The frame of the roof of the house is one of the key elements of the building. And if the frame is erected taking into account all the rules and compliance with the norms of the building, then it is highly likely that this building will serve its masters with faith and truth for more than a dozen years.
The device truss system.
Arrangement of the basement and the construction of the walls of the house is coming to the finish line, and the beginning builders have a question: how to build a roof? In fact, the choice of roofing and waterproofing material is large enough, and you can always buy it according to your financial possibilities. But the roof of the house require special attention. To get started, you will need to decide which one you see your roof and choose its type: single, gable, hip or sloping.
The scheme of assembly of the roof of the frame house.
There are many advantages to making a roof frame yourself. First, you will have a great opportunity to save on payments for hired craftsmen. And secondly, you yourself will control the entire construction process and in the future will be able to prevent possible repairs.
After you decide on the type of roof, you can safely proceed to its construction. As an example, the process of erecting a gable roof frame is given, since it is this type that is the most common among the majority of buildings of private houses.
Choosing a truss system
As you know, absolutely any roof system is a combination of two roof beams at the top of the structure. In the lower part of the design, the rafters are fixed due to the presence of the lower tie, and it can serve as an additional support, fixing the integrity of the structure.
Diagram of the types of roof systems.
There are two main types of truss system: inclined and hanging. It is an inclined roof system used in the construction of private housing. The choice of truss system is usually due to some design features of the building itself. For example, if the distance between the two main bearing walls of the house is not less than 6 meters, you can safely equip the hanging truss system. Then the main carrier mass will take over the walls of the house. If the width between the walls is more than 6 meters, then the probability of subsequent sagging of the rafters is great. In this case, you need to take care of installing additional support.
Choose a material for a durable frame
Before you make the frame of the roof, it will be useful to decide on the choice of material.
The design of the truss frame roof.
As the material for the rafters use wood, namely, edged board and timber. It is best to give preference to coniferous trees, since this material is composed of resin, which acts as a kind of natural antiseptic that prevents rot. The size of the edged board must comply with the following parameters 50×150 mm, and timber – 150×150 mm.
Also remember that the truss system is not only rafters themselves, racks and runs for them. These also include the attic floor, the batten and the counter lattice. If you plan to use the attic as a warehouse and do not plan to make additional living space out of it, then 50×150 mm boards will fit the attic floor. And if you have always dreamed of an attic, then you should get a timber of 150×150 mm.
For kontrobreshetki and obreshetki fit timber sizes 40×40 mm, this is enough to withstand the weight of any roof. The main requirement for such a material is its sufficient frankness, because if the timber has deviations, the crate of the frame will be uneven and the weight of the roof will be unevenly distributed.
In addition, you will need the following materials and tools:
Scheme obreshetki roof.
- special metal studs which, thanks to their thread, securely fix the support bar (mauerlat);
- brackets and brackets for fixing the rafters to the support bar;
- various fasteners (galvanized nails, self-tapping screws and small diameter studs);
- level or plumb.
Stages of the construction of the roof frame
The main stages of the construction of the roof frame for the house are as follows:
Fastening scheme shortened rafters to ridge rafter.
- Wood processing. Since you will not be able to process lumber in the future, this will be best done at the initial stage of construction. Process material with two compositions. The first, an antipyretic, is able to reduce the flammability of wood. The second, antiseptic, helps prevent rotting of wooden elements. Remember that after processing the lumber must be thoroughly dried.
- Installing a power plate. Mauerlat is called a timber, which acts as a support for the entire structure of the frame. It must be laid directly on the bearing walls of the house. And its main function is the uniform distribution of the load associated with the weight of the roof.
- For the installation of the support beam it is necessary to build a solid concrete pavement around the perimeter of the entire building. After drying, the concrete screed on its surface must be laid in several layers of waterproofing material, roofing material is excellent for these purposes. Next, in the concrete blind area install special metal studs with a diameter of at least 10 mm. After that, the support bar is “put on” on the installed studs, for this it is necessary to drill holes in it in advance. Remember that the ends of the studs will have to protrude at least 10 mm. Subsequent fixation is carried out by means of nuts.
- Install rafters. Experts advise: if you work alone, then to facilitate the work it is best to collect rafters on the ground. If you have an assistant, then you can safely assemble the structure directly on the roof of the house. To begin with, it is necessary to make grooves for the installation of truss legs in the support bar. The distance between the grooves must be determined in advance, based on the dimensions of the structure itself, however, they should not be more than 1.5 m. Otherwise, the structure will have insufficient rigidity.
- Install the rafters from the front-end of the building. After that, you need to tighten the cord between the skates of the two end rafters. Thanks to this technique, it will be easy for you to orient yourself while exposing the vertical of the remaining intermediate rafters.
- Next, the truss legs must be inserted into the prepared slots. Fastening is carried out through the use of integrated fastening: transverse and longitudinal. Lateral mounting is carried out through the use of steel brackets, and longitudinal – through the use of special brackets, which securely fix the rafters to the power plate. During the installation of the rafters, make sure that they protrude approximately 40 cm beyond the perimeter of the building.
- We fix the lower part of the truss system, using for this purpose the harness – the base of the attic floor. If necessary, the harness can be extended with additional bars, laying them overlap.
- Between the rafters must be connected by two pairs of studs. The presence of two, not one, studs is due to the fact that when fixed with one fastener, the rafters will rotate around its axis.
- We give the structure greater rigidity and install an additional transverse beam. Now the rafters will externally resemble the shape of the letter A, this technique is relevant in cases where the distance between the walls is more than 6 m. The dimensions of the cross bar can have the following values: 50×150 or 50×100 mm. Fixation is carried out using screws.
- Install the ridge bar at the top of the rafters. If necessary, you can reinforce the top node with an additional crossbar.
- After all the rafters will be erected, you can safely proceed to the crate and the lattice. To date, there are two options: thinned and solid, depending on what kind of roofing material you plan to use. Thinned crate is a horizontally packed bars on rafters with a certain distance. Any roofing material of increased rigidity (slate, decking, etc.) can be laid on such a sheathing. With a continuous sheathing, moisture-resistant plywood sheets are stuffed onto the surface of the rafters;
As you can see, the process of building and building a roof frame with your own hands is quite capacious. However, with careful preparation and knowledge of all the subtleties and nuances of the arrangement of roofs, you can easily carry out this work yourself.
How to build a frame structure for the roof
Any type of construction in the first place needs a reliable and high-quality supporting structures, which include the foundation, the frame of the house and the supporting frame of the roof. It is these building elements and their device that are responsible for the final quality and reliability of the entire construction of the house. Among these elements, special attention should be paid to the supporting frame of the roof, with which you can perform extremely high-quality roof of the house.
The frame of the house and the roof is an important element in the construction of any building. However, the greatest load (snow, rain, wind) is experienced by the roof, so it must be of high quality and reliable.
Types of frame designs
Immediately it should be recalled that the frame of the roof can have several basic types, which depend on the particular design of the roof:
- frame construction of the truss type, which is made of lumber and is ideal for pitched roofing systems of houses;
- metal roofing frame, made of beams and designed for industrial type houses;
- frame of concrete type, made of special plates and used in the construction of flat roof systems of houses.
Skeleton roof frame is most often used in the construction of a private house and the organization of gable roofing systems. Two other types of frame structures do not carry any interest for private construction, which makes them irrelevant in this article.
Rafter frame system and its types
Types and design of hanging truss systems.
Before the start of construction work related to the organization of the frame system of houses, it is necessary to choose the right type and device of construction of the truss type. All the carrying capacity of such a frame system of houses is transferred to the trusses, which are most often called simply rafters. For the organization of the truss trusses use wooden beams, the cross section of which should not be less than 150×50 millimeters. It is on these trusses that the roof sheathing system is further fastened.
Rafter roof system can be hanging or naslonnaya, which depends on the design features of the roofing system of houses. As a rule, both types of roof systems can be freely used in the construction of private houses, and the main difference in this choice is only that the hanging rafters place their main emphasis on the roofing sheet.
This building element is a wooden beam mounted on the final row of masonry of the load-bearing wall. As a rule, for the manufacture of mauerlat with their own hands use a wooden beam, the cross section of which is 10×10 centimeters.
In the upper part of the roof truss trusses are attached to each other with a ridge type timber. The use of the roof system of the rafter type does not provide for fastening in the upper part of the system.
The peculiarity of such a system is that the central part of the trusses focuses on the supporting wall of the central type or on special supporting columns.
Types and device naslon rafter systems.
In other words, such a system is relevant only in the case when the house has a central load-bearing wall.
Do not forget that the choice of the right frame system at home depends on some features of the building itself, the device which requires certain knowledge. First of all, it is necessary to pay attention to the distance between the outer bearing walls of the house, because the distance of more than six meters cannot be used in the construction of a hanging truss system.
In such cases, an overlay system with a finished central bearing wall or columns of metal of the supporting type is required. It is this feature that will allow to organize a high-quality frame of the roof, which over time will not sag under its own weight, as well as the weight of the roofing material.
Optimum building materials for the frame
In the case when the master decides to make the roofing frame with his own hands, he needs to understand the basic elements of the construction process, as well as to know the presence of all the required tools and building materials that may be required for this work. So, for the organization of high-quality and extremely reliable frame of the roofing system with their own hands will require the presence of:
For the construction of the house, you need to choose high-quality timber, without damage – cracks, knots, blue and spots.
- a wooden bar with a section of 15×5 centimeters, which will be used for the construction of roof trusses;
- wooden timber 10×10 centimeters, which will be required for the manufacture of Mauerlat;
- boards for the batten system, which is selected depending on the roofing material used;
- various consumables that are needed for mounting the power plate and the entire truss system.
From construction tools the master will need a hammer, saw, electric drill, tape measure, an ax and a plumb line. In other words, no special-purpose tools for this type of construction with their own hands are required, which makes the construction process extremely simple and economical. Special attention should be paid to the acquisition of extremely high quality wood, which is the key to the quality and durability of the entire supporting frame of the roof.
All lumber must be treated with special impregnations that affect the durability and quality of the supporting frame, the device of which was described above. As a rule, such substances protect the tree from rotting, as well as from harmful insects that can spoil the wood in an extremely short time.
In other words, the processing of used lumber with their own hands is an integral part of the construction process. Profile metal roofing frames require the use of completely different materials and tools, but the use of such structures in private construction can be considered irrelevant.
Correct installation of power plate
The fastening scheme of the power plate that does not transfer the strut to the wall.
It is worth recalling that the mauerlat is the main supporting structure not only of the future frame, but also of the entire roof as a whole. It is this element of construction with its own hands that takes upon itself all the roofing loads, evenly distributing such loads on the load-bearing walls of the house.
This allows you to increase the life of the entire building, because in the absence of such a timber roof load will destroy the walls in certain places. It is safe to say that the mauerlat is the main supporting element of all known roof systems.
This support element is not required only for the construction of wooden houses in which the final row of logs or bars is used as a power plate. The described support element must be mounted in a level with the inner part of the load-bearing walls, which will simplify the finishing work of the internal type.
From the outside, the mauerlat must be covered with a brickwork or a metal strip, which will help to protect the lumber from environmental exposure. The upper row of brick or block masonry needs a high-quality concrete blind area, which is covered by several dense layers of roofing material or bituminous mortar.
The fastening scheme of the power plate that receives and transmits the wall strut.
Roofing material is needed to ensure that all the moisture in the walls stops in front of the support bar, which may suffer from moisture overload, which is indicated by its device. The simplest and most reliable way of attaching a support beam to the walls of a house can be considered the use of unique metal studs that will connect the mauerlat and supporting walls.
In the masonry, holes of the required diameter are drilled into which prepared metal studs, made of simple steel reinforcement, are lowered. By attaching the prepared support bar to such studs, you can mark places for drilling holes.
The length of the studs must be such that after the installation of the mauerlat, the fittings protrude beyond the bar by at least 1.5 centimeters. At the ends of the reinforcement it is necessary to make the thread, which will be required for the final fastening of the support bar with your own hands with the help of extremely wide washers and nuts. This process of fastening the support bar can be simplified and done with a simple welding machine, which is used to weld a metal bar or washer to the rods.
The device truss system of the roof of the house.
The organization of the truss system is the next step in the construction of the roof framing of the house. To make trusses with your own hands, it is necessary to prepare dry lumber, which will not be amenable to deformation during operation.
The farm consists of two truss legs and a lower tie, which is attached to the legs with the help of bolts or anchoring elements, which can be easily made only with your own hands. Each finished truss truss should be installed and secured to the support beam, which is extremely easy to make.
To do this, in the mauerlate it is necessary to make the necessary number of slots of the correct size, into which the rafters will be inserted, which are not difficult to assemble. The step between roof trusses depends on the total size of the roof construction of the house, but most often such a step should be done no more than 1 m. In some roof constructions it may be necessary to use vertical rafters. As a rule, this applies only to those roofs whose height exceeds three meters.
The wooden system of lathing is an ideal connecting element of the frame structure, but before the organization of such a system it is necessary to take care of the stability of the installed rafters. To do this, in their upper part they are fixed with the help of a ridge bar, and on the lower part a temporary harness is made, which is dismantled after the organization of the batten system. The crate can safely be considered an extremely important element of the frame structure of the roof of the house, because the reliability of fastening of the roofing material depends on this element.
The pitch of the batten depends on the angle of inclination of the roof and the material with which it will subsequently be covered.
The rafter system is divided into two main types: solid and intermediate, and the correct choice depends only on the choice of the roofing material itself. All sheet and dense materials of roofing type require an intermediate batten, which is performed with a certain step between the boards or bars.
All roofing materials of soft or rolled type need a continuous type of sheathing, which is necessary for high-quality installation and operation of the material. For example, soft tile can not be mounted on the intermediate crate, because it will be the result of sagging and damage to the roofing material.
Materials such as slate, metal tile or sheet galvanized, can be mounted on an intermediate crate, the step between the elements of which depends on the roofing material used. For example, metal tiles require fastening in certain places, which indicates the correct location of the elements of the cracking system. It is most correct to make miscalculations before the organization of the batten, which will allow to organize the correct construction of the whole frame.
Sawmill processing with additional compositions
As mentioned above, any lumber must be protected from moisture, insects and fire. To do this, you should use solutions such as antiseptic and antipyretic. The second composition allows to increase the protective qualities of wood, which are associated with resistance to high temperatures. Antiseptics can protect the wood from moisture, decay and harmful insects.
Processing of all lumber is performed until installation, which allows you to handle the entire surface of the board or beam. In this way, you can count on an increase in the life of the wooden supporting frame of the roof of the house.
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