The layout of the frame house.
To build a reliable frame house with your own hands, which will be able to serve you for many years, you should use frame wood structures. Of course, you can choose and metallic materials, if it seems more practical, but it should be borne in mind that the cost of building a house at the same time will be significantly increased.
For construction, it is better to use oak bar with a section of 150 * 150 mm. It is possible, as a last resort, to use material from other types of wood, if an oak cannot be found. To reduce corners with the help of “thorn-groove” connections, which will have to be adjusted in a certain way so that there are no gaps. It is better to refuse metal fasteners, since they are oxidized when combined with wood. This gradually leads to decay of individual elements of the structure, and after that the whole building is loosened. To get a reliable long-term connection, it is better to use wood pins for fastening.
The base of the frame, that is, the lower binding, is made of bars. It is assembled in such a way that it occupies the entire perimeter of the foundation, including the locations of the future walls of the rooms. Between the tree and the foundation laying of waterproofing is obligatory: for example, 2 layers of roofing material. This prevents moisture from entering the wood and its subsequent decay. Pre-timber must be treated with antiseptic.
Bars of the lower trim to the base can be attached in the following ways:
The scheme of the device top trim frame house.
- Pins with a diameter of 10 mm are concreted into the corner piles or the corners of the foundation, at the top they are fixed with the help of nuts.
- Anchor bolts with a diameter of 16 mm. The anchor should go into the foundation not less than 10 cm, calculations can be made as follows: the height of the beam is 20 + 10 cm = anchor 30 cm long.
- Holes for the anchor are drilled in concrete, drilled in the bar stock details of the strapping. Strapping bars are reinforced with anchors, the distance between which is about 2 m.
When the bottom trim is attached to the foundation and the bars are fastened together, you can proceed to laying the logs for the floor, install vertical posts in the frame.
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Installation of vertical frame racks
Before you start collecting the walls of a frame house, you should make sure that when assembling the floor, a flat, strictly horizontal surface is observed. Even small irregularities made during assembly can lead to significant skewing of the structure – this will be difficult to fix. After that, you can proceed to the assembly of the frame.
For the lower trim of the bars the distance between the grooves is about 50 cm.
We measure the boards according to their height, which is necessary for the height of the premises: it should be approximately 2.7 meters. With very high ceilings the room will be much more difficult to heat, do not forget about the excessive consumption of material. With low ceilings, located at a height lower than 2.4 m, a feeling of tightness and pressure is created, and in summertime there will be stuffiness in such rooms. The structure should be assembled on the floor, and then set in place.
The scheme of the roof frame house.
Bars strengthened with temporary strings. All other bars, which are intermediate, are attached. It is possible to make 2 short braces on each rack or 1, but a long one, and fix several racks at once. The mowers give the structure additional strength.
After that, the installation of support bars, supporting the ceiling beam. They are located where it is supposed to place interior partitions.
To perform the upper trim choose bars with grooves, in which the location must be completely identical, otherwise the distortions will not be avoided. After the grooves are ready, we lay the top trim on the vertical posts, attach it to the frame with nails. On each rack consumes 2 nails, they must enter at least 10 cm.
The framework can now be strengthened with permanent cuts, and temporary dismantled. You will need 2 lower and 2 upper permanent cuts. The task of sticks is to partially relieve the load from the connections of the upper and lower trim, and they will add more strength to the frame.
Now go to the ceiling beams. Located at a distance of 50 cm from each other, the beams must be the same with the vertical uprights. Inside the house, the supporting bars supporting the beams are located in places where interior partitions are assumed.
Mounting ceiling beams should be done using perforated steel brackets in the way of cutting grooves.
From the inside the frame can be sheathed boards. Mainly used for this lining.
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Warming of the frame house
The scheme of the external and internal walls of the frame house.
Before you begin work on the weatherization of the house, you should decide what the building will be: designed for seasonal living or for permanent. Only then can you choose the material for insulation.
An important feature of this construction can be called a frame made of wood, which is a structure of horizontal straps and vertical posts. The remaining voids between them are filled with insulating materials.
External and internal walls of a private residential building are faced with building materials in accordance with the preferences of the developer.
The quality of the insulation of the entire structure will depend on these factors.
In order to keep the house warm during the cold season, it is better to choose wall boards with a thickness of more than 10 cm. As for the insulation material, you can choose expanded polystyrene, which many recognize as the best material for warming frame houses. But if the developer has other preferences for that, you can choose any other.
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Window openings in the frame house
Installation of windows – an important stage in the construction of a frame house. In accordance with established standards, the size of the openings should be approximately 18% of the wall area where the window opening is located.
When installing glass in the house, which is designed for summer living, the frame should be selected with a single glass. For a house where year-round living is expected, plastic or wooden windows are excellent, where the glass is double or triple.
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How to make a roof for a frame house with your own hands?
The construction of the roof in the frame house should begin with the installation of a mauerlat – timber with a good thickness, which will serve as the basis for the roof. After this work continues in the following way:
Chosen bars with hewn edges (section 50 * 150 mm). The edges at the junction should be joined at an angle of 50 °.
The rafters are attached with nails, after which they are fixed with a transverse board – it turns out like the letter “A”.
Each of these intersections should be fixed with 2 kerchiefs.
The next stage is the crate is formed – boards of 25 * 150 mm are used for it. They are nailed at a distance of 10 cm from each other.
In the upper part, the crate must be strengthened with the help of some synthetic material or roofing material; for this, a furniture stapler is used.
Metal roofing, slate or profiled sheet is screwed over the roofing material. The roof should be laid out, starting from the lower rows and continue to the ridge, that is, the upper part of the roof. Sheets will overlap, one row after another, and so on until they reach the ridge.
The protruding crate must be sawed off.
At the end of the work it is necessary to strengthen the ridge strip with the help of roofing screws of a suitable color.
After the work on the roofing is completed, it is necessary to build a drainage system with a drain (one or more).
Upon completion, the self-constructed frame house is covered with an antiseptic, then doors are installed, a porch is constructed, and the building is exteriorly finished.
From the inside, the walls are sewn up with mineral wool, foam plastic. By means of polyurethane foam, the material is fixed. At the same time electrical communications are being carried out, repairs are being made to the premises from the inside.
Thus, to build a frame house with your own hands is not so difficult.
Do-it-yourself house without construction experience
The services of construction companies that promise to build a house are just going wild, and only 2-3% of families are available for buying an apartment without a mortgage. What to do and how to provide yourself with housing? If you have a summer cottage or a piece of land, it is much more profitable to build a house with your own hands. Naturally, not everyone has such work experience, and our article will partially introduce you to the basics of construction. Read about the stages of work, necessary materials and an approximate estimate with us.
How to start building?
It is impossible to simply take and build a house, initially a project is required. The finished project can be found on the Internet or with minimal experience to work in special computer programs.
Interesting to know! A professional architect will take about $ 50 / sq. m plan.
The project is necessary not only for planning the architectural form, but also for the calculation of materials, uniform distribution of the load on the foundation. The original project, along with the application is submitted to the state structure, because you need to get a building permit. Attached to the project:
1. Calculation of the architectural part with drawings and interior planning.
2. Supplement on the engineering part, which includes electrics, sewage, water supply and heating.
After the approved project and the obtained permit, a trailer is installed on the territory of the construction site in which you will spend the night and store tools. The second step is a fence that can be quickly erected from such materials:
Foundation laying: types and features
The first step in the direct construction of the house is the laying of the foundation. Here you need to carefully approach the issue of choice, because the fragile foundation will lead to the slow destruction of the whole structure:
1. For a light summer house and greenhouses a brick foundation will be suitable.
2. On weak and heaving soils, it is recommended to pour a pile-and-pile foundation.
3. An expensive, but monolithic, high-class foundation is suitable for non-standard houses, above the 1st floor.
4. If you want to save money, then your choice is a shallow foundation, characterized by durability.
5. When groundwater make the foundation of asbestos cement pipes. It is designed for light frame houses and greenhouses.
6. Jellied strip foundation, suitable for light cottages. Costs much cheaper than a full-fledged foundation.
7. For peaty “floating” soil ideal tile foundation.
How is the foundation laid?
In house-building with their own hands most often use tape, slab, columnar. How to make a tape foundation can be viewed on the video.
The slab foundation is difficult and expensive to build: the laying is made on the bulk pillow in such a way that it shifts with the ground. The tape base is laid along the lines of the project of the building, concrete is poured and rubble is laid. The strip foundation is strong enough, so you can dig a cellar, a garage, etc. under an already built house.
The columnar foundation is the easiest, therefore it is most often used in home construction. But we should note that laying the foundation is the most expensive pleasure in building a house, consuming about 20% of the budget.
Tip! The total amount of work on laying the cheapest foundation (equipment, materials, transportation costs) is about 500 thousand rubles.
Unusual way to build walls
Recognized and popular material for the construction of walls are bricks and concrete blocks, thanks to which buildings are created “for centuries”. Remember that the wall may not be thick, but in this case you will have to lay a layer of insulation, for example, mineral wool, which will bring additional costs. How to make a house out of bricks with your own hands can be found in the following video.
So, for the installation of the walls, the foundation layer is filled with roofing felt, erecting the first level of brickwork. The first basement row reaches 40 cm in height, bearing supports are erected at the corners of the masonry with constant level measurement. The supports are installed around the perimeter of the building in accordance with the drawing, make sure that the support does not cover the space for the future window or door.
The space between the supports in order to save lay inexpensive material such as hollow gypsum blocks. You will not lose in quality either, and you will warm the house well.
Interesting to know! If, nevertheless, it will be made by insulation with mineral wool, then it is necessary to place anchors under it (5-6 per 1 sq. M.). Anchors may be less, but it will negatively affect the quality.
The roof can be of 3 types:
Tip! In more complex architectural forms, a mansard or multi-slope roof is practiced. It looks beautiful, but with a little experience in construction, it is better to give preference to a single or gable design.
Straw can also be used to cover the roof, but with a variety of modern and inexpensive materials you should choose from the best offers:
1. Soft tile, which has a low price. If you want the tiles to serve 50 years, then purchase products with a cost of more than 500 rubles / m2. There are proposals and 220 rubles. but they will last you less than 15 years.
2. Euro tile (ondulin), characterized by low weight. The cost starts from 250 rubles. per sheet.
3. Classic slate, the cost of which is 150-200 rubles. per sheet.
The type of construction depends on your material capabilities, but you should stick to a simple way with wooden rafters and crate. Do not save on the choice of the coating material, because if moisture or sun rays penetrate the roof, then it is deformed. How to make a roof with your own hands, you will learn from the video.
Install windows and doors in openings
Double-glazed windows are deaf and opening, the latter are more expensive. Go around the house or check the project to understand which windows you will open and which you will not. Thus, you can save 20-30% on the purchase of windows.
Important! Wooden windows and doors, as practice shows, are more reliable, but plastic structures have a high percentage of heat preservation. How to install plastic windows in a wooden house by yourself you can find out by watching our video.
How to insulate the building?
Warming can be 2 types:
1. Ventilated facade, covered with hinged panels.
2. Wet insulation, which is created with glue and a layer of insulation, covered with reinforcement and a layer of plaster.
We will talk about facade insulation with conventional foam, which is the cheapest type.
Cheap insulation foam sheets on the facade
1. Primer primer, providing good adhesion in a pair of insulation-wall.
2. To attach the insulation choose glue on a polymer-cement base, which fix the foam and reinforcing mesh.
3. It is imperative to install profiles that will serve as a support for insulation boards. Also, the profile will drain the excess water, it is mounted near the base.
4. For insulation, foam foam C 25 is chosen, the thickness of which depends on your region. Usually, the plate thickness is taken from 10 to 150 mm, the latter option for the northern regions.
5. Dowels that require from 3 to 8 pcs. per square meter of the facade area.
6. Reinforcing mesh (fiberglass facade), whose thickness is in the range of 140-160 per square meter. m
7. Plaster for facades.
8. Material for finishing, most often used facade paint.
Begin work with the installation of the profile along the basement line, then assemble the foam from the corner, having previously treated the walls with a primer.
Tip! Glue is applied on the edges of the plate, the center is smeared with a point. This ensures good adhesion and savings of the adhesive itself.
Rows are attached with a slight mixture of seams horizontally to prevent breaks and cold areas. After all sheets of foam are attached, they are left for 3 days to dry the glue; after this period the sheets are additionally attached with dowels. The final touch – fiberglass mounting.
The glass mesh is fixed by applying glue to the foam plate, then the glass mesh is dipped into the glue, covered again with glue and leveled with a spatula. As a result, you get a smooth canvas with barely appearing mesh.
Allow the composition to dry for another 3 days, then apply the plaster according to the manufacturer’s instructions. It is optimal to apply 2 layers on the facade, as a tool, a spray gun (high material consumption!), A roller or a brush (apply for a long time!) Is used.
Tip! During the application of finishing paint, make vertical and horizontal strokes, which also contribute to the absence of cold zones. How to properly insulate the walls of the house is described in the following video.
Insulation of the ceiling is better to produce rolled mineral wool, which is laid from the attic. Inside, do not forget to install a vapor barrier layer, it is recommended to use folgoisol. You can cover the mineral wool with a mixture of clay and sawdust, if in the future you will not use the attic.
We are talking about the economical construction of the house, so the floor is made movable. This is a layer of roofing material, covered with gravel on top and tightly rammed. After spreading waterproofing, and the floor is covered with any available material. It can be natural wood, tile and all that is available for your budget.
Water supply – the first question
Installation of a primitive bathroom is to do at the stage of laying the foundation. It is enough to dig a drain hole, but you need to be careful not to pollute the common water. If you do not have a specific project, then optimally connect the plumbing unit to the septic tank. In home construction, septic tanks are made of several concrete rings, the contaminated water in them is processed by bacteria, gradually passing through the natural filtration in the soil.
Drinking water is extracted from a well or a well, of course, if the village is not connected to the central water supply. Initially, look at the houses of your neighbors, do not hesitate to ask about where they take the water. It is more economical to dig a well from which water supply can be made, but your own well will provide you with autonomous water supply.
Important! The price of drilling a well is about 1.5 thousand rubles per mp. Depth and the total cost depends on the region and the location of the site.
Prices and savings
We have brought the most inexpensive materials from which you can build a house with your own hands. Today there are a lot of options for construction, but how much does a house cost, for example, from wood? Let’s find out:
1. Leads the list of the most expensive house of bricks. It is popular, but the cost of 1 square. m. such a house will cost at least 15 thousand rubles.
2. It is cheaper to build a house with a metal frame, lined with bricks, which will cost about 112 thousand rubles per square meter. m
3. Wooden houses are not much cheaper. So, the house from a simple log will pull on 12 thousand rubles. for the quarter. m. and from the log, which was processed manually, already 25 thousand
4. The frame-panel house has a cost of 9-10 thousand rubles / sq. m
Important! The brick house is built about 6 months, and the frame-panel is only 3. The latter has a low weight, so you can save a lot when laying the foundation.
The cost of internal and external works
In self-construction there is also an item of transportation costs, rental of equipment, rarely when during construction you can do without an excavator. Here we add the price of finishing, and the more rooms – the more impressive the number of zeros in the final budget.
Is it so cheap to build houses on your own? Average calculations show that the construction of an unpretentious Canadian frame house draws on 1 million rubles (an area of 110 sq. M.):
1. Foundation: about 35 thousand rubles columnar, at least 55 thousand rubles band.
2. Frame and paneling – an average of 120 thousand rubles.
3. Insulation for walls, attic, floors – ecowool on average 70 thousand rubles. minvata and add. materials start at 70 thousand rubles.
4. A 120-square-meter roof of soft tile will “pull” to 70 thousand rubles.
5. Purchase and installation of wood windows 50 thousand rubles. MP windows – 90 thousand rubles.
6. Exterior finish about 70 thousand rubles. siding will cost only 40 thousand rubles.
To the above-mentioned prices, we add work on electrics, drilling wells, carrying out gas, interior decoration, heating, and we get that notorious million. Of course, you can build a house with an area of 25-50 squares, which immediately reduces the cost in half.
From the pros and cons of self-construction can be identified:
1. Drawing up a plan and its independent approval will be cheaper than working with an architect.
2. The cost of procurement materials is much lower.
3. Work with electricity, heating and sewage will have to be entrusted to a specialist.
4. Self-construction can last from 6 months to 4 years.
Build a house with your own hands without construction experience will not work out quickly, and you will certainly attract assistants specializing in a certain area. But the price of the box for a simple house, if you order construction in the company, will be about 18 thousand rubles per square meter. m. and this price is not for Moscow, but a remote Eagle.
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What should we build a house ourselves?
It is impossible to build a house or cottage yourself without a project. Make a project can a professional architect. The most suitable option is to buy for a small amount a project for a typical budget frame-block house.
If you order a project for an exclusive building or an original country house, it will draw approximately $ 50 for each square meter. In this way it is impossible to build a cheap frame house with your own hands.
How does a house start?
Without a project it is very difficult to calculate construction costs, calculate all loads and their correct distribution. If the house or cottage goes at random, even more money will be needed for the correction. This cost will be difficult to raise.
Construction begins with obtaining permission. You can get it only by attaching the project with the architectural and engineering parts. The architectural part includes all the drawings of the building with the dimensions of the structures. In the engineering section will include a scheme of sewage, water supply and heating and electricity.
Imagine what it would cost to get permits for construction with a non-professional project. But, if the project for a house or cottage is ready, and the building permit is received, then you can move on.
Preparing a construction site
Without experience, it is difficult to build something, but nothing is impossible. At the construction site need water and electricity. Without water, there is no solution, and without electricity no electric tool will work. The most important tool is a concrete mixer. Without it, the construction does not raise.
It is also necessary to have a place where you can change clothes, lay down the entire tool. For these purposes, suitable construction trailer or any temporary building, where you can hide from the rain, and take food. The construction trailer needs to be lifted onto supports so that during precipitation the water does not get inside.
It is advisable to protect the construction of the fence to protect materials from possible theft. Do not do without such facilities as the toilet. Should these facilities be temporary or capital? For economic reasons, it is necessary to build everything thorough, so as not to throw money down the drain.
We build the foundation
A builder without experience is poorly presenting even types of foundations. And it accounts for all the load at home. On an incorrectly made foundation, the house will not last long. The slightest distortions will cause cracks not only the foundations, but also the walls.
The best performance has a monolithic foundation. It does not require large expenditures. Its reliability and durability is confirmed by practice. The choice of the type of foundation depends largely on the quality of the soil.
To build a solid foundation, you will need to install formwork into which concrete will be poured. Reinforcement perform steel nets and rods. In an open trench, a width of about 40 cm, install wooden formwork of the boards. Filling will accelerate the use of shield formwork.
Inside lay the reinforcement, strengthen it with wire knitting. At the same time it is necessary to make mortgages for communications and ventilation pipes. Concrete is poured into the formwork and compacted using a vibrator.
Frame construction and walling
The frame house is built from the bottom lumber trim. This is the starting point of construction. The binding strongly fastens to the base. Coniferous wood is preferred.
They are less susceptible to moisture, more durable and have an affordable price:
- Before mounting the frame trim, the wood is impregnated with antiseptic, which protects the wood from rot and fungus.
- Flame retardant increases fire resistance
- Check the horizontal foundation
- Lay waterproofing
- To the foundation of the lower trim of the frame structure often fasten anchors
- Walls are erected from the bottom trim
The material for the walls of the frame house can be a brick, cinder block or wood. Expanded clay and arbolite blocks are also used. Arbolitovy blocks make of cement, sawdust and special additives. They keep warm well and not be afraid of fire. It is possible to build a house from such blocks in a short time.
Roof of the house
When the walls grow, proceed to the construction of the roof. Based on experience, the most budget version of the roof is a double-slope. Before you build a truss system, you must install armopoyas. It allows you to securely fix the roof and avoid improper distribution of the load on the walls.
The simplest step-by-step instructions will help to make the armopoyas right:
- A reinforced concrete crown with fixed studs every 60 cm is installed on the walls.
- Waterproofing on the crown
- A wooden beam drilled under the studs is laid over the waterproofing
- The beam is fixed with nuts with large washers to the crown
In the armored belt, it is necessary to make gash for the installation of rafters. Zapily must be without gaps. The rafters are fastened with steel plates, brackets, nails or bolts.
The material for the roof of a frame house can be: soft tile, ondulin or slate. On the rafters it is necessary to make crate.
For each material it has its own parameters.
- The usual step of crates is 20-40 cm between the boards or bars. Solid construction is done with a pitch of 10-15 mm
- If laying of a heater of a large thickness is envisaged, double obreshetka is performed. Crate is fastened with nails or screws
- For chimneys installed special obreshetka. The distance to the pipe must be at least 15 cm
After installing the batten, the roofing material is laid on it and fixed. This job requires some experience and safety measures when working at height. Raising and laying the roofing material is not an easy task.
The material for the manufacture of the porch of a frame house must be selected according to the texture of the walls so that it harmoniously weaves into the overall architectural appearance of the house or cottage. For brick walls, the porch will be brick, for monoblock walls – from concrete, for wooden walls or walls lined with siding – from wood or similar siding.
If the entrance door is high above the ground, the porch area must be raised to its level. Due to seasonal fluctuations in soil density, the landing must be located 50–100 mm below the door.
The porch is the final stage of building a house. Now you can begin to arrange engineering communications.
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