How to properly frame the frame house, read here.
The frame should be assembled from corner posts. They are a wooden beam, coupled with strapping. You can make a frame of the board, but this is undesirable. Racks must be reinforced with struts. The rest of the vertical bar to strengthen the struts is not necessary, since the rigidity of the racks attached to the horizontal jumper.
Racks are installed at a distance of about a meter from each other. A wider distance is done only in the area of door and window openings, strengthening the frame with bolts. The bolt also allows you to more evenly distribute the load on the foundation. Details on the frame house assembly can be found here.
The frame house wall is sketchy with a window and a bolt under it
What cant to take for the frame? This should be a timber of high quality wood. It is advisable to use glued laminated timber, but in our realities, when framed houses choose the middle class, they often use technical drying timber or natural moisture. Pay attention to the tree species from which you will assemble the frame. It is best to use softwood, as well as oak or ash. Coniferous varieties, thanks to natural resins, additionally protect the wood from insects and pests, moreover, in such a house there will be a fresh, coniferous smell for a long time.
Inspect the timber or planks externally: it should not be dark spots, mold, it should be smooth. The quality of the installation of the frame largely depends on the evenness of the timber, but most often it comes across a slightly twisted one – with natural drying, any tree is twisted.
Different ways of connecting with the device frame house
The frame is fixed with screws, nails and metal corners. The use of metal corners is preferable, but they must be lubricated with a septic tank or any lubricant before use. Oxidized metal causes damage to wood.
Choosing a roof for the house
Most often, those who decide to do construction with their own hands, make the usual gable roof. This option is relatively easy to perform, while the attic can be made heated and residential or left as an attic.
Roof in the frame house – the main elements
Installing it is as follows:
- Mounted rafters, which are fixed with roofing nails, screws, metal plates and corners. Rafters are put from a board or a bar.
- In order to calculate the step it is necessary to proceed from the size of the rack, most often it ranges from forty to 100 cm.
- The size of the spans ranges from two and a half meters to 5 m, the exact figure depends on the section of wooden beams.
- Support for each rafter do mauerlat, whose section is 10 cm. Mauerlat must be fixed quite tightly, as this is the main support, which is under pressure from the entire roof.
The way of fastening the power plate can be different, as well as the design of the frame house.
Ways of connecting truss legs and mauerlat
To connect all the rafter legs, you must use the toothed lining for the board.
Important: if the spans are larger than five meters, the installation of support for rafters is extremely important.
To decide on the option of crates, you must consider what kind of roofing will be used, that is, what kind of material will be laid.
Layers in the roof of a frame house
Some materials require solid crates, for example, shingles. For it, sheets of PCB are used. If you decide to stay on the metal profile, you can use a batten bar 50 * 50 mm. The timber spreads in increments of about 50 cm.
Construction of a frame house with your own hands. Phased Guide
Frame construction is deservedly popular all over the world. Since the middle of the last century, houses built on this technology have been actively built in the Scandinavian countries, as well as in Canada and the United States.
Popularity due to the speed of construction, the relative cheapness and excellent energy-saving characteristics. This is a big plus when building in countries with a cold climate.
In addition, such housing construction is recommended for construction in earthquake-prone regions. Lightweight structures are the most durable, moreover, the destruction itself occurs gradually, which makes it possible to evacuate people from the building.
Modern technologies of frame housing construction took the best of buildings from various materials and created a truly unique wall construction, which combines excellent load-bearing, enclosing, heat-insulating, sound-proof properties with low weight, simplicity and short installation time.
The construction of buildings allows you to assemble a building, as a constructor from parts, with communications held in them. Moreover, frame house building allows you to bring into life any architectural form.
How to build a frame house with your own hands?
In Russia, this type of construction is not widespread. The matter is that unscrupulous construction companies, which at one time intensively began to build entire cottage villages with frame houses, built with violation of technology. This led to the fact that after a few years the wall constructions stopped keeping warm, and this is unacceptable in the conditions of our winters.
Recently, however, the manufacture of frame houses put on the industrial flow and enough to buy ready-made parts to build a building. This is to ensure strict adherence to technology works and the reliability of construction
House-building plants, specializing in frame house-building, usually provide a number of services, which include not only the manufacture of parts of the house, but also its design. In the project office you can choose the appropriate model project and make possible changes to it. Details of the building will be marked in accordance with the project. This will allow you to quickly and easily assemble the structure on the spot.
If you are building a small house and the cost of the finished project seems too high, you can find the right blueprints on the Internet. If you are not satisfied with any of these options, then following the numerous recommendations accompanying projects from the Internet, you can draw a skeleton scheme yourself and calculate the main nodes.
Materials for the construction of a frame house with your own hands?
After all the drawings have been drawn up or a project has been acquired, it is possible to calculate the necessary amount of materials needed For the construction of a frame house, depending on the project, you may need the following materials:
- Concrete solution of the appropriate brand for the device foundation. You can cook it yourself or buy ready;
- Armature of different diameter for the reinforcement of the foundation;
- Waterproofing. This may be roofing material, plastic film or bitumen;
- Boards for the bearing framework. The most suitable sizes are 50 * 150 mm;
- Boards for truss system. Usually used pine section 50 * 200 mm;
- Boards for interior walls with dimensions of 20 * 100 cm;
- OSB plates from 18 to 22 mm thick;
- Special impregnation for wood, protecting from rotting, pests, fire;
- Paints and varnishes;
- Insulation. The most suitable is mineral wool;
- Drywall for interior wall cladding;
- Siding, wall paneling or decking for covering the building outside;
- Roofing material;
- Wires, cable channels, corrugated pipes electrical products for the device wiring.
Of the tools should always be at hand:
Construction of a frame house with their own hands in stages
Construction of any house should be carried out stage by stage, strictly observing the construction technology.
After planning the construction site, you can proceed to the foundation of the device.
Despite the fact that the frame house does not provide such a load on the foundation as stone houses, the foundation must be made thorough. Since the frame houses are not above two floors, the recessed foundations can not be done. The most acceptable types of foundations are shallow-tape, columnar or precast base blocks.
For the installation of a columnar foundation or foundation of asbestos pipes will leave about one cubic meter of concrete. The pillars are installed in steps from half a meter to one meter. Along the marking along the perimeter, one needs to dig holes 1 m deep. At the bottom of the pit a gravel-sand pillow is arranged, fittings are set and concrete is poured. The finished foundation should gain strength in two or three weeks. After that, you can proceed to construction.
Recently, screw piles have become widespread. Their main advantage is that their device does not require the involvement of construction equipment. Their device is capable of making three people.
Device of a rough floor
A waterproofing layer is arranged on top of the foundation. All boards of the frame are treated with antiseptics and fire-fighting compounds. It is very important to use high-quality and dry wood for the structure of the house. Boards are set on the ground strictly on the level, the slightest bias can lead to a violation of the geometry of the entire structure. It is also important to maintain the accuracy of the angles. The laser level will be a good helper in this.
Boards are fastened to the foundation with anchor bolts. After placing the lag, you can proceed to the insulation. Insulation is placed between the lags on a layer of wind protection. After a layer of insulation it is necessary to lay a layer of vapor barrier, taping the joints with adhesive tape. After that, the finishing floor is laid on the logs, fixing it with nails or staples. It is very important to use wood of the same wood type during construction.
Building a house frame
The first stage of the construction of the frame is to install the bottom trim. It is better to arrange it without the use of metal fasteners, since the wood in places of contact with it will rot quickly. For it use a bar with a section 150 * 150 or 200 * 200, previously processed by antiseptics. The timber should be installed around the perimeter of the building and under the supporting walls.
After that, the vertical boards of the frame are exposed to the height of the ceilings. The whole process begins with the corners of the building. Corner posts are placed vertically on pins and mounted with vertical braces. After that, the top trim is performed.
All this must be done, strictly observing the angles. Ceiling beams are attached to the vertical racks. After that, put up additional racks in the places of the device partitions and as supports for the beams. They will provide the necessary strength to the home.
The rafter system can be assembled on the ground, and then raised to the top, but for this you need a crane, which is not always possible during the construction of a private house. It is much easier and more convenient to assemble the structure in place.
It is better to do a gable roof, using the same materials as for an ordinary roof:
Sheathing frame house
It is very important to properly trim the frame. The frame after construction is treated with an antiseptic. After drying lumber, you can proceed to the building paneling OSB. All other work will be carried out from inside the premises.
On all walls with the help of a construction stapler we stretch a wind-proof film. The joints are carefully taped. This will protect the insulation layer from weathering and subsidence over time.
After that, between the racks of the frame, mineral wool is laid. If a house is being built in a region with harsh winters, then it is better to use mineral wool mats in several layers. In this case, layers must be laid in a checkerboard pattern, overlapping the joints of the first row mats in the second row. After this, the vapor barrier is pulled over. Joints also need to glue tape.
At this stage, you need to build a communications system and arrange ventilation. After that, all the walls are sheathed with two layers of drywall.
Outside the house can be sheathed with siding, block house. You can make a plaster on the reinforcing mesh, using special putty. Interior decoration is no different from the improvement of ordinary apartments and houses.
The construction of a frame house can be completed in one season, without waiting for its shrinkage. Building a house with this technology is currently the most economical option.
Step-by-step construction instructions for a frame house
Until recently, mainly log houses, brick or concrete, were erected in our country, but now it is time for new technologies, and frame construction has appeared in this segment. It has not yet been mastered at full capacity, so I would like to consider in detail how the construction of the frame house is going on with their own hands with step by step instructions contained in the article. The instruction itself consists of 4 steps:
- foundation installation;
- frame assembly;
- walling and thermal insulation work;
The main advantage of this design lies in the rapid pace of construction without the involvement of special lifting mechanisms. Low-cost frame buildings are put into operation in one season, but such speed in no way impairs comfort and heat preservation, and here such parameters are no worse than those of wooden or stone houses. Now we offer to disassemble all stages of construction separately.
Choosing a place on the site
The use of wooden material suggests the presence of a site without excessive moisture. The site must be well ventilated and dry enough so that the wood does not rot. Drawings from the project documentation must be compiled with reference to the landscape, because only such scruples can guarantee durable operation of the dwelling without problems and major repairs.
It is possible to make a qualitative foundation only after conducting a geological analysis of the soil, while the house is being built according to the calculation of operational loads.
We make a project
The developer must be guided by the project created by experts in this field. Compiled documentation must also be approved by authorized officials of various services, where changes and / or additions may be made. At the initial stage, the step-by-step instruction allows independent sketching, but then you need to select a suitable standard project or make an individual one taking into account personal preferences and wishes, but in that and in the other case it is necessary to mark all communications and add engineering systems to the plan.
An example of a draft typical project
We draw your attention to the fact that typical projects traditionally cost less, and individual projects allow you to realize your own ideas.
Construction of a frame house, like any residential building, provides for the introduction of all engineering networks into the project. According to the instructions, communications are laid in a certain sequence, and you need to start from the foundation. All technological holes for communication systems need to be made at the time of pouring, so that after solidification of the base it is not necessary to engage in complex drilling.
The electrical system consists of a switchboard, electrical wiring, sockets and grounding. The distance between the points under the sockets should be no more than 4 m. Sockets with lids are installed near the water sources. The ventilation system includes air ducts with openings. Should I remind you that the correct access to and use of taps, switches, as well as the functioning of drains and sewage drainage, depend on the correct wiring of pipes and wires?
The technology of construction of a frame house provides for the installation of shallow strip foundations. columnar or block concrete foundation. Strength basics increase with rebar and monolithic strapping. For the frame construction of a fairly small base, which can easily withstand small loads. The most effective type of foundation for a frame house – screw piles. This foundation does not require a large amount of materials, which reduces the cost of construction estimates.
Variants of the device grillage on screw piles
Under the foundation plate, it is necessary to dig a trench or drill wells for piles, then pour a sand pad. Before you start pouring concrete, you need to make a formwork and install reinforcement rods. Ribbon foundation in the process of pouring necessarily ram. The step-by-step instruction states that for the construction of a frame house, vertical studs half a meter long are installed in the liquid concrete of the foundation every 2 m. The surface of the grillage must be leveled with the same cement mortar.
Seven days after the work on pouring concrete, the bottom trim of wooden bars with a section of 15×15 cm is laid over the entire surface of the base. The wood must be pre-treated with antiseptic agents, and two layers of roofing felt, which perform the role of waterproofing, are laid at the bottom. Timber can be fixed with anchor bolts or foundation studs. If bolts are used, then under them you need to drill technological holes up to 10 cm in depth. The length and in the corners of the connection is arranged and fixed with nails.
Bottom trim house
When all wooden bars are laid and connected with each other and with the foundation, grooves are formed in them and floor logs are placed (50×150 mm board). The upper part of the lag is aligned horizontally, and the bars are nailed to the bottom, which will serve as the basis for the installation of the subfloor, to which the membrane vapor barrier material is stitched. In between the lags, you need to press the heater (mineral wool or foam). A trim board (40×15 mm) is laid on top.
Now you can go through the following stages, which will be discussed further.
Create a frame
Mounting the frame house with their own hands, the developers from the very name of the technology understand that the main element of such a structure is the frame, and it is on it that the entire structure is retained. The skeleton consists of vertical posts fixed with bolts and horizontal strapping. As before, here the entire construction process is carried out in stages. The material used is wood or metal profile. for the installation of which will require a welding machine and certain skills. If you decide to create a frame of wood, it is recommended to choose hardwoods, such as larch or the most popular oak. The height of the rack should correspond to the same parameter of the room. Connect the rack thorn-groove on the principle of lower strapping. After fitting, there should be no gaps.
Wall frame elements
Depending on what kind of load will affect the bearing supports, plan the distance between the uprights and their caliber, and the dimensions of the cladding material are already selected for them. Typically, the cross-section of the racks take 150×50 mm, in the openings put a double beam 150x50mm. The most popular step racks – 600 mm (allows you to install insulation “in the tension” for dense filling the wall). To connect the uprights with the lower strapping, temporary braces are used, which is why the structure acquires the necessary rigidity.
Diagram of the device corners frame
Now the step-by-step instruction led us to the installation of the top trim, which is carried out after the installation of the vertical beam. Fixing occurs with the help of the same grooves, which fastened the lower timber.The upper fastening to the posts is carried out by two nails, which should enter the material not less than 10 cm. The final fastening of the frame is carried out by permanent mowing, installed instead of the dismantled temporary. Read more about this in the article “Upper and lower trim of a frame house.” We also recommend that you familiarize yourself with the device of the most important components of the frame house.
We install and insulate walls
The outer walls of the house are sheathed with a siding under a log, wooden lining, plastic siding, as the owner of the house wishes. Warming is best done using mineral wool. It will reliably and inexpensively solve the problem of home insulation, which makes frame construction even more profitable and in demand. If you plan to live here all year round, then select insulation with a thickness of 15 cm or more. For greater efficiency, tackle the counter lattice from a 50×50 mm (8) bar and put insulation (7) with the “second layer” on top of the racks so that you can avoid possible cold bridges and make the house truly energy efficient. Read more about the pie wall device. and also about the general warming of the frame house.
Scheme of warming of a frame wall
The material is pressed into all the gaps between the beams to remove voids. To protect the wood from moisture, a waterproofing film will help, which is mounted on top of the insulation on the racks, and only then the lath casing for ventfacade, which will be hidden under the external facing, is packed. An OSB or gypsum fiber board is suitable for wall cladding from the inside.
Building a ceiling
The ceiling is attached to the ceiling beams, which, in turn, are fixed with grooves or steel brackets on the top trim bar. Where interroom partitions are installed, it is necessary to install support bars in the place of which a wooden ceiling shield is nailed.
Warming attic flooring scheme
On top of the shield you need to put a vapor barrier membrane with an obligatory overlap on the beams, with which the mineral wool, foam plastic, etc., are laid level with. The insulation is closed by vapor barrier, and boards are laid over it. Read more about weatherization attic.
So in stages we got to the installation of the roof. The roof weighs a lot, so it must rely on the finished walls without finishing. Before proceeding to work, determine the degree of slope, the number of ramps, the type of roof cladding, the design of the truss system.
The dependence of the slope of the roof of the material used
A roof with a complex shape looks attractive, but it is difficult to implement, therefore, not cheap. Most often there are two-fold constructions. allowing to equip the attic or attic space. Here it is necessary to install only one ridge, endy and completely absent, which eliminates the accumulation of precipitation and leakage. So that the snow did not stay on the roof, plan its slope more than 28º but not more than 50º, otherwise the wind load will increase.
The cross section of the rafters is determined according to the placement of insulation material between them, an average of 100-150 mm. It is best to take a board, caliber 150x50mm and 6 m long. Two boards need to be knocked down in the shape of an L, and then they are lifted up and the angle is determined, ensuring that the overhangs extend beyond the wall level by 30-50 cm. Now the boards can be assembled with a bolt, and we get a kind of rafters.
The design of the truss system gable roof
Where there will be supports, triangular notches are provided for a third of the height. The upper frame binding acts here as a mauerlat. According to the made sample, they create rafters on the entire roof, not forgetting about a step of 700 – 800 mm. Rafters on a skate set to the gable, and already on them continue to install the remaining elements. Depends on what decorative lining will be.
Step-by-step instruction ends at the stage of installing the roof cladding. You can choose a soft tile, corrugated board or metal tile. It is easy to work with all these materials, they are affordable and have a decent look. After facing, it will only be necessary to install drainpipes and a drainage system, which will be responsible for the removal of precipitation outside the site.
But for you a unique film – a detailed step-by-step instruction on the construction of a frame house from scratch. Do not thank!)
Now you know how to build a frame house with your own hands so that the structure is strong and warm. If you do not ignore the rules of construction and assembly technology, you will become the happy owner of your own home, which you can only dream of.
Sources: http://karkasblog.ru/mounting/karkasnoe-stroitelstvo-svoimi-rukami.html, http://okarkase.ru/frame-home/stroitelstvo-karkasnogo-doma-svoimi-rukami-poetapnoe-rukovodstvo.html, http://domzastroika.ru/construction/poshagovaya-instrukciya-stroitelstva-karkasnogo-doma.html