to study the method of waterproofing. To conduct waterproofing at ground level, lay two layers of roofing material and after that, the foundation can be completed to the required height. Moreover, it is necessary to well lubricate part of our foundation with hot bitumen in several layers, after which the trench can be filled up. Further, with the help of the level, we level the foundation, we derive it to the zero mark. If necessary, we do input for the sewerage and a water supply system. Then lay the foundation of the blocks or bricks on the waterproofing layer. We leave holes for air ventilation in the opposite walls of the foundation. This will help avoid damp under the floor of our building.
If there is a need for a visual example, you can easily find the video “how to build a foundation.” Such a video course will be able to clearly demonstrate the construction. Also be sure to read the article “What is the best foundation? “.
So, now you know what a foundation is, what types it can be divided into, how to build a foundation for a house or any other object, as well as the stages of its construction.
Sources: http://1pobetonu.ru/montazh/kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom.html, http://ofundamentah.com/stroit/201-kak-sdelat-fundament-pod-dom, http: // elhow.ru/bytovye-sovety/stroitelstvo/stroitelstvo-doma/kak-postroit-fundament