The device truss system.
Arrangement of the basement and the construction of the walls of the house is coming to the finish line, and the beginning builders have a question: how to build a roof? In fact, the choice of roofing and waterproofing material is large enough, and you can always buy it according to your financial possibilities. But the roof of the house require special attention. To begin, you will need to decide what kind of roof you see and choose its type: single, gable, hipped or sloping.
The scheme of assembly of the roof of the frame house.
There are many advantages to making a roof frame yourself. First, you will have a great opportunity to save on payments for hired craftsmen. And secondly, you yourself will control the entire construction process and in the future will be able to prevent possible repairs.
After you decide on the type of roof, you can safely proceed to its construction. As an example, the process of erecting a gable roof frame is given, since it is this type that is the most common among the majority of buildings of private houses.
Choosing a truss system
As you know, absolutely any roof system is a combination of two roof beams at the top of the structure. In the lower part of the design, the rafters are fixed due to the presence of the lower tie, and it can serve as an additional support, fixing the integrity of the structure.
Diagram of the types of roof systems.
There are two main types of truss system: inclined and hanging. It is an inclined roof system used in the construction of private housing. The choice of truss system is usually due to some design features of the building itself. For example, if the distance between the two main bearing walls of the house is not less than 6 meters, you can safely equip the hanging truss system. Then the main carrier mass will take over the walls of the house. If the width between the walls is more than 6 meters, then the probability of subsequent sagging of the rafters is great. In this case, you need to take care of installing additional support.
Choose a material for a durable frame
Before you make the frame of the roof, it will be useful to decide on the choice of material.
The design of the truss frame roof.
As the material for the rafters use wood, namely, edged board and timber. It is best to give preference to coniferous trees, since this material is composed of resin, which acts as a kind of natural antiseptic that prevents rot. The size of the edged board must comply with the following parameters 50×150 mm, and timber – 150×150 mm.
Also remember that the truss system is not only rafters themselves, racks and runs for them. These also include the attic floor, the batten and the counter lattice. If you plan to use the attic as a warehouse and do not plan to make additional living space out of it, then 50×150 mm boards will fit the attic floor. And if you have always dreamed of an attic, then you should get a timber of 150×150 mm.
For kontrobreshetki and obreshetki fit timber sizes 40×40 mm, this is enough to withstand the weight of any roof. The main requirement for such a material is its sufficient frankness, because if the timber has deviations, the crate of the frame will be uneven and the weight of the roof will be unevenly distributed.
In addition, you will need the following materials and tools:
Scheme obreshetki roof.
- special metal studs which, thanks to their thread, securely fix the support bar (mauerlat);
- brackets and brackets for fixing the rafters to the support bar;
- various fasteners (galvanized nails, self-tapping screws and small diameter studs);
- level or plumb.
Stages of the construction of the roof frame
The main stages of the construction of the roof frame for the house are as follows:
Fastening scheme shortened rafters to ridge rafter.
- Wood processing. Since you will not be able to process lumber in the future, this will be best done at the initial stage of construction. Process material with two compositions. The first, an antipyretic, is able to reduce the flammability of wood. The second, antiseptic, helps prevent rotting of wooden elements. Remember that after processing the lumber must be thoroughly dried.
- Installing a power plate. Mauerlat is called a timber, which acts as a support for the entire structure of the frame. It must be laid directly on the bearing walls of the house. And its main function is the uniform distribution of the load associated with the weight of the roof.
- For the installation of the support beam it is necessary to build a solid concrete pavement around the perimeter of the entire building. After drying, the concrete screed on its surface must be laid in several layers of waterproofing material, roofing material is excellent for these purposes. Next, in the concrete blind area install special metal studs with a diameter of at least 10 mm. After that, the support bar is “put on” on the installed studs, for this it is necessary to drill holes in it in advance. Remember that the ends of the studs will have to protrude at least 10 mm. Subsequent fixation is carried out by means of nuts.
- Install rafters. Experts advise: if you work alone, then to facilitate the work it is best to collect rafters on the ground. If you have an assistant, then you can safely assemble the structure directly on the roof of the house. To begin with, it is necessary to make grooves for the installation of truss legs in the support bar. The distance between the grooves must be determined in advance, based on the dimensions of the structure itself, however, they should not be more than 1.5 m. Otherwise, the structure will have insufficient rigidity.
- Install the rafters from the front-end of the building. After that, you need to tighten the cord between the skates of the two end rafters. Thanks to this technique, it will be easy for you to orient yourself while exposing the vertical of the remaining intermediate rafters.
- Next, the truss legs must be inserted into the prepared slots. Fastening is carried out through the use of integrated fastening: transverse and longitudinal. Lateral mounting is carried out through the use of steel brackets, and longitudinal – through the use of special brackets, which securely fix the rafters to the power plate. During the installation of the rafters, make sure that they protrude approximately 40 cm beyond the perimeter of the building.
- We fix the lower part of the truss system, using for this purpose the harness – the base of the attic floor. If necessary, the harness can be extended with additional bars, laying them overlap.
- Between the rafters must be connected by two pairs of studs. The presence of two, not one, studs is due to the fact that when fixed with one fastener, the rafters will rotate around its axis.
- We give the structure greater rigidity and install an additional transverse beam. Now the rafters will externally resemble the shape of the letter A, this technique is relevant in cases where the distance between the walls is more than 6 m. The dimensions of the cross bar can have the following values: 50×150 or 50×100 mm. Fixation is carried out using screws.
- Install the ridge bar at the top of the rafters. If necessary, you can reinforce the top node with an additional crossbar.
- After all the rafters will be erected, you can safely proceed to the crate and the lattice. To date, there are two options: thinned and solid, depending on what kind of roofing material you plan to use. Thinned crate is a horizontally packed bars on rafters with a certain distance. Any roofing material of increased rigidity (slate, decking, etc.) can be laid on such a sheathing. With a continuous sheathing, moisture-resistant plywood sheets are stuffed onto the surface of the rafters;
As you can see, the process of building and building a roof frame with your own hands is quite capacious. However, with careful preparation and knowledge of all the subtleties and nuances of the arrangement of roofs, you can easily carry out this work yourself.
Do-it-yourself roof structure
During the construction of any type of structure to its bearing elements impose very strict requirements with respect to strength. The main carrier components are:
Let’s take a closer look at how to make a roof frame with your own hands, and what installation methods are currently used and what are the options for saving construction work.
Types of frames
pitched roof types
There are certain types of frames, and the choice of one of them depends entirely on the type of roof, what kind of coating will be used and what the building is intended for.
What are the frameworks:
- wooden frames are the system of the rafter type, which is used to create roofs for the construction of residential buildings and is the most common type;
- metal frameworks. This type of framework is mainly used in the construction of industrial buildings, as their installation is very expensive and involves a huge amount and area;
- Reinforced concrete frames are flat roofs, the base of the bearing type of which is made of slabs.
Types of roof systems
Before you start building a roof frame with your own hands, you should decide on the type of your truss system, that is, which one you will use for yourself. The main purpose of the rafters in the construction of any type of pitched roof can be called – it is a support. Rafters (rafter legs) are wooden beams with a cross section of 150 x 50 mm. The beams and roofing should be laid on the beams.
There are such types of frames for roofs, it all depends on the type of rafters:
For the construction of a private house, any of these types can be used, they differ only in the fact that they use the mauerlat as a support for the hanging type system. When you use the rafters of the nylon type, their part from above will rest on the main bearing wall, and not connect with each other.
To select any of the systems, one should take into account the constructive and planning parameters of the structure. For example, when between the walls of the bearing type for supports the distance is less than 6 meters and 6 meters, it would be better to use a frame of the hanging type for the roof. For a distance of more than six meters between the supporting walls, it would be better to use a flooring system and build additional intermediate walls, which will be located in the center of the structure. So, the rafters will not begin to sag if the spans are too large. This condition can be attributed only to the framework of wood, for the frameworks of metal additional walls are not required.
types of roof systems
Installation of the roof can be done in two ways:
- Use ready-made farms. The finished truss themselves are reinforced rafters, which are installed using racks, struts and drawstrings. Initially, it is necessary to assemble the entire supporting structure, which consists of identical parts, and then it is put on the roof of the already built box of the structure. This type of installation will take a little time, but it will require lifting equipment, and this would entail additional and very high costs. This installation should be carried out for roofs that have large overhangs and do not have supports.
- The second method is to assemble the entire frame directly on the roof of the building. This method is affordable and less expensive, but it will take much longer to complete. The whole assembly process consists of several stages, but everything can be done personally.
When designing a framework for roof structures, it is necessary to consider such important factors:
- The whole structure must withstand different loads, where it is possible to include the mass of the roof itself and its other components, as well as the mass of snow in winter, gusts of wind, leaves in autumn and other moments;
- It is necessary to select the roof covering, relying on the maximum level of water resistance, especially if you live in regions with higher humidity;
- Insulation should be done with the smallest losses. To do this, it is necessary to mount the waterproofing correctly and correctly, as well as to think about the vapor barrier and the ventilation system of the space under the roof;
- The loft room must have ventilation. This allows you to prevent damage to parts of the bearing type of the whole structure, which will increase the period of operation of the structure itself.
roof construction and materials
If you have a desire to learn how you can make a frame for the roof yourself, then you need to have certain materials and tools for this.
In order to do all the work you will need to have the following:
- bars with a cross section of 150 to 50 on the rafters;
- bars with a cross section of 100 to 100 for arranging the mauerlat (for this, it will be better to buy a tree of coniferous species, which was harvested in the winter time and without any flaws;
- slats with a cross section of 40 to 40 for the arrangement of crates;
- fastener studs used to secure the power plate;
- for rafter studs with dimensions of 8 and 10 mm;
- brackets and brackets;
- wood screws;
- plane, drill, hammer;
- level and file;
- gloves, tape measure;
- antiseptic for wood;
- flame retardants.
If you treat wooden parts in the whole structure with special antiseptics, as well as using flame retardants, the lifetime of the entire building increases, and reduces the level of flammability, which minimizes the risk of fire.
frame assembly using a gas gun
In many ways, simplified and accelerated installation when using a gas gun. In this video, the frame for the roof is made very simply and quickly with the help of modern equipment. If you make construction once, then you can rent such equipment.
For the construction of the frame of the metal profile, you will need other tools, but since the mass of materials and the level of complexity of the performance does not allow you to do this work yourself, it is better to engage in the construction of frames made of wood.
Roof framework duo-pitch
gable roof frame
After you have purchased all the necessary materials, as well as prepared the tool, carried out the processing of wooden parts with special compositions, you can safely begin installation. The construction of a gable roof frame must begin with the installation of a power plate. This timber will serve as a distributor, and distribute the load from the rafters to the bearing type walls. Usually, the mauerlat is laid on the base of concrete from the inside of the bearing walls.
In order for the tree not to draw moisture from the concrete pavement, and the coating itself after that did not crumble, it is necessary to lay the roofing material in several layers under the bars. From the side of the outer wall, the brickwork should be arranged to the point where the mauerlat begins, and the mauerlat itself is attached to the concrete with studs and nuts.
gable roof system
After the foundation has been erected and fortified, the framework can be built, in other words, the installation of rafters should be started.
Installation of rafters consists of the following stages:
- determine step rafters. Usually, it is equal to 80-90 cm, and this corresponds to the dimension of the bars of the batten;
- in order to fasten the rafters it is necessary to initially make holes in the mauerlate;
- As a rule, the arrangement of the roof frame must be started from the gable of the entire structure, in other words from the front part. On both sides of the roof they install end type rafters, and then the cord is pulled from the ridge to the ridge. This lace will become an assistant when you will expose the items in between;
- all rafter feet should be fixed on the mauerlat with steel brackets and brackets. The feet of the rafters should go beyond the perimeter of the building by 40 centimeters. If you fail to build a rafter overhang, then you can build it up with the help of special studs of fillies with a smaller section, fixing nails on the rafters;
- for fixing the lower part of the feet of the rafters, you should use a harness that will rest on the power plate. When the rafter has an insufficient length, then it is necessary to increase it by placing another overlap on it. The overlap should be as large as possible, not less than one meter, because otherwise the roof will lose rigidity;
- frames that have a span of six meters can not be installed without arranging puffs between the rafters. They are mounted between the supports of the rafters so that the design visually resembles the letter “A”;
- after all the rafters have been installed, they should be fixed vertically. It uses a ridge-type beam, putting it on top of the structure;
- and the last stage is the device obreshetki. If you intend to use the material for the roof of a soft type, then you should make a continuous type of sheathing of plywood, or OSB-plates, which have high moisture-proof properties. If you intend to use such material for roofing as corrugated, slate or metal, then the crate is made of the transverse type. To increase the level of strength around the skates, continuous crate is being equipped regardless of the type of coating.
How to equip the frame for the roof is understandable, but in order for the result of your work to please you over the years, you should consider some of the features during construction.
Such recommendations can help you make building a frame a lot easier:
- It is worth remembering that the step for installing the rafter legs and the selection of the cross section are interrelated quantities. In other words, if the cross-section is smaller for bearing beams, then, respectively, the step is made smaller. This should be remembered and known, and will be useful to you in the case when the dimensions of the materials do not correspond to the loads.
- Rafters can be placed freely or be loaded, that is, to support the floor beam.
- All nodes are connected and fastened to the maximum reliably, it will help to provide an additional level of rigidity and it is worth using reinforcement linings.
- Rafters to the power plate fasten several methods. With the help of notches, fixation can be achieved much more rigidly, and specialized sliding-type fastenings are perfect for houses of chopped type.
- To protect the exterior walls, the foundation and blind areas are perfect, the edges of the roof should go at least 40 cm behind the box, and in this case it is better to protect the parts from the ends of the rafters with a wind (frontal) board.
- When using rafters of the hanging type, it is worth remembering about the load that goes to the walls, so you should fasten the legs of the rafters by tightening. This can be a beam or ceiling beam.
- Step in the crate should be selected according to the parameters of the coating. Different types of roofing differ in their use ranges, depending on the inclination of the slopes.
Features of the erection of the roof gable type, and some tips on the construction of the frame can see in the video:
features of the construction of the frame for a gable roof
Sources: http://kryshadoma.com/montazh-i-remont-krovli/kak-postroit-karkas-odnoskatnoy-kryshi.html, http://1poderevu.ru/montazh/karkas-kryshi.html, http: // www.xn —— 8kcg4aacboreodxjfen5a.xn – p1ai / karkas-kryishi-svoimi-rukami