In the article we will talk about how an electrician is done in the house with his own hands, wiring schemes will also be considered. If a couple of decades ago, the electric networks of cities and even villages were insignificant loads, today the picture is the opposite. A lot of high-power household appliances – washing machines, multicookers, split-systems and more.
The load on the electrical network has increased many times. And if the city has some stock, then in the wiring of a private house there is no such, therefore, an increase in load leads to the fact that the wires do not withstand and begin to collapse. Consequently, there is a question that the electrician in the apartment and house with his own hands should not only be repaired, but also changed completely.
In the past, wiring was done in homes according to the simplest scheme – a switch and a socket for each room, but in modern conditions this turns out to be too little – I want to turn on three chargers, a laptop, a TV, and so on. To do the wiring in the house yourself, you need to know certain rules and standards that should be followed during installation. You will also learn how the wiring diagram is done, how to make it right with your own hands and its requirements.
Building materials and all activities of builders are governed by certain rules and requirements, they are called GOST and SNiP. Electrical wiring rules for electrical installations (hereinafter EIR) are also applied to electrical wiring in homes and buildings. It is this regulatory document that specifies all requirements for electrical equipment, thoroughly indicating what to do with it and how. All electrics in the apartment and house do it with their own hands on the voltage only after all the checks for the presence of a short circuit have been carried out.
Requirements for wiring in private homes and apartments
In the event that you decide to make your own electrical wiring in your home, you must carefully examine all the requirements for it. But the focus should be on the following points:
- The main components of electrical wiring (distribution boxes, switches, sockets, counters) must be made easily accessible. Quite simply mounted wiring in the house with his own hands. Electricity, however, is demanding in terms of safety. But all the rules can be easily observed.
- Circuit breakers for PUE should be performed at the level of 0.6-1.5 meters from the floor surface. And you need to pay attention to the fact that when you open the door, they should not create an obstacle. For example, if the door opens to the right, then the switch should be placed on the left. And if the door opens to the left, the switch is mounted on the right. The cable must be laid to the switch on top.
- Sockets are mounted at a level of 0.5-0.8 meters from the floor surface. The fact is that at this level you need to have it in order to be safe when flooding the house. And from the gas or electric stoves, heating radiators, pipes (and other objects with grounding) must be maintained at a distance of not less than 0.5 m. To all sockets, the wires go from the bottom up. That is how the installation of electrical wiring in the apartment with their own hands. Wiring diagrams are given in the article.
- For every 6 square meters. m. square room should be one outlet. The exception is the kitchen, in which there are as many outlets as needed (based on the number of home appliances located in it). Installation of sockets is prohibited in the toilet, but in the bathroom is allowed, provided that there is a junction through the transformer (220 volts are supplied to the primary winding, the same amount is removed from the secondary winding). Installation of the transformer is made outside the bathroom.
- Before starting work, you need to make an electrical plan, clearly indicate its location in the walls. Please note that all wires must be placed either horizontally or vertically – but not diagonally or along a broken line. This should not be done in the house with his own hands. The wiring diagram of all devices must take into account this feature.
- There must be a certain distance from ceilings, pipes and other obstacles. For example, from beams you need to maintain a distance of 5-10 cm, from the eaves – the same. About 15 cm from the ceiling should be kept from the floor, 15-20 cm from the floor. If we are talking about vertical surfaces, then there should be at least 10 cm from the door and window openings. But between the gas pipe and the wiring you need to maintain a distance of over 0.4 m.
- External or hidden wiring should not touch the metal parts of any structures.
- If several wires run in parallel, the distance must be maintained between them over three millimeters. An alternative is to hide each wire in a protective box or corrugation. So mounted electrician in the house with his own hands. Schemes should be made with this in mind.
- Connect and dilute the wires should be in special distribution boxes. All joints must be carefully insulated, and one thing must be taken into account – it is prohibited to connect copper and aluminum wires. If you make wiring from copper wire, then you make it all of it, there should be no sections of aluminum.
- Grounding (including zero wires) must be fastened to all devices using bolted joints.
These are the requirements requested all electrics. With your own hands, you can create connection diagrams only if you take into account all these rules and regulations.
House wiring project
The first thing you need to create a project wiring, it is with him that everything begins. From it will be repelled in the future during installation. Of course, it will be much better if it is made to you by experienced technicians who have been engaged in this business for more than one year. But if you have experience, go for it.
But keep in mind that your security depends on how the project is made. You need to know what conventions are used in the preparation of schemes and projects. It is worth noting that the Russian standards are quite different from European or American, so you should not use foreign schemes in the conditions of our country. Designed all the electrics in the house with their own hands (diagrams are given in the article) at the initial stage.
Draw a plan of a house or apartment, mark on it the places where sockets, switches, chandeliers, etc. will be installed. The number of electrical appliances was mentioned a little lower. At this stage, the main goal is to create a scheme in which all the places of installation of devices will be marked. The second part is to outline the locations of wiring in the apartment. Of course, you need to know in what places there will be household appliances.
Then make the wiring of all wires. And if the creation of a scheme with the location of consumers is a simple matter, at this stage of work it is worthwhile to stop in more detail. Three types of connections and wiring can be used:
The most attractive from the point of view of saving materials is the third.
An electrician is doing in the house with his own hands (mixed type schemes) with the highest possible efficiency. To facilitate your work, ungroup it:
- Lighting corridors, living rooms, kitchen.
- Bathroom and toilet (lighting).
- Sockets in living rooms, corridors.
- Outlets in the kitchen.
- Electric cooker socket (if necessary).
Please note that this is the simplest option for grouping electricity consumers. The smaller the groups, the less materials will be spent. The above example is the easiest and most economical. It can be difficult: literally to each outlet, for example, to bring electrical wiring. About how to hold an electrician in a private house with your own hands, you begin to realize a little.
To simplify the wiring, it can be mounted under the floor (for sockets). In the case of overhead lighting can be mounted in the floor slabs. Ideal for the “lazy” way – there is no need to grouse the walls and ceiling. And on the plan-scheme this type of wiring should be marked with dashed lines.
Calculation of current consumption
Be sure to take into account the current that will flow through the network. To do this, there is a simple formula: the current strength is the ratio of the total power of all consumers to voltage (we can say that this is a constant, since the voltage standard in our country is 220 volts). Suppose you have the following consumers:
- 2000 watt electric kettle.
- A dozen incandescent bulbs, each of 60 watts (total 600 watts).
- 1000 Watt microwave oven.
- 400 watt refrigerator.
The voltage in the network is 220 V, the total power is 2000 + 600 + 1000 + 400, that is, 4000 W. Dividing this value by the voltage in the network, we get 16.5 A. But if you look at the practical data, then in apartments and houses the maximum current consumption is rare when it reaches 25 Amperes.
By this parameter it is necessary to select all materials for installation. In particular, the wire size depends on the current strength. Please note that you must always take a stock of 25%. In other words, if you calculated the current consumption of 16 A, you cannot install a fuse with the same value of the operation current. It is necessary to choose a standard value more than the calculated one.
Wire Marks for Home Use
Now how electrician is mounted in the house. The cable (the rules of the OLC regulate all its parameters) must be selected on the basis of current characteristics. It is desirable that in the house or apartment wiring was made of such materials:
- Wire brand VVG-5H6. This wire consists of five wires, each has a cross section of 6 square meters. mm It is widely used for houses with a three-phase network to connect the lighting shield with the main one.
- VVG-2H6 has two conductors with a section of 6 square meters. mm It is widely used for single-phase houses in order to connect the lighting shield and the main one.
- Wire brand VVG-3H2, 5 has three wires, each section of 2.5 square meters. mm It is used to connect lighting panels with distribution boxes. Also from boxes to outlets.
- Mark VVG-3H1,5 has three cores, each section of 1.5 square meters. mm It is used to connect switches and lighting lamps.
- Mark wires VVG-3H4 three-core, the cross section of each core 4 square. mm It is used to connect electric cookers.
Counting the number of materials
Now consider what of the components (including small) consists of electrical wiring in the house. The project, wiring, installation is done quickly enough by own hands. True, you have to try pretty hard to count the number of wires as accurately as possible. To do this, according to the plan, pass through the apartment with a tape measure. After measuring, add four meters on top – the stock will not be superfluous.
A lighting panel is placed at the entrance to the house, all the wires from the house approach it. It installs circuit breakers. Note that automata must have a maximum operating current of 16 or 20 Amps. The hotplate must be connected via a separate circuit breaker. With a power of up to 7 kW, an automat on 32 A is used, with a larger one – on 63 A.
After you count the number of junction boxes and sockets, there is nothing difficult in this matter, it is produced according to the scheme drawn up earlier. In the future, you will need various “little things”, for example, insulation tape, tips, tubes, cable channels, boxes, thermal insulation, and others. Now we should talk about what tools do the wiring in the house with your own hands. The scheme is considered in some detail.
Always follow safety guidelines when carrying out. In order not to get confused, it is better to do it yourself, but if you have a partner, then help should be minimal – feed, bring, do not bother. You will need the following tool:
- Figured and flat screwdrivers.
If you carry out repairs in the old apartment and in parallel change the wiring, you need to pull out all the cables so that they do not interfere. For this work useful special sensor detection wiring.
On the wall, put labels on which you will lay the wires. Pay attention to whether the position of the wires. After you have marked the places where electric cables will pass, you can mark sockets, boxes, shields and switches. Please note that the new apartments for the installation of the shield has a niche. And in old houses, the boards are simply attached to the wall.
First of all, you install a special nozzle on the perforator and drill holes for the installation of distribution boxes, switches and sockets. To lay the wires, it is necessary to make grooves in the walls – grooves. They are made using grinders or perforators. Whatever method is chosen, there will be enough dirt and dust. The groove should have a depth of 2 cm. As for the width, it should be enough to lay all the wires. As you understand, wiring the wiring with your own hands is a simple matter, it is more difficult from a physical point of view to do the installation.
Separate story with a ceiling. If you plan to do mounted, then just install all the wires on the ceiling. This is the easiest way. A little harder is to make shallow strobing. And one more – hide in the ceiling. For example, in panel houses, overlaps are used in which there are internal voids. Therefore, enough of two holes to lay the wires. And the last thing is punching holes in the corners of rooms in order to bring the wires to the central panel. After proceeding to the installation of electrical wiring closed (it is necessary to shtabirovat walls) or open ways.
The most important thing in the installation of electrical wiring in homes and apartments is to adhere to all the norms and rules according to GOST, SNiP, PUE. So you can not only achieve maximum efficiency from electrical wiring, but also reliability, durability, and most importantly – safety. And try to use when installing only quality materials. For example, it is desirable to use copper wires – they have a much longer service life (better conductivity, less heat).
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Wiring in the house do it yourself step by step
Electricity is a serious and responsible business. If you are going to do all the work yourself, you need to do everything very carefully and diligently. Proper wiring in a private house is a pledge of security, because according to statistics, 70% of fires occur due to electrical faults. If you are not confident in your abilities, it is better to entrust the work to specialists, only proven.
Wiring in a private house can be done by hand
Electrical wiring in a private house is done before the start of finishing works. The box of the house is expelled, the walls and roof are ready – it’s time to start work. The sequence of actions is as follows:
- The definition of the type of input – single-phase (220 V) or three-phase (380 V).
- Development of the scheme, calculation of the capacity of the planned equipment, submission of documents and the receipt of the project. It must be said here that it is far from always in the technical conditions that the power you declared is determined by you, most likely they will allocate no more than 5 kW.
- The choice of components and components, the purchase of the meter, machines, cables, etc.
- Putting electricians from the pillar into the house. It is carried out by a specialized organization, you need to decide on the type – air or underground, install an input box and a counter in the right place.
- Install the shield, start electricity in the house.
- Cabling inside the house, connecting sockets, switches.
- The device ground loop and its connection.
- Testing the system and getting the act.
- Electricity connection and its operation.
This is only a general plan, in each case there are some nuances and peculiarities, but you need to start with obtaining technical specifications for connecting to the power grid and the project. To do this, you need to decide on the type of input and the planned power consumption. It must be remembered that the preparation of documents can take half a year, so it’s better to submit them even before the start of construction: there are two years to fulfill the technical conditions. During this time, for sure, you will be able to expel the wall, on which you can put the machine and the counter.
How many phases
Single-phase voltage (220 V) or three-phase (380 V) can be supplied to a private house. According to the energy consumption standards for a private house on a single-phase network, the maximum consumption per house can be 10-15 kW, on a three-phase one – 15 kW.
Three-phase input is needed only when it is necessary to connect powerful equipment operating from 380 V mains.
So what’s the difference? In that three-phase network, you can directly turn on powerful electrical appliances – electric or heating boilers, ovens and the like equipment. However, the requirements for the input and wiring of the 380 V network are much tougher: the voltage is higher, there are more chances to get a serious injury. Therefore, if you have a house no more than 100 squares, and you do not think to heat it with electricity, you should spend 220 V.
Making a plan and getting a project
Having decided on the type of input, you can begin to develop a plan for electrifying the house. You take the plan of the house on a scale, and draw where the equipment will stand, estimate where to place the sockets and switches. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account where some large-sized furniture will stand, and where it can be rearranged so as not to set up sockets and switches in these zones.
The plan will need to put all the lighting: chandeliers, wall lamps, floor lamps, lamps. For some of them will need switches, for some – sockets. Then you need to figure out what devices in each room will need to turn on. For example, in the kitchen there is a mass of equipment that works constantly. For her necessarily need sockets. There is also a technique that is turned on periodically. All this is applied to the plan, the optimal location of the points of inclusion is determined. The same approach in each of the rooms.
The result of the design of wiring in a private house. You should also have a similar scheme.
Determination of total power
Having defined approximately what kind of equipment will be in your house, summarize its power. Average power can be taken from the table: technology, probably not yet. And, where there is, take into account the starting load (they are much higher). Add to the amount found about 20% of the stock. The result will be the required power. Her and indicate in the papers filed to obtain permission to connect electricity to the site. If you allocate the declared power, you are very lucky, but you should not hope for it. Most likely you will have to invest in the standard 5 kW – the most common limit of electric power for a private house.
Average values of power devices for calculating the total load on the wiring of a private house with their own hands
Breakdown of consumers into groups
All of these consumers (this is the term professionals) – lamps, spotlights, switches, sockets – are divided into groups. Separate branch divorced electrics on lighting devices. Usually one is enough, but this is not the rule; it may be more convenient or more expedient to make two branches – for each wing of the house or for each floor – depends on the type and configuration of the building. Exactly in a separate group, the lighting of the basement, ancillary rooms, as well as the light outside is highlighted.
Then divided into groups of sockets. How much you can “put” on one wire – depends on the diameter of the wire used, but not very much – three to five, not more. It is better to select a separate power supply line for connecting each powerful device: it is more reliable from the point of view of fire safety, and will contribute to longer operation of the devices.
As a result, you can go to the kitchen three or seven lines – here the equipment is the most powerful and powerful too: for the electric boiler, the electric stove needs separate lines unconditionally. The refrigerator, microwave, electric oven, washing machine is also better to “plant” separately. Not so powerful blender, food processor, etc. can be included in one line.
Designing electrical wiring in a private house: count the number of groups and plan what to connect to
There are usually two or four lines to the rooms: in a modern home and in any room, there is something to be included in the electrical grid. One line will go to the lighting. On the second there will be sockets in which you will need to turn on the computer, a router, a TV set, and the phone to charge. All of them are not very powerful and can be combined into one group. If you intend to install the air conditioner or turn on the electric heater, you need separate lines.
If a private house is small – a dacha, for example, then there may be two or three groups in general: it is for all lighting fixtures, the second is for the street and the third is for all internal sockets. In general, the number of groups is an individual matter and depends most of all on the size of the house and the amount of electrical equipment in it.
Wiring plan may be quite small if the house is small
By the number of groups received, the number of automata on the switchboard in the house is determined: add two or four to the number of groups added to development two, etc.). According to the number of groups, a switchboard and the number of machines in it are selected: for each group there is a separate machine. If a private house is large – on several floors, it makes sense to put more powerful machines on each floor, and connect group machines to them.
Where to put the shield
Regulations place the installation of the shield is not standardized. There are only restrictions on the distance from pipelines, it should be at a distance of at least 1 meter. Pipes are taken into account any: plumbing, heating, sewage, internal drains, gas and even gas meters.
There are no restrictions on the premises. Many people put a shield in the boiler room: once the technical room, it is reasonable to collect all communications here. The receiving authorities do not make claims. Sometimes it is more convenient to position the shield near the entrance door. If the protection class meets the requirements, there should be no complaints.
Choice of cables and accessories
Today’s standard wiring diagram of a private house includes two machines. One – input – is set to the counter, usually on the street. His and counter sealed when commissioning. The second UZO machine gun is placed in the house in front of the dashboard. The current of operation (disconnection) of these devices is selected so that the automaton installed in the house is first switched off (its current value is slightly lower). Then at emergency operation you will not need to climb under the roof.
Typical wiring diagram of a private house: groups can be many different
If the calculated load is less than 15 kW, the input automat is set to 25 A. The counter is also selected accordingly. At higher power consumption, the installation of a transformer will be necessary, its parameters and parameters of all equipment will be indicated in the project.
Recently, when connecting a private house to the power grid, they require the installation of a meter and automatic switch on the street. This requirement is not legally confirmed, it is easier for the electric service to control consumption. If you want, you can fight; if not, choose a counter and a machine in a case with high dust and moisture protection – protection class not lower than IP-55. For installation inside the building, the protection should be less – IP-44, respectively, and the price will be lower.
For wiring in a private house is better to use cables, not wires. They have insulation, at least two times better, and therefore the requirements for laying are not so rigid, and it is safer to use them. All internal wiring in a private house should be made with protective grounding. Previously, there were no such requirements, but now many electrical appliances have three-prong plugs and require grounding for safe operation. Because the cable must be three-core.
In electrical cables, conductors are made of copper or aluminum. Although aluminum is cheaper, it is used less frequently: it is tough, it breaks more often, it is harder to work with it. When self-wiring wiring in a private home and lack of experience this can be a problem. Moreover, in wooden houses inside it cannot be used at all.
The definition of the cross section lived
Once you have decided on the material, you can choose the diameter of the cable cores. This is done depending on the planned load on the line on the table.
Calculation of electrical wiring – the choice of cross-section of cable cores is carried out according to this table
The cross section of the conductor is selected by current or power of all consumers connected to one machine. Here you will once again come in handy a plan for electrification of the house, where you have drawn groups of consumers. You consider the sum of the currents or powers of all the instruments and select the desired cross-section of the lived according to the table
How to use the table? If you decide to lay copper wires, the input voltage is 220 V, then for internal wiring, its left part, the corresponding column, is suitable. Compared will be the found power of all connected to a group of consumers (it is easier to find and calculate). In the part where we are talking about copper wires laid in trays, voids, channels, the column “220 V” find the nearest larger value. On this line, move to the right to the column “Section, square. mm. ” The number indicated here will be the required size of the cores. From conductors of this diameter will need to do electrical wiring from the machine to outlets or switches.
In order not to get confused when counting and laying, the conductors of the same diameter should be marked on the plan with a certain color (write it down so as not to forget what color you designated). After the diameter is determined for all groups of consumers, consider the length of the required cables for each size, a margin of 20-25% is added to the numbers found. You calculated the wiring for your home.
Shell type selection
Specific requirements for the type of sheath are only when laying electricians in wooden houses: it is recommended to use triple (NYM) or double (VVG) cable insulation. In the homes of their less flammable materials, you can use any insulation. The main thing is that it should be intact, without cracks, flows and other damage. If you want to be safe, you can use the conductors with enhanced protection. It makes sense in rooms with high humidity (kitchen, bathroom, pool, bath, etc.).
Choice of sockets and switches
Under some powerful devices sockets are selected by the maximum (starting) current. For the rest of low-power consumers, they are standard. You need to know what they are:
- Outdoor – when the case sticks out of the wall. It is easier to install them: a substrate is attached to the wall, and an outlet on top of it. But few people use such models now, even at summer cottages. The reason is aesthetic: not the most attractive sight.
- Internal. A recess in the wall is made under the electrical part, an installation box is installed and embedded in it. An electrical outlet or switch is inserted inside this box.
It is internal electrical outlets and switches that are most often used today. They are decorated in a different style, painted in different colors. They are selected mainly in the tone of the finish, and if this is not possible, put white.
How to connect loop-through switches (turn on / off the light from two or more places), read here.
Do it yourself
Current construction trends include hidden wiring. It can be laid in grooves specially made in the walls – grooves. After laying and fixing the cables, they are plastered with putty, comparing with the surface of the rest of the wall. If the erected walls are then reveted with sheet materials – plasterboard, gypsum plasterboard, etc. then the grooves are not needed. The cables fit into the gap between the wall and the finish, but in this case only in corrugated sleeves. The sheath with the laid cables is fastened with clamps to the structural elements.
How should the internal wiring be laid? In a private house with a device with your own hands, you must follow all the rules.
When laying it is necessary to remember that the internal electrical wiring of a private house is done according to all the rules and recommendations. This is the only way to guarantee security. The basic rules are:
- wiring only vertically and horizontally, no rounded corners or sloping tracks;
- all connections must be made in installation junction boxes;
- horizontal transitions should be at a height of at least 2.5 meters, from them down the cable to the outlet or to the switch.
A detailed plan for the passage of the route, similar to the one in the photo above, must be maintained. It is useful during repair or upgrade wiring. With him you will need to be checked, if somewhere close you need to make a hole or make a hole, hammer a nail. The main task is not to get into the cable.
A large percentage of wiring problems result from poor wire connections. They can be done in several ways:
- Twist. Only homogeneous metals, or not entering into a chemical reaction, can be connected in this way. Twist copper and aluminum can not be categorically. In other cases, the length of the bare conductors must be at least 40 mm. The two wires are interconnected as tightly as possible, the coils are stacked one next to the other. On top of the connection is wrapped with tape and / or shrink-wrapped packaging. If you want the contact to be 100%, and the loss is minimal, do not be too lazy to disappear twist. In general, according to modern standards, this type of wire connection is considered unreliable.
The rules for the installation of electrical wiring in private ohm prohibit twisting in the walls (walling them). If they can be, then only in the installation boxes, where their condition can be checked
Connection via screw terminal box. In the case of heat-resistant plastic, metal terminals are sealed, which are tightened with screws. The conductor, cleared from isolation, is inserted into the socket, fixed with a screw, using a screwdriver. This kind of connection is the most reliable.
Connecting wiring with terminal boxes – it is fast, convenient, reliable, safe
Connecting pads with springs. In these devices, the contact is provided with a spring. A bare conductor is inserted into the socket, which is clamped by a spring.
And still, the most reliable methods of joining are welding and brazing. If there is an opportunity to make the connection so, we can assume that you will not have problems. Anyway with connections.
Installation of electrical wiring in the house with your hands requires careful implementation of all requirements. This is a guarantee of your private security and the security of your private property.
After the wires from the circuit breaker to the outlet point of the socket or switch are laid, they are checked for integrity by a tester – they ring the wires together, checking the integrity of the conductors, and each one to the ground – checking that the insulation is not damaged anywhere. If the cable is not damaged, proceed to the installation of the outlet or switch. Connecting, still check the tester. Then they can start on the appropriate machine. Moreover, it is advisable to sign the machine immediately: it will be easier to navigate.
Having finished electrical wiring throughout the house, having checked everything on their own, they call specialists of the electrical laboratory. They check the condition of conductors and insulation, measure the ground and zero, and by the results give you an act (protocol) of tests. Without it, you will not be given permission for commissioning.
Sources: http://chudesniydom.ru/kommunikacii/kak-provoditsya-elektrika-v-derevyannom-dome-svoimi-rukami-sxemy.html, http://fb.ru/article/246312/elektrika-v-dome- svoimi-rukami-shemyi-elektrika-v-kvartire-i-dome-svoimi-rukami, http://stroychik.ru/elektrika/elektroprovodka-v-dome-svoimi-rukami