There are two ways of laying floors in a private house: concreting on the ground or on beams and slabs. The technology of work is fundamentally different, the choice of the desired method depends primarily on the groundwater level and dryness of the soil. The first option is cheaper, it is easy to do it yourself, pouring is suitable for all types of foundations, except for pile foundations. In this case, the concrete floor is a reinforced screed over rammed soil, heat and waterproofing layers of building materials, each of which has a different thickness and its functional purpose. At observance of requirements of technology the equal, strong and durable covering turns out, completely suitable to a flooring of decorative finishing furnish of any type and withstanding considerable operational loadings.
To the floors in a private house, laid directly on the ground, put forward certain requirements. For example, concreting is allowed when:
- Groundwater depth not less than 5 m.
- The presence in the private house of constant heating, as the freezing of the soil increases the load on the foundation.
- Dry and fixed ground.
- Established foundation.
Filling a concrete floor is advisable when building a private house with a basement or basement. The works begin after the erection of walls and roof and pass according to the following scheme:
1. Layout level.
2. Leveling and tamping soil.
3. Backfilling of sand, gravel and rubble.
4. Installation of hydro and thermal insulation.
6. Bookmark formwork and installation of guide beacons.
7. Pouring mortar leveling and final screed.
Marking the floor and soil preparation
The locking point is the lower point of future doorways, to create a flat line on the wall, marks are placed at a height of 1 m. Then a “zero” level is formed around the perimeter: 1 meter is measured down, for convenience, nails are hammered in the corners and the cord is tensioned. After that, all construction debris is removed and leveling and tamping of the soil begins. The thickness required for a multi-layer construction is 30–35 cm. In some cases, it is necessary to remove excess soil, in others – to fill up (preferably sand). It is better to carry out tamping not with your own hands, but with the help of a vibrating plate; if such equipment is not available, then a regular log is used. The output should be a flat and dense surface of the soil, without prominaniya under their feet.
The next step – backfilling and tamping clean river sand, to control the level of the floor is recommended to drive in special pegs. Gravel, expanded clay or crushed stone is placed and leveled over 5 cm of the base layer of the sand waterproofing, to fill and level the stones backfill is washed with water. The thickness of this layer is about 10 cm, to enhance the hydrophobic properties, experts recommend pouring it with liquid bitumen. Such a device of the concrete floor on the ground is carried out to protect against capillary moisture penetration.
There are two variants of the top layer: a rough concrete screed (6–8 cm) or filling with rubble of smaller fractions mixed with a liquid cement mortar. All sharp stone edges are removed, each layer is checked for horizontal deviations.
Thermal insulation and reinforcement
The next stage is connected with the warming of the concrete floor in a private house and the strengthening of its carrying capacity. The following materials are often used as insulating materials: foam plastic, mineral wool (stone basalt is best suited), polystyrene foam, perlite, moisture resistant plywood and cork. For additional protection against moisture, the bottom layer of ruberoid or film is laid. When using a waterproofing membrane, the instruction is carefully studied to determine the right side of the installation. Top insulation is also protected by a thin film.
In order to enhance the carrying capacity of the concrete floor, reinforcement of the future screed is carried out. This will require a metal (less commonly plastic) mesh with a bar thickness of at least 3 mm. It is laid according to the usual chess pattern, the minimum pitch is 10 × 10 cm. The higher the expected loads, the thicker the reinforcement should be, the joints are joined by welding. Next, leveling beacons are placed and final concreting is carried out.
Guides are stacked according to a previously marked pattern with a step of 2 m, usually it is a board, a thin bar or a metal profile. They are fixed by a thick concrete solution, the upper level is brought to the “zero” mark. Between them, a formwork of moisture-resistant plywood is installed, all elements that will be removed from the solution are processed with oil. It is desirable to carry out a finishing screed of a concrete floor in one run, the solidity and reliability of the structure depends on it.
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To create a mortar used cement with frost resistance of 400, clean sifted sand, fine gravel and water. The proportions are respectively: 1: 2: 4: 0.5. Be sure to use a concrete mixer, this stage of work is difficult to carry out on their own, it is desirable to invite a partner. The initial pouring point is the opposite corner of the door, several sections are immediately poured in, the solution is leveled from above with a shovel. The recommended thickness of the concrete layer at this stage is 5 cm. A vibrating plate is used to compact and fill the voids.
Flooded areas are equal to a long rule, the excess is removed, the concrete solution is added in the right places. After that, the guides and the formwork are removed, the process is repeated until the entire area of the room is completely filled. The finished concrete surface is covered with a film and left for 3-4 weeks before the final hardening, in order to avoid the appearance of cracks, it is moistened with water, at least once a day. Self-leveling mixtures are used as the finishing fill, they are applied and leveled similarly: from the far corner to the door. The minimum period required for their drying is 3 days, a more precise value is indicated in the instructions.
Tips and tricks
A prerequisite for high-quality concreting is ramming and checking the horizontal position of each layer. Finishing concrete screed is carried out exclusively on the beacons. In the case of self-installation of a heated floor in a private house, a thermal gap of about 1–2 cm (polyurethane foam or polyethylene) is provided, it is necessary to prevent the formation of cracks. The height of the level depends on the insulation of the basement; if it was carried out, the “zero” can be placed as above, as well as below the foundation. If not, the concrete floor should not be made below the upper part, in order to avoid the appearance of freezing zones.
It is important not to neglect the insulation, heat loss in a private house through the bottom is at least 20%. To enhance hydroprotection, it is allowed to lay a thin layer of clay on the ground, it must be watered and tamped. When erecting a building on wet soils, haydite cannot be used due to its absorption properties (which increase in winter). Also, this material is undesirable as the main insulation.
To achieve the desired characteristics of protection from the cold, an expanded clay layer of at least 80 cm is required – it is much easier to lay foam plates 5 cm thick. A common mistake when working with concrete floors is to fill the waterproofing layer from debris, large or sharp stones.
How to fill the floor with concrete in the house – do the floor with your own hands
Technology of arrangement of a concrete floor
It is possible to arrange a concrete floor on various surfaces: directly on the ground, on floor slabs, on old concrete and wooden floors. Concrete is very simple and undemanding material, and most importantly relatively inexpensive.
In order to figure out how to fill the floor with concrete in the house and make it durable and strong, you need to know the conditions of the pouring technology and all stages of work. When pouring onto different surfaces, there are some features and nuances, but there are general recommendations for all cases.
General technology and stages of work:
Some stages may be added depending on the characteristics of the premises. For example, when pouring concrete on the ground with a base, it is necessary to produce bedding.
In order to protect the screed from cracking it form deformation seams. There are three types of such seams:
1. Insulating joints – are cut in the place where the concrete floors are mated with other structures of the premises, for example, walls, ledges, columns, etc. They are necessary so that different vibrations cannot be transmitted to other structures. Otherwise distortions or partial destruction of the foundation.
2. Structural joints – are made in those places in which the concrete froze unevenly. For example, if the filling was carried out not at one time, but with breaks of more than four hours.
3. Shrink seams – are formed in order to relieve stress due to uneven shrinkage and drying.
Expansion joints should be performed until arbitrary cracks begin to appear, but the concrete should gain the necessary strength. The seams should be up to 1/3 the thickness of the entire concrete layer. In the subsequent seams it is necessary to fill with special sealants.
Due to the fact that the device of the concrete floor is quite laborious and dusty process, many prefer to hire construction crews to fill it. The price will primarily depend on the labor intensity of the work and on the thickness of the poured layer. The cheapest option is the usual cement-sand screed. More expensive will cost the screed with reinforcement. The cost will be influenced by the reinforcement mesh used. Regular road grid will cost less, and the frame welded from reinforcement will be more expensive. The most expensive of the options will be the floor with a hardened top layer, it will be more expensive by 30-40% of the normal floor of the same thickness.
If you have basic skills in construction, know how to use the tool and find one or two assistants, then it will not be difficult to fill the floor with concrete in the house with your own hands. It will be necessary to make the necessary calculations, prepare the tools and materials, study the technology and determine each one’s own functions, and things will go right. Further, the casting will depend only on the materials used, their quality and quantity.
If you need to fill the floor with concrete in the house on the ground
If the decision is made to pour concrete directly on the ground, then there are always a few questions: what to make and what layer, how to make a waterproofing, when to warm, etc. Concrete floor on the ground can be compared with a layered cake, which will be discussed below.
Conditions under which you can lay concrete on the ground
Before proceeding to the technological process of the device of a concrete floor, it is necessary to pay attention that it is not possible to pour concrete floor on every soil. First, the groundwater should be no closer than 4-5 meters; it is necessary to eliminate floor heating and moisture absorption through the capillaries. Secondly, the ground must be fixed, otherwise the floor may collapse and destroy the foundation. Third, the room that will have such a floor should be heated in winter time, because the ground will freeze in winter, and at the same time the floor, which will exert increased pressure on the foundation, and it, in turn, will deform and collapse. Fourth and last, the soil must be dry.
Marking a clean floor: zero mark
All procedures for arranging the floor in the house should be started after the walls are ready and the roof is covered. Because indoors the future floor will be closed from surprises of the nature.
First of all, it is necessary to note the level of the finished floor – a mark, by the level of which the floor will be poured. In this example, the threshold is not planned to perform, so the guideline will be the bottom of the doorway, so that the floor is even and uniform in all rooms.
Apply a zero level is necessary in this way: from the extreme lowest point of the doorway we measure up exactly 1 meter. The mark is applied to the wall, and then transferred to all the walls in the room and a horizontal line is drawn, while controlling the horizontal with a level. After this, we measure exactly 1 meter down along the entire perimeter from this line and also draw a horizontal line. This line will be the level of the finished floor. For more convenience, in the corners of the room you can hammer in nails and pull the cord, so it becomes easier to navigate.
First you need to remove all construction waste from the premises. Next, you need to remove the top layer of soil and take it out, then it can be used for landscape works. Then the question may arise: how deep to deepen when removing the soil? Here you can recall the multi-layered cake, which essentially is a concrete floor, about 30-35 cm thick. Adhering to zero and removes soil to a depth of 35 cm.
The surface of the soil must be tamped. It is more convenient and best of all to do this with the help of a vibrating plate or a vibrating machine, but if there are none, then you can do it with improvised means. You can, for example, take a log, to which you attach the handles, and at the bottom to beat a flat board. With the help of this log you need to compact the ground so that on its surface there are no traces from the steps.
Important! There are cases when high strip foundations are performed, that the distance from the zero mark to the ground is more than 35 cm. In such cases it is necessary to remove the top layer, and instead pour sand and tamp carefully.
As an additional waterproofing can be used clay bedding. In this case, clay is poured over the ground and compacted well. Clay in the future will prevent the penetration of moisture into the floor.
Sand, gravel and rubble filling
The next mandatory step will be the implementation of bedding.
The first layer will be gravel, pour 5-10 cm. It is poured with water and compacted. In order to control the thickness of the layer being poured in, you can drive in pegs of the desired length and set them on a level, and after everyone has filled them up, take them out.
The second layer will be sand, about 10 cm. The level of sand is also controlled by the same pegs. The layer must be thoroughly compacted with a vibrating plate or a log with a board, while the sand is shed with water. To perform this bedding it is possible to use sand with impurities.
The third layer will be rubble, also about 10 cm. This layer is also leveled and compacted. The main task when working with this layer will be so that on the surface there are no sharp edges of rubble. Sharp pebbles need to be removed or unfolded and smoothed the entire surface. For the embankment of this layer it is necessary to use crushed stone with a fraction of 40-50 mm. After tamping gravel, it can be a little sprinkled with sand and one more time compacted.
It is important to remember and control the horizontal with the help of the level!
It should be noted that the bedding can be performed from two layers: rubble and sand. You can also say that to control the thickness of the layers, their levels can be applied to the walls.
We put hydro and thermal insulation
In the case when a layer of rubble is tightly tamped and there are no sharp corners, waterproofing is allowed to be laid directly on the rubble. To perform waterproofing, you can use modern materials or membranes, roofing material or a simple polyethylene film, which will have a density of at least 200 microns. The material used should be spread over the entire area of the room and brought to the edge to the zero mark on the walls and secured, for example, using adhesive tape. It happens that the canvas may not be enough for the whole area, then the joints should be performed with an overlap of 20 cm and glue with adhesive tape.
On top of the waterproofing it is possible to perform insulation. For insulation, you can use the following materials: expanded clay, foam, perlite, polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam.
For example, let us consider an embodiment of the thermal insulation using extruded polystyrene plates. Plates must be laid tightly to each other in a staggered manner, and the joints must be glued with special adhesive tape.
Important! It is possible that there is no possibility to make hydro and thermal insulation directly on the bedding. In this case, on top of the bedding layer, pour a layer of liquid concrete up to 40 mm thick, which is popularly called lean concrete. After it hardens, it is already possible to carry out heat and waterproofing. Such an intermediate layer will be a more reliable foundation that does not tear and does not damage the insulating materials.
In order to properly fill the floor with concrete, the pouring technology must necessarily include a reinforcement operation in order to maximize the strength of the concrete. A reinforced floor can withstand heavy loads that will be evenly distributed.
The following materials can be used for reinforcement: metal and plastic nets with different cell sizes, and a frame made of reinforcement can also be used. In practice, most often used welded mesh of rebar size 100x100x5 mm. Less commonly, frames are used that are welded in place of reinforcement bars of 8-18 mm. Such a framework must be made for floors that will experience heavy loads. In such cases, very careful compaction of the concrete mix to be cast is necessary.
Reinforcing frames are not allowed to be installed on the very basis, since in this case, the grid will not be able to perform its immediate duties, and in some cases it will generally be superfluous. The frame or grid must be raised to a height equal to 1/3 of the thickness of the future concrete layer. To do this, the grid or frame must be installed on a 2-3 cm stand, which is called a chair.
We put beacons and form cards
The use of beacons (guides) allows you to pour concrete mix with the highest possible flatness and on the same level. To make beacons, you can use round tubes or square profile, wooden bars, provided that their surface is smooth, and you can also put special beacons made of aluminum.
First you need to divide the room into segments with a width of 1.5-2 meters. Next, you need to install the guides on the cakes from the concrete solution. Controlling the position of the guides, you need to either push them in, or add a mortar and expose it so that the top edge becomes exactly along the zero line. Lighthouses need to be lubricated with special oil or working out so that after work they can be easily removed.
Important!It is necessary to control the horizontal position of the guides with a level. Pour concrete mix only after the cakes become strong enough and when pressed at the beacon, they are not forced.
It is necessary to divide a room into cards in the case when the size of the room is large and there is no possibility to pour concrete over the entire area at a time. In this case, the room should be divided into square or rectangular so-called maps, the size of which will depend only on the possible performance of the working team. To carry out the maps, after the division into sections, it is necessary to construct a timbering of wood or plywood. Of course, the height of the formwork-frame must be in accordance with the line of zero marking.
Prepare the solution for pouring
In order for the concrete floor to have the best thermal insulation properties, perlite or expanded sand must be added to the prepared solution. And for quick and high-quality preparation and pouring of the solution, you should find a concrete mixer.
The recipe of the solution for pouring the floor:
- In the mixer you need to fill 2 buckets of perlite;
- Add 10 liters of water and mix. After water infusion, the volume of filled perlite decreases noticeably;
- After the sand mixes well with water, add 10 liters of sand and 2 liters of water. Knead until mixture is free flowing;
- It is necessary to sustain a pause when kneading for 10 minutes. In this case, you can not add water;
- After 10 minutes, continue to knead the solution until it becomes plastic;
For the preparation of mortar for pouring the floor is best to use cement brands M400 and M500.
Fill the floor with concrete, level the solution
In order to properly fill the floor with concrete in the house. fill should start from the opposite corner of the door. At the same time, you should try to fill in several cards in one or two passes. Concrete should not fit snugly against the protruding elements of the room and walls, so they should be insulated and laid along them insulating tape.
The mixed solution is poured into a 10 cm thick map and leveled with a shovel. It is necessary to make piercing movements on the solution in order to remove excess air and condense the solution. If there is such an opportunity, then it would be nice to use a deep vibrator with which to condense the solution.
Align the solution need rules. To do this, the rule is set on the guides and drawn out towards itself with small movements to the right-to the left. Thus, the surplus of the laid concrete is removed and the void in other maps is filled.
After alignment on guides is completed, they must be removed, and the space they occupied is filled with a new solution.
In the days following pouring, the surface should be constantly wetted with water. You can also additionally cover the concrete with plastic wrap. The maximum strength characteristics of concrete takes 4-5 weeks.
In the process of pouring concrete floor, most often the surface does not work out perfectly flat, there are certain irregularities. In that case, if the tile is planned to be laid in the room, then nothing terrible, an ideal surface is not needed, and therefore you can immediately begin to lay the tile. But if you plan to lay laminate or linoleum, then the floor surface should be as even as possible.
Self-leveling compounds provide an opportunity to get a mirror-flat floor surface.
This mixture is prepared according to the instructions on the package. Then it is poured on the floor and leveled with a special brush. After that, you need to roll the needle roller in order to remove air bubbles from the filled solution. Flooded floor should be left to dry for at least a week, and after complete drying everything is ready for use.
Now you probably understand that it will solve the problem of how to pour concrete on the floor in the house is not so difficult, but you can do it yourself. The main thing is not to save on the materials used and to fulfill the conditions of the technological process. Only then the floor will serve you for decades and will not require major repairs.
Sources: http://polspec.com/vyravnivanie-i-styazhka/kak-zalivat-poly-v-chastnom-dome-pravila-zalivki-styazhki.html, http://stroitel-list.ru/beton/kak- samomu-sdelat-betonnyj-pol-v-chastnom-dome-na-grunte.html, http://postroy-prosto.ru/kak-zalit-pol-betonom-v-dome-delaem-pol-svoimi-rukami/