The allowed deflection of the flooring shall not exceed 1/350 of the beam length, that is, the length of the deflection shall not exceed 10 mm per 3.5 m of the beam length. If the span is large, and the cross section to create the necessary strength is not enough, you can install vertical columns and build additional bearing walls. At installation of additional columns or bearing walls use special punched fixture.
In places of contact came down with the bearing elements, you need to lay insulating materials, which, for example, include a damper tape. You can use several layers of rubber or sheet rubber, which will also serve as waterproofing.
Perforated bar support
Often they began to use special brackets made of perforated metal, thanks to which the installation of the beams can be performed end-to-end with a supporting wall, assembled joints of crossbars and short bars. For example, it becomes clear how to make the overlap of the second floor with an opening for the location of a flight of stairs or a passage for a chimney.
Such a connection has certain advantages:
- The T-shaped knot differs in reliability;
- installation is done quickly and without cutting down the seat in the beam, which preserves the structural strength;
- in the wall there is no need to create a cavity for the stop beam, which does not violate the insulating properties of the wall;
- it becomes possible to use beams of shorter length than the width of the opening being closed.
Mounting option with supports
Next, attach to the installed floor slabs with the necessary layers of insulation. The number of layers of insulation and the type of materials used depends on the type of overlap.
Types of floors and their device
The houses have a basement and attic space, and often equip the attic. On this depends the type of overlap, to which in different cases different requirements are imposed.
There is the following division of bearing vaults by type:
- Interfloor overlapping, which does not require good insulation, as it separates residential areas. The main requirement is good sound insulation.
- Attic space that separates from the attic. Depending on the heated attic (attic), or in the room under the roof there is no heating, the flooring is made of the necessary insulation material. But it is mandatory to apply a vapor barrier layer that prevents the formation of condensate.
- Basement or basement, serving as the boundary between the basement. Here in the first place is the insulation, cutting off the cold coming from below.
I-beam attic floor
Depending on the requirements for the flooring, layers of insulation, vapor barrier or sound insulation materials are added to a certain thickness.
If the arch is mounted to the stone walls, it is necessary to wrap the ends of the beams with roofing felt or treat them with resin, ensuring waterproofing. The opening in the wall, which is used as a support for the beams that support the wooden floors between the floors in the brick house, is created in such a size that there is a gap for ventilation. This will avoid the formation of condensate and save wood from destruction longer.
The procedure for the installation of their own hands:
- In the process of building a house, not forgetting how to install beams, in the walls at the required height, niches with a depth of 15 cm to 20 cm are arranged. It is especially convenient to create niches when building walls of double silicate bricks.
- Before installation, trim the ends of the logs at an angle of 60 ° -70 ° to improve its ventilation after installation, make additional processing of special compounds.
Cutting the end of the beam
- The ends of the slag are treated with waterproofing, without touching the ends to ensure the release of moisture from the tree. If necessary, the beams are treated with antiseptic and fire retardant.
- Carry out laying of boards or boards in niches so that between their ends and the wall there is a gap of about 5 cm for ventilation.
- Every third or fourth beam is fixed with an anchor bolt to the wall.
- The existing gap between the wall and the bar is filled with a compactor.
- Further, perpendicular to the slips, they sew bars of 50×50 or 40×40, obtaining a crate for fastening wooden panels or lightweight concrete panels.
- Below to the beams you can nail boards, panels or sheet drywall.
- In the device of a wooden floor between floors, the necessary insulating layer is placed on wooden boards. In the case of an attic can take such a loose insulation, as expanded clay. You can use the option when poured clay-sand layer, over which a layer of sand or slag is distributed.
- Above the insulation lags are attached in increments of 50-70 cm.
- Stripped boards are nailed to the lags.
- As an alternative to logs and planed boards, you can make a concrete screed with reinforced mesh.
- Perform the final finish of the flooring and ceiling.
The material of which the building is built depends on how to make the ceiling between the floors in the house. In the construction of the building, which has wooden walls, there are also certain nuances.
The installation of timber from the wood is done by own hands according to the peculiar beacons – the extreme slings are initially mounted, orienting to which then fix the intermediate ones. When fixing the extreme beams take into account that they should be located no closer than 5 cm to the nearest wall. Using this gap, place a layer of insulation.
Niches for support can not be prepared in advance – in the built walls, using an electric or chainsaw, cut the necessary grooves.
Niches for wooden floors
Phased installation of the floor in a wooden house:
- Before installation, trim the ends of the bed came down at an angle of 60 ° -70 ° to improve its ventilation after installation, make additional processing of special compounds.
- After processing the ends of the bars with bitumen and wrapping the roofing material, put them in a niche. Starting laying with extreme beams, continue to lay intermediate with checking the horizontal positioning level.
- In the process of laying every third or fourth beam is attached to the wall using anchor bolts or other fasteners, for example, brackets.
- Then, perpendicular to the slabs, they fix the bars 50×50 or 40×40, preparing the crate for mounting wooden boards.
- Top sewed rough floors, which use no planed boards or wooden boards.
- Carrying out the installation of overlap, nail the sheet material or light boards from below.
- An insulating layer is fixed on the subfloor, in each case performing a specific task. If an overlap of the 1st floor house is equipped, it is necessary to lay a heat-insulating layer to protect it from the cold from the basement room. And when the floor is laid on the 2nd floor, it is enough to ensure good sound insulation.
- On top of the insulation they lash, to which the planed floor boards are then fastened. Instead of boards, you can use the OSB plate.
- The final top layer can be linoleum, ceramic tile, laminate or parquet.
Example of installation of the ceiling in the wall of aerated concrete
The main feature is that aerated with all its positive properties does not have sufficient strength. Because of this, it is not recommended to erect buildings of more than two floors from ordinary aerated concrete.
Hardwood flooring between floors
For the installation of decking between floors, especially when it is necessary to mount the ceiling of the 2nd floor of a house of aerated concrete, prepare a reinforced support from the reinforced concrete belt, located along the perimeter of the building or premises.
Do-it-yourself work stages:
- The ends of the beams must be sawn at an angle of 60 ° -70 °, creating an additional cavity for ventilation after installation.
- Next, the bars in the place of contact with the wall are wrapped with roofing felt, which prevents abrasion of the support structure. The end should be left open to remove moisture from the wood during ventilation.
- Creating a niche for laying down, you must calculate their size so that the gap between the tree and the wall above was at least 50 mm. After laying the beams, insulation is placed in this gap, for example, mineral wool.
- Installation begins with the extreme bars, mounting the ceiling on the wooden beams. Then install the intermediate sleg, checking the installation on the construction level.
- Beam arch is fixed to the reinforced belt using metal corners, studs or special plates.
- The next step is the installation of boards and bars, fixed at the bottom of the beams.
- After fixing the lower layer, the structures distribute the insulating layer, selecting its properties depending on the type of overlap – providing thermal insulation, improving sound insulation or waterproofing.
At the end, lags are laid on top, on which the finishing floor is mounted. The lower part of the roof is also refined, sheathing clapboard, fiberboard, plywood or other finishing material.
Of all the types of floors created from wood are more preferable when building a house on their own – wooden floor structures require less cost and are not very labor intensive. Using timber, you can build floors of any kind – floor, attic or basement (basement). It is only necessary to correctly calculate the load and correctly select the lumber for construction, which will ensure the strength and durability of the structure.
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Technology of interfloor hardwood flooring
In low-rise construction, it is not very convenient to use reinforced concrete floors, despite their durability, therefore, in this case, wooden floors benefit. Such an overlap is a beam, closed from below and above with sheet or pogonazhny material.
Such ceilings are used in the construction of houses on frame technology, as well as houses built of rounded logs and timber.
Some private developers prefer to build a house with an attic, while others do not think of their home without a basement. To separate living rooms from other non-residential premises, we just need wooden floors, which differ slightly from each other:
- Basement and ground wooden floors separate the residential floor from the basement. They must have good heat-shielding properties.
- Attic hardwood floors separate the residential floor from the attic. Such overlapping should also keep the heat well, therefore the heat-insulating material used in the composition of this overlap, builders usually protect the vapor barrier layer in order not only to keep the heat, but also to prevent the formation of condensate.
- The last place is occupied by interfloor overlappings. which are usually used in the construction of cottages. The main requirement that applies to them is good sound insulation.
Installation of wooden floors
As a rule, wooden floors from beams are stacked on the bearing walls. The interval should not exceed one meter and not be less than 0.6 m. As for the width of the beam itself, it should be at least 1/3, and in relation to the height not less than 1/16 of the width of the calculated span.
When installing on beams, the roll forward is first laid, which is built from shields or individual boards. To guess for sure with the strength of the beams you need to choose those that have a cross section of 40 * 40 or 50 * 50. Sometimes some developers pour sand over the reel, which in this case serves as a sound insulator. A heater is traditionally laid on top of the sand, and only then comes the turn of the flooring of the boards.
It is worth remembering that the ends of the beams, embedded in the outer walls, are a particularly vulnerable place in the wooden floor. Such a problem arises from the fact that the beam, in contact with the cold nests in the walls, is exposed to condensate, so the tree begins to rot and collapse. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to protect the ends of the beams from contact with the walls with the help of roofing felt or to treat them with special compounds that prevent the wood from rotting. If the construction is more capital, then it is possible to lay a wooden floor on the reinforcing and connecting belt made of concrete.
Beams should be laid by the “lighthouse” method, in which the extreme beams are first mounted, and then intermediate. To check the correct placement of the extreme beams, it is necessary to use a spirit level or level, as in this case the errors are unacceptable. And intermediate ones are measured with a lath or pattern. If you want to align the beams, then under their ends you need to enclose the tarred trimming of boards having different thickness. It is undesirable to use different pieces of wood, which will crumble very quickly or hew the ends of the beams.
Experts highly recommend that the private developers of the edge of the beams to the street edge not to bring a couple of centimeters. And for sealing nests use foam or foam. As for fasteners, the beams between them should be fixed with the help of special metal fasteners.
It is very important to know that beams located in close proximity to chimneys should be located at a distance of 38 centimeters from the latter.
You can, of course, reduce this distance a bit, but at the same time, incombustible asbestos sheets are laid between the chimney masonry and the beams.
Which beams should choose
At first glance, it seems that the choice of beams should disturb the developer least of all, but in fact you should pay close attention to this, since high-quality hardwood floors can be made only of dried softwood. According to experienced builders, it is best to take roundwood for overlaps, as the timber is able to sag over long periods of operation, which will certainly affect the state of the entire overlap.
The problem with the bar is that it is made mostly of wood core, which is much inferior in hardness to the outer layers. In addition, the overlap with roundwood will withstand the load more than the overlap of timber and boards.
- Wooden floors, separating the premises with different temperature conditions (living room and attic), must be insulated. Otherwise, the heat will leave the heated room.
- The safety factor of wooden floors should be sufficient, because it has to withstand a large load created by furniture, equipment and, of course, people.
- Sound insulation of floors should also be at the height. In order to improve it, it is possible to seal all existing gaps very well at the joints.
- If a hardwood floor is installed above the basement, then additional ventilation must be provided.
- As mentioned above, on top of the fixed reel you need to lay the insulating material, which does not have to be specialized. You can replace it with expanded clay, perlite, mineral wool, slag, and even foam, but the main thing is that the insulating layer is necessary.
The main advantage of hardwood floors is that the tree is a pure ecological material that does not require large expenditures for the purchase and installation. And if all construction standards are observed, a hardwood floor in private homes can last a very long time.
Hardwood flooring between floors
Hardwood floors between floors are suitable for almost all types of buildings. They are compatible with wooden, brick and concrete buildings. Structures are mounted not only between floors, but also in the attic and basement. In these rooms one cannot do without them, but the construction of the wooden floor between floors is different from the basement structures.
Features of wood floors
The overlap device includes, for the most part, only wooden elements. However, to finish the ceiling and the floor using absolutely any materials. The main thing is to correctly install the structure itself.
One of the most important functions of flooring is sound insulation. It is very easy to mount any insulating materials on the tree, including slab materials. On top you can easily mount any modern finish.
A very important advantage of the construction of wood – light weight. Wood floor elements do not exert significant pressure on the foundation of the building. Therefore, they are often used in homes with a light foundation.
Installation, carried out according to the rules, contributes to the natural ventilation of the room. At the same time, heat and sound insulation of rooms is not disturbed.
In general, wooden structures are very durable. They allow in a short time to create light and durable ceilings.
Technical requirements for floors
Interfloor structures consist of the following elements:
- parallel bars;
- layer of board;
- heat and sound insulation layer;
- waterproofing film;
- fair board;
- ventilation gap;
The following requirements are recommended for floor structures:
- If the floors between which the ceiling is installed have a temperature difference of more than 10 degrees, then it is necessary to lay insulation materials. Most often this happens between residential floors and a basement or attic. In such rooms without a heat insulator is indispensable.
- Regardless of the type of wood, structural beams must have high strength. They need to withstand the load of the structure, the interior of the room and people. But in addition to this weight, there must be a certain margin. It should be remembered that the indicator of the minimum load on such overlappings is 210 kg / sq. m. For garret figure starts from 100 kg.
- For wooden structures apply the value of the deflection. It must be less than 4 mm per meter. The indicator is calculated as follows, the length of the board is divided by 250 and get the maximum value of the deflection. For the covering on which tile laying is planned, the indicator is not divided by 250, but by 400. For attics, the figure is divided by 200.
- The sound limit for materials should not exceed 50 decibels. It is worth considering when choosing soundproofing. Heat insulators can significantly reduce noise. Sounds should not pass through the overlap and communication.
- When calculating the materials of floors, it is also important to take into account the length of the wooden beams. It should not be more than 5 meters. For attics – 6. However, it is rare to find wooden structures over 6 meters. If the area of the rooms exceeds 6 meters, they install supports under the beams.
Note! Wood belongs to the class of highly flammable materials. In addition, it is prone to rottenness, fungi and various bacteria. Therefore, materials for ceilings before installation are amenable to mandatory processing. The minimum set of impregnations consists of flame retardants and antiseptics.
Installation and Processing
To make the correct hardwood floor between floors, you need to deal with the device of its construction. It consists of a girder frame and paneling of board or sheet materials.
The role of the heat insulation and sound insulation layer is performed by the rolled material. Most often, glass wool, mineral wool or similar insulators are used for this. Sometimes used claydite or foam. However, the first is very heavy construction, and the second is flammable.
For wooden floors between floors in saunas and baths it is very important to arrange waterproofing properly. In this case, vapor barrier films that let moisture in only one direction are optimal. The material consists of expanding cones that absorb moisture only from the porous side. There is no moisture on the back of the coating.
Important! Vapor-proof coatings are laid with the porous side to the insulation, “face” to the room. And for the room above, the film is mounted in reverse.
To figure out how to make hardwood floors between floors, you need to know the features of the frame structure. Wooden bars serve as its basis. The most commonly used elements are 15-25 cm in height and 5-15 in thickness. Between the beams is a distance of 1 m, depending on the cross section of the elements.
Note! The greater the load on the floor – the greater must be the cross section of the beams.
The supporting ends are made from 150 mm in length, they are laid in a “beacon” way. First, the installation of the extreme beams, and between them are placed intermediate. Flatness alignment level. Middle beams are laid on the pattern. For alignment, you can use different resin lining of scrap.
Important! It is impossible to use hewn, pointed chips for leveling beams.
Bars are laid with the same pitch along the entire perimeter, strictly parallel. Before laying, they are treated with antiseptic impregnations and wrapped with 2-3 ply with roofing material. For brick and block buildings, floor beams from the ends are coated with bitumen. This technique protects the wood from moisture. For walls with a thickness of 2.5 bricks they leave holes for ventilation. And at the place of connection of wood with walls under the beams, roofing felt is laid.
To overlap the floor between floors, use a variety of materials from wood, including boards, plywood and chipboards.
The subfloor serves as the subfloor in the ceiling, and the insulating material is laid on it. It can be mounted directly on the beams below. In this case, it performs the function of a draft ceiling, on which you can immediately mount the finishing material. A floor made using a second-rate board will cost much less.
The distance from the boards or logs is determined by the thickness of the boards, which cover the draft coating. They are the main burden. So, if indoors, boards of 2 and a half centimeters are used, a 50 cm step is needed for attic rooms, and 40 cm for residential premises. Therefore, a thick board of 4-5 cm is recommended for flooring.
Laying methods for basement floors
For the wooden structure of the basement is required cranial bar. He will warm the floor. After all, it is mounted on the panel or board covering the insulation.
A more popular option is a draft layer of reel or unedged board. The material is mounted on a wooden bar with a square cross section and a side of 5 or 4 cm. It is best to attach the cranial bar to the logs with self-tapping screws, but it is also possible with nails.
Tip! You can mount the board not on the cranial bar, but in the groove (quarter). It must be cut with chisels or power tools. It will take longer.
The draft floor of the basement is insulated with bulk materials, including sand. Often used impregnated with antiseptic sawdust or mineral wool from 10 cm in thickness. To protect wood structures, a waterproofing layer is laid on the bottom. The most practical option is bitumen roll materials. For rooms in contact with moisture, waterproofing is also mounted on top.
Warming and sound insulation
The insulating layer is very important in the construction of the ceiling: it performs the function of sound insulation. Therefore, modern synthetic and mineral heaters are used for its arrangement. They are not affected by bacteria and fungi, therefore they have a longer service life.
Minvat is very popular. However, for baths and saunas, some roll materials are contraindicated. In such premises it is not recommended to use slag, as it contains suspended metals. These particles rust out of moisture, and cotton wool sags, losing its properties.
Most often, in rooms with normal humidity for waterproofing use roofing felt. Bituminous materials have low cost and excellent performance. On top of the ruberoid, dense polyethylene is laid.
Note! It is recommended to lay the roofing material in two layers, so that the upper sheets overlap the places of the lower joints.
A heat-insulating material is mounted on top of the film. It is very important that there are no gaps between the layers of cotton or foam, otherwise the room will have a low thermal and sound insulation. If plate insulation based on foam is used – the slots are filled with mounting foam.
Mounting the floor of the second and first floor on wooden beams, you can significantly save. Such constructions will be much cheaper than concrete, besides, you can cope with the installation yourself.
During the work should follow certain rules. For example, it is necessary to use beams of a certain section, and to check the step taking into account the area of overlap.
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Sources: http://strmnt.com/dom/build/other/mezhetazhnye-derevyannye-perekrytiya.html, http://personalhouse.net/stroitelstvo/perekrytiya/ustroystvo-derevyannogo-perekrytiya, http://bouw.ru/ article / ustroystvo-derevyannogo-perekritiya-mezhdu-etazhami