The surface of the foundation must be checked for evenness of the surface. The height difference should not exceed 1 cm per 1 running meter. Otherwise, you must additionally use the cement-sand screed.
In the process of pouring the concrete foundation, when it has not yet hardened, anchoring mounts should be installed for laying down in increments of 2 m.
Prior to the continuation of construction work, you should also take care to properly waterproof the foundation. This will ensure its durability, protect it from gradual destruction, protect the ground floor and basements (if any) from fungus, dampness and the multiplication of insects.
It is possible to waterproof the foundation with the help of various versions of roll, coating, sheet and sprayed materials. You can also use concrete with special hydrophobic additives that increase the degree of water repulsion.
Concrete gains full strength by 28 days of hardening in normal conditions. However, laying the floor can begin about a week after pouring, when the foundation already has about 60-70% of the final strength.
If the laying of the floor is made to the device walls and the construction of the ceiling of the next floor, then the work must be done in dry weather, and also making sure that the foundation is dry from rain.
The device of floors of the frame house on piles
In the case of a house on stilts, the floor of the first floor will rise more or less above the ground, leading to significant heat loss through it. In this case, you can not do without a good insulation of the grillage.
If the distance between the grillage and the ground level is small, it is better to build a basement frame around the perimeter of the building, which is insulated and then sheathed with decorative panels, siding, decorative stone, etc. The base can also be built from bricks, foam and cinder blocks. The result will be a small technical room that can be used for household needs.
In the case when the overlap of the first floor is too high, the grillage itself is insulated directly – with coating, roll or sheet insulation outside and inside.
Naturally, warming is performed before laying the floor covering.
The device of a draft floor in the frame house
Between the upper surface of the foundation and sunbeds, a layer of waterproofing (usually roofing material) is laid. Along the perimeter of the foundation, boards with a width equal to the width of the foundation and 50 mm thick are attached to the pre-set anchor bolts. The most popular wood for this is larch, because it is resistant to decay. However, the boards are still impregnated with an antiseptic, which is allowed to dry well.
Poles and floor joists
If the span has a length of more than 3 meters, then in order for the floorboards not to bend much, additional supports should be arranged under them. They are brick columns with a cross section of one brick and a concrete reinforced base measuring 40×40 cm, recessed into the ground by 30-40 cm.
Under these pillars, holes are pulled out somewhat deeper than is necessary for their concrete foundation. The bottom of the dimples is rammed, a sand cushion about 5 cm thick is poured and carefully leveled. The bottom and walls are covered with polyethylene or similar waterproof material, and formwork is installed. Further the reinforcing grid keeps within and concrete is filled in.
Brick laying can be carried out not earlier than in 3 days, when the concrete dries out and gains minimum strength capable of withstanding the load from the bricks.
Binding and logs
Along the perimeter of the foundation, on the end of the butt joint, the planks are laid in the butt joint, on the plane of the future floor they are laid out in 40-50 cm lags on average. The position of the boards on the butt ensures high rigidity and geometric unchangeability of the structure. Between themselves, strapping and logs are connected using galvanized corners. It is acceptable to use nails as well, but such a connection will be much less reliable. If there are no boards at the disposal of a sufficiently large length to cover the entire span at once, then it is permissible to make logs of several fragments. In this case, the joints should be on brick supports.
For the construction of piping and lag wood is also used impregnated with protective compounds, 5 cm thick and 20-25 cm wide.
The floor of the lower floor is a source of constant cooling of the room. No matter how efficient home heating systems are used, they will be useless without proper floor insulation. In addition, condensate will inevitably form in the room, leading to dampness, mold, fungus development, deterioration of wooden floor structures, etc.
The construction market offers a large variety of natural and synthetic insulation of varying degrees of efficiency. When choosing between them, it should be remembered that with high environmental friendliness, natural materials will be much less durable, in addition, there is a high probability that rodents can live in them.
Installation of insulation and flooring
That the heater was where to lie, boards are hemmed to the bottom of the lags. If they fail to fit there in height, you can lag bars and lay boards for insulation on them. If rigid plate heaters are used, then boards can be replaced with a frequent grid. On top of the flooring roll waterproofing is laid. Next fit insulation. It should be remembered that the denser it is laid, the worse it will be heat-insulating and noise-protective properties.
Also, the heater should not reach the height to the top of the lag by a few centimeters to provide floor ventilation. Among the popular materials for insulation are expanded clay, mineral wool, polystyrene foam, foam plastic, penofol, sawdust. If mineral wool is chosen, then during its installation special care should be taken to protect exposed skin and face from small particles of material scattering everywhere.
After laying the insulation you can proceed to the installation of floorboards. The less often logs are laid, the greater the thickness of these boards should be: for example, at a step of 70 cm lag it is recommended to lay at least 4 cm thick, with a more frequent arrangement of the lag every 40 cm is enough for a three-centimeter board.
Flooring boards have grooves and protrusions – spikes. The first floorboard is laid with a spike to the wall with a distance of 3-4 cm from it. The indentation is necessary to compensate for fluctuations in the size of the boards with changes in temperature and humidity.
It is better if the transverse joints of the boards will fall on the logs – this will increase the strength of the floor construction.
The device of a water heat-insulated floor in the frame house
In brick and concrete houses, floor heating is usually arranged in a cement-sand screed. However, the wooden floor just will not sustain such a load. In such cases, the floor heating system is mounted on a dry polystyrene foam screed.
Installation of heated floor
The boards of the flooring are made of expanded polystyrene plates (related to the foam material) with pipe fittings. These plates have an extremely small weight and thickness of only 2-3 cm. They are fastened together with a lock-type joint (like laminate).
On the plates in the grooves fit the contours of the pipes. The length of the circuit should not exceed 100-120 meters, one circuit is designed for heating a room of no more than 40 square meters. It is unacceptable to use one circuit for several rooms, even if they together have an area of less than 40 m 2.
After laying the pipes, it is necessary to carry out their hydraulic test, which will make sure that the system does not leak and heats the room properly. After checking, it is possible to stack aluminum heat distribution plates on top, to cover them with a waterproofing substrate.
At the device of a heat-insulated floor it is useful to think over at once layout of the room. So under the large-sized furniture in the presence of a heated floor does not make sense, and when placed under the appliances (refrigerator, washing machine, etc.), it will only harm it with additional heating.
On average, a warm floor will cost between one and a half – three thousand per square meter.
Other options for underfloor heating in the frame house
An alternative to a water-heated floor will be electric – cable or with an infrared carbon film.
The cable is laid with a step of 10-20 cm on the floor surface on the heat insulating material. To increase the temperature, the step can be slightly reduced, but not more than 5 cm. The power of the system varies depending on whether the heated floor is the main way of heating the room, or only complements traditional batteries.
The action of film heating systems is based on infrared radiation of carbon paste inside the film. To increase the efficiency of such a floor, a heat-insulating substrate with a foil-coated coating is placed under it, which will reflect the heat back into the room. Fragments of the film are placed jointly at the joint, with 10 cm indents from the walls. If it is necessary to cut a solid piece, this can be done only in the places specially marked on the film with a dotted line.
Heating is also located only under the useful open part of the room. Before laying the floor covering, the performance of the underfloor heating system must also be checked.
Choosing a clean floor covering, you should give preference to materials specifically designed for installation over a warm floor. They will have a high thermal conductivity, which means they will allow the maximum amount of heat to go to the heating room.
Soft flooring such as carpet or linoleum can be put directly on the warm floor, and for hard (laminate, tile, etc.), you will need an additional base, made of plywood sheets or moisture resistant plasterboard.
Any material must be “accustomed” to the microclimate of the room, for this it must lie down in it before installation at least several hours.
For a house with a wooden floor construction, it is better to use the lightest flooring materials. These will be linoleum and laminate.
Linoleum is laid on a thin (1-2 mm) polyethylene substrate, or even without it, if it has its soft layer below, with a slight overlap on the walls. Having settled on the floor for a couple of days, it can sit down a little or, on the contrary, expand, so you shouldn’t immediately cut it along the contour of the walls.
Linoleum is fixed on the masking tape or glue. If blisters form somewhere on the coating, it bristles, then this place should be straightened and crushed by something heavy. To prevent shifts and deformations of the coating, it should be installed indoors without drafts. Do not also immediately arrange the furniture, the glue must be given time to grab.
After linoleum flooring, wooden or plastic plinths are mounted around the perimeter of the room, and aluminum sills are at the joints.
Laminate is mounted with a small indentation from the walls, necessary to compensate for the change in the dimensions of the material during temperature fluctuations. The transverse joints of the individual boards of the material should not be on the same line, they should be laid separately.
The device of the floor in the frame house is a labor-intensive, but quite simple thing, accessible even to a novice in the field of construction. Regulatory documents will help to make accurate calculations of the required size and quantity of materials. Compliance with the technology and the use of high-quality materials will provide a design that will last a long time.
What you shouldn’t particularly save on is the waterproofing of the foundation and antiseptic impregnation of all wooden floor elements.
Arrangement of a warm floor in a frame house
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Increasingly, residents of large metropolitan areas are moving to a permanent place of residence outside the city. And less and less they buy brick houses: either because of the reminder of dreary city life, or because of lack of funds. Recently, there is a growing interest of citizens in eco-friendly housing, where you can breathe deeply, feeling the incredibly pleasant smell of wood.
Heat-insulated floor in the frame house
However, the purchase of a wooden house is associated with the risk of acquiring “raw material”. Having moved to such housing, people discover that a bar or log in the house is covered with resin, and gaps appear between them.
An alternative to wooden houses are frame houses, gaining increasing popularity not only in Europe but also in Russia. Their feature is the speed of construction and the lack of a capital foundation. Since lightweight materials are used in the construction process, such houses are built on piles.
Diagram of the floor in the frame house
The advantage of this method of construction is the air exchange, carried out under the house, which prevents the rotting of the rough base boards. A disadvantage is a draft, blowing through even the insulation, which protected the base of the floor. The only way to remedy this situation is the “warm floor” system. How to make in the frame house underfloor heating, and what should be foreseen in their arrangement?
Features of installation of a heat-insulated floor in the frame house
There are two types of underfloor heating:
- water, where the heating of the floor is carried out by a coolant circulating through the pipes;
- electric, providing for the installation of electrical heating elements, radiating heat.
Electric and water heated floors
In the frame house, erected on piles, as well as in any other structure, you can do heating by installing any of these systems. However, if the house is on piles, the technology of insulation and installation of the “water heated floor” will be somewhat different. It is very important, even at the stage of making calculations, to isolate all cold zones, after carefully sealing the gaps and joints.
Water warm floor in the frame house
The choice of a floor heating system in a frame house on piles depends on various factors, including the following:
- climatic zone;
- geological features of the area;
- design features of the house;
- heat loss calculations.
Wooden system of warm water floor
The most effective and economical in terms of energy consumption will be water heated floor. Although initially its arrangement will require significant financial costs for the purchase of materials, in the future it is fully capable of recouping itself by insignificant expenditure of energy.
If for any reason the device of a water heated floor in a frame house is not possible, you can make an electric heating option.
Stages of installation of a water heated floor
Installation of a water heated floor in a frame house on stilts can be done in several ways:
- installation of the contour of pipes in a floating screed;
- on wooden flooring.
The device is light underfloor heating floors
Installation of a water heated floor in a floating screed
With this method, the water contour is filled with a 5 cm thick layer of the screed. Its weight will be about 300-600 kg / m², therefore, first of all, you should make sure that the frame of the house is able to withstand such a load.
Screed scheme for underfloor heating
Next, the rough base of the floor is covered with a layer of waterproofing, which is most often the plastic film. This material in the cake warm floor performs two functions:
- eliminates the possibility of moisture absorbing concrete from the wooden base of the floor;
- interferes with coupling of a coupler with a draft floor.
Draft floor with screed
The film must be laid with an overlap on the wall, equal to 15 cm. It is attached to the walls with mounting tape. If the waterproofing material is overlapped, the joints are also taped with mounting tape.
On top of the film is placed a layer of insulation in the form of expanded polystyrene plates or rolled insulation, and a reinforcing mesh. A damping tape is glued around the entire perimeter of the room. If the area of the room exceeds 40 m², it should be divided into parts, putting several pipe contours. Damper tape is also used to separate them.
Methods for laying pipes of a warm water floor system
The pipeline system “warm water floor” can be laid according to any scheme – a snake or a snail. But given the design features of the house on stilts, it is recommended to make the laying step minimal – no more than 10-15 cm.
The pipes are fastened with clamps to the reinforcing mesh so that in the process of pouring the screed they do not change their position.
After the warm water floor in the house is fully mounted, the system is crimped to ensure that it works. Pressure testing is carried out during the day, and the coupler is poured while maintaining pressure in the pipes.
Next, you need to set the beacons, which will serve as a guideline in the process of pouring and leveling the cement-sand mixture. The mixture is poured from the wall opposite the door. After the mixture grabs a little, the beacons are removed, and the resulting gaps are filled with concrete. Excess polyethylene is also cut.
How to set beacons for screed
Wood is a natural material that tends to expand, shrink and change its shape and position. A floating screed, which has no adhesion to either the floor or the walls in the house, cannot be damaged in the process of these changes.
Installation of a water heating floor heating system
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Installation of a water heat-insulated floor on a wooden flooring
At the initial stage, the draft floor in the house is covered with a layer of polyethylene film and foiled polystyrene foam. Further, grooves are cut into the boards into which the pipes will be inserted. From these boards is the frame of the water circuit. The installation step, as in the previous case, is recommended to be minimal.
Installation of a warm water floor in wooden draft
On top of the water circuits it is necessary to lay a sheet of metal that promotes uniform heat distribution. And on top of the metal, the floor is covered with sheets of plywood or OSB, on which the final floor covering is laid. As in the previous case, before laying the finishing coating, the water circuits are checked for operability and no errors during installation.
Stages of laying electric floor heating
There are several electrical options for underfloor heating:
- cable heating mats;
- infrared mats;
- infrared film.
Types of electric underfloor heating
Installation of each of these types has its own characteristics. Cable warm floor, like water, can be done by placing in a concrete screed, or laying on wooden flooring. Infrared heating options do not require placement in a concrete screed and can be placed directly under the finishing coating.
Features of the installation of cable floor heating
The control of the electric floor heating option is carried out using a thermostat. Therefore, first of all, it is necessary to prepare for him a place on the wall. From the floor, it should be separated by a distance of at least 30 cm. A round hole is made for the thermostat in the wall, and channels in the wall where the cable will be laid are made below the wall. If the cable warm floor is mounted in a room with a high level of humidity, it is desirable to place the thermostat outside of it.
Standard cable layouts
The draft surface of the floor is covered with plastic wrap with an overlap on the walls and a layer of thermal insulation, over which the reinforcing mesh is laid. On the reinforcing mesh cable is fixed.
Installation of a cable heat-insulated floor in the frame house
Next, connect the heating cable to the thermostat and make sure that the system is operational. Further, as in the case of a water-heated floor, beacons are installed and the coupler is poured.
The heating cable in a frame house on piles can be laid directly on the logs, under which a layer of hydro- and thermal insulation with a foil layer is laid. In logs cuts are made in the places where the cable must pass. In this case, the cable on the lags always keeps within the snake.
A reinforcing mesh is also placed on top of the insulation, and a foil and a cable fixed to the mesh with clamps to fit in the cuts. On top of the lags fit finish covering in the form of sheets of plywood or OSB.
Features of laying heating mats and films
Mats, both cable and infrared, are placed directly on the finishing floor. Porcelain tiles can be laid on the heating mats, increasing the amount of tile adhesive. And it is recommended to pre-cover the infrared film with sheets of plywood.
Cake warm floor
When calculating a warm floor, it is very important to consider only the usable floor space, which is determined without taking into account the locations of large furniture and household appliances. Heating with the “warm floor” water system can damage furniture and disable equipment. And the installation of large furniture in places laying electrical components will overload the system and increase the possibility of fire.
Installation scheme of water floor heating in the room
Installation of heating elements in a house on stilts should be carried out in compliance with the requirements for electrical installation and fire safety techniques.
Video: Bathroom in a frame house with a floor heating system
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Sources: http://chudesniydom.ru/vnutri/pol/montazh-teplogo-pola-v-karkasnom-dome.html, http://okarkase.ru/konsturkciya-doma/pol/ustrojstvo-pola-v-karkasnom- dome.html, http://kaminyn.ru/tyoplyiy-pol/montazh-teplogo-pola-v-karkasnih-domah.html