As needed, you will have to perform work on the replacement of individual tiles that have become unusable over time. Under the tiled roof also requires a fairly dense crate. This item is the most important in the installation of tile roofing, because this coating is too heavy, and that is why you can not do without a reliable foundation under the roof. To do this, it is necessary to ensure the slope of the roof at an angle of not less than 45 degrees.
The crate for a tiled roof is almost the same as a crate for a galvanized roof. Again, we will need:
- wooden bars with a section of 500 mm or boards;
Methods of fastening tiles to the crate.
On the crate again, if necessary, lay the roofing felt or roofing felt, although it is in this version of the roof that is optional. The distance between crates or planks depends on the size of the tile used. A rake is nailed to the lower edge of the roof slope, to which the first row of tiles will be subsequently attached. Then each new row with one edge overlaps the previous one. In this case, do not forget that you should not allow the coincidence of tiles in two adjacent rows. Therefore, each even number must begin and end with half tiles, and each odd number, on the contrary, is intact. Tiles in most cases attached to each other and to the crate with a special solution. To prepare it you need:
- lime – 1 part;
- cement – 1 part;
- sand – 5 parts.
This solution is used in laying beaver tail tiles. All components are sieved, mixed and filled with water. You should not knead the solution too “oily” consistency, otherwise it may crack when frozen. If the installation of the roof is flat (Dutch) tiles, then you will not need a solution. In most cases, 1 square. m roof takes 35 pieces of tile, but if the laying is done in 2 layers, the amount of material used is increased by about 10-15 parts.
Installation of metal roofing with your own hands
For those who can not decide either on the metal or on the tile coating, there is a metal tile. This material is often purchased not in very favorable proportions. However, it is the presence of a wide “size” range of metal tiles that allows you to purchase such sheets that will be most suitable for your building. Thus, the length of the sheet metal varies from 70 cm to 12 m. In the event that you intend to install the roof with your own hands, then the best option would be a sheet whose dimensions reach 4–4.5 meters in length and 2–2.5 meters in width. This particular size will be very convenient for mounting the roof with your own hands. Crate under such dimensional material may be slightly less (from 60 cm).
Laying metal roofing, it is necessary to leave small air vents (3-5 cm) under the plumb lines below. Installation of the material when we install a roof, is carried out in soft footwear. When moving along the sheet, it is necessary to step on the metal tile into a deflection, and across it – on the crest of the wave. The metal is attached to the crate with screws. The first sheet is aligned on the end and on the lower edge of the roof, then the next sheets are displayed on it. The initial segment should be fixed slightly, temporarily. If the rest of the sheets lie flat, then you can fix them permanently.
Do-it-yourself roof installation
Building a house, a garage, an outbuilding will sooner or later raise a question about installing roofs. Someone will entrust this work to specialists, and someone, relying on his life experience, will undertake the installation of the roof with his own hands. In fact, if you do not aim at complex structures with “problem” material, then even a novice builder will be able to cope with this task. Moreover, unlike experienced workers, this will be done for themselves, therefore, with the highest quality possible.
Roof surfaces come in all shapes.
For a start, it is worth remembering that the roofing device is a multi-layer construction, which includes lathing, vapor barrier layers, thermal insulation, waterproofing and roofing.
Their installation will depend on the type of truss structure and directly on the roofing material.
Installation of truss system
The type of roof system depends on how the roof is covered. For example, a ceramic tile roof has the greatest weight, which means it puts more pressure on the roof system. With this in mind, it is necessary to choose the way in which the elements of the roof are attached, the presence or absence of additional safety structures. When installing the roof before the eyes, there should always be a roof drawing on which it is desirable to indicate the joints of the truss system.
Rafters, depending on the type of roof, are:
Variants of truss structures.
- Inclined – these are beams installed at an inclination on supports of different heights. With a sloping roof, they are installed on two outer walls, with a gable roof – on the inner and outer walls. Rafter legs can not be fixed in the same plane, they can simply alternately lay on the ridge girder.
- Hanging – their elements are rigidly connected to each other in the roof truss, which is installed on the two extreme supports. With this design, the truss legs rest against each other, creating a significant horizontal pressure. To extinguish the thrust, apply the lower belt-puff. Hanging rafters can be assembled both on the house and on the ground by lifting the finished structure with an automobile crane.
First of all, if the construction of the house is not made of logs or timber, a reinforced reinforced concrete belt is installed to strengthen the top of the masonry walls of the house. During the pouring of concrete, galvanized studs are inserted into the frame of the armored belt. The mauerlat – timber, which serves as the basis for the truss system, will be fastened on them; therefore, the studs length calculation is calculated based on this. They should protrude about 2-3 cm from the power plate in order to tighten it with galvanized nuts. It is necessary to take into account the laying of waterproofing on a reinforced belt. As it can be used roofing material, folding it in two layers. To prevent rotting of the wood, all elements of the wood must be treated with antiseptic.
It should be borne in mind that the cross section of the rafter depends on several factors. The main thing is the load on them, namely the weight of the roof and the alleged snow. The size of the span, the step of the rafters and the angle of their installation (roof slope) also affect the cross section. In the Russian middle lane, a gable roof is usually chosen from asbestos cement sheets with rafters of 120 cm and an angle of 30 degrees.
Over the installed rafters the obreshetka is stuffed. Depending on the roofing material, the lathing can be solid or with a certain step. The first is applied to the soft roof made of rolled materials. Then, plywood or another sheet material is used as a batten. The crate with gaps is suitable for laying the roof of professional sheet metal, metal, Ondulin. In this case, boards suitable for it are 20–25 cm wide and 2–2.5 cm thick or parallel bars. Boards are nailed from the eaves to the ridge. When installing the crate, it is necessary to install a solid flooring of boards, at least 60-70 cm wide, under the gutters and endov, above the eaves and overhangs of the roof.
Vapor barrier, heat insulation, waterproofing
The roof has a multilayer device. For residential premises, when installing the roof yourself, it is important to install vapor barrier layers. thermal insulation, waterproofing. The vapor barrier layer allows you to avoid the appearance of condensation on the insulation, caused by evaporation of moisture from inside the room. Steam insulation material is installed between the interior decoration and insulation. Usually membrane films are used for this purpose. The film is spread along the ridge with an overlap of 10-15 cm and is attached to the rafters using a construction stapler. Also, a special adhesive tape is needed for sizing places in which the film adjoins the walls.
Simple roof construction.
- With a reflex layer – has a higher vapor tightness. Due to the presence of the refractory layer of the vapor barrier, part of the heat is reflected back inside the room, so it is installed in places with high humidity.
- With limited vapor permeability. Suitable for homes used periodically.
- With variable vapor permeability.
Mount ladies to the diagonal truss foot.
To preserve heat in a room under the roof, a heat insulation layer is installed, which also performs the function of sound insulation. A material with a low degree of thermal conductivity acts as a heat insulator; it must be vapor-tight and comply with fire requirements. These can be hard or soft mineral wool materials, fiberglass, polystyrene foam plates or loose insulation. Thermal insulation material with a thickness of at least 150 mm is placed between the rafters. To begin with, the thickness of the rafter legs and the length between them are measured. After that, plates are harvested from thermal insulation material. They are located on the entire surface of the roof. Trimming remaining from the installation of the main plates of insulation, used for laying a layer of insulation around the pipe or window openings attic. The heat-insulating layer is fixed with glue, mastic or nails and screws.
To protect the inner layers of the roof from exposure to various precipitations, wind, a layer of waterproofing is laid over the insulation. Materials for it should have high moisture resistance, durability, resistance to mechanical damage, elasticity and, preferably, the ability to conserve heat. As it has traditionally been used ordinary roofing material, hydroglass or pergamin. Now on the market are modern materials such as condensate films, diffusion and superdiffusion membranes. They are more durable and have better performance. Installation of waterproofing can also be done with mastic or liquid sprayed coatings.
Schematic broken roof.
Roof surfaces come in all shapes. They are flat with a slope of no more than 3-5% or sloping with vertical sections or with a reverse slope. Pitched roofs or roofs are divided into the following types:
- Saw single. Its construction is the most economical due to the lower consumption of roofing and sawn timber. Shed roof is usually installed on farm buildings, leaning on the walls of the house.
- Gable It looks like two rectangles, which are connected by upper edges, thus forming two pediments in the form of triangles. The length of the slopes in this case can be both the same and different.
- Four-pitched or hip. It is used to cover buildings with a square plan. Hipped roofs are the vertices of four triangles connected at one point, not necessarily the same.
- Hip. It consists of trapezoidal planes of slopes and triangles, which are usually located at the top of the gables. Such a roof resists wind loads well, although its installation is more complex and time consuming.
- Cross Installing such a roof requires great care and at least some experience. Its installation requires installation at the intersection of the auxiliary rafters, which form endovy (razhellobki).
After installing all the necessary layers, you must immediately begin the installation of the roof to protect the wooden structure from rain. Each roofing has its own installation features. In addition, his choice may be affected by the angle of inclination of the roof, its steepness, and so on.
Roofing roll materials
The slope of the roof depends on the roofing material and geographic region.
Previously, roofing material was used as such material. Nowadays polymer-bitumen deposited materials are becoming increasingly popular. Construction begins with the rolls that roll or rewind in the opposite direction. Laying the canvas must be parallel or perpendicular to the ridge. It is better to carry out such work together. One, using a gas burner, heats the bottom of the roll and the roof surface. The other one spreads the heated material on the roof and, using a roller, hand rolls it up to a tight abutment to the base. Usually, roll roofing is stacked in two or more layers. At the same time, for the lower and inner layers, glassine or roofing felt with powdered dressing is used, and for the upper layer, material with protective coarse-grained or scaly dressing is used. Places where rolled flooring ends are usually framed with galvanized iron.
Roof of asbestos cement sheets (slate)
The ideal roof slope for such a roof is 20-45 °. Under the undulating asbestos sheets suitable crate with gaps. Sheets are attached to its bars with nails or screws, holes for which are drilled on the crest of a wave. The diameter of the holes should be 2-3 mm larger than the diameter of the nail or screw. Under the caps of the nails or screws put washers made of galvanized steel or rubber. Installation of asbestos cement sheets is possible vrazbezhku (in each overlying row of shifting them to the side) or strictly one above the other (without offset). Roofing is finished with surik putty of all dubious crevices and cracks, nail and washer caps, so that their replacement is not necessary too quickly.
Roof of metal tiles
The device of an obreshetka under such roof is carried out from bars with the center at distance of 35-40 cm. The first bar differs in bigger, in comparison with others, thickness. In order to cut the metal tile, it is necessary to use either special metal shears or a special toothed disk of the “grinder”, and a fresh cut to cover with a special protective paint. The roof is fastened with self-tapping screws with silicone or rubber sealing gasket, which prevents water penetration. The self-tapping screw in work with a metal tile, unlike slate and an ondulin, is screwed up in a wave.
Roof of corrugated
Roofing of this type requires special care and accuracy. Transportation and raising of corrugated sheets should be carefully thought out so as not to damage their surface. It is forbidden to cut the roofing material “grinder” with abrasive wheels, for this purpose it is better to use hand shears, a hacksaw, jigsaw, small-teeth circular saw or electric scissors. The edges of the cuts are coated with special enamel for polymer surfaces to prevent corrosion. Installation begins from the bottom edge of the roof. Sheet corrugated stacked overlap, and fastened with screws with rubber seals, which are screwed into the curve of the sheet waves. The formed chips should be immediately removed from the coating. Having completed the installation of profiled sheeting, it is necessary to remove the protective film on the polymer coating from it.
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Sources: http://1metallocherepica.ru/ustrojstvo-kryshi/montazh-krovli-svoimi-rukami.html, http://kryshikrovli.ru/raboty/montazh-i-zamena-konstrukcii.html, http: // fb. com / article / 167765 / montaj-krovli-instruktsiya-tehnologiya-montaj-krovli-svoimi-rukami