Traditionally, to warm the cellar, you have to make a lot of effort. So that in the winter cold the temperature in it does not fall below zero, the overlap must be carefully warmed; Often, a cellar is built on top – an analogue of an attic in the house, a kind of buffer for heat.
Wait a minute! But after all, we already have a warmed ceiling, above which a positive temperature is maintained throughout the winter. It was decided: we are building a cellar under the house.
Cellar in a wooden house.
How to dig a pit in space bounded by four walls?
The problem has two solutions, and one of them will definitely not please the reader.
- The cellar is torn off and concreted before building the walls of the house. With the help of heavy machinery, work is done within a couple of working days.
- When it comes to building a cellar in a rebuilt and lived-in house, the only solution is to arm yourself with a pick, a shovel and a bucket. In one of the rooms the floor is opened – and after many, many hours of hard and dirty work, a small trench is ready.
Please note: the pit should not weaken the soil under the strip foundation. A tunnel at a distance of less than one meter from the walls of a house is likely to lead to a drawdown and deformation of the structure. But the pile foundation of any type of earthworks near it does not threaten anything: the bulk of the house is transferred by piles to the underlying layers of soil.
After the construction is completed, the cellar does not weaken the foundation, but strengthens it, preventing soil subsidence.
The traditional solution for the cellar – concrete floor.
Of course, it does not provide complete and absolute waterproofing; however, the advantages on the background of a dirt floor are quite enough:
- Methane and other gases released during the vital activity of anaerobic bacteria in the soil do not fall into the underground.
- Worms and insects do not have access there either, which in a very pleasant way affects the safety of the crop.
- Rats and mice cannot walk through a concrete base.
- During floods and after heavy rains, the surface underfoot does not turn into a dirty mess.
How does such a floor fill up?
- The surface of the bottom of the pit is as level as possible.
- A sand bedding with a thickness of 10-15 centimeters is being formed. Sand is compacted as much as possible by tamping or, more simply, by watering with plenty of water.
- A waterproofing material is spread on top of the bedding onto the floor of the excavation (dense polyethylene is most often used). The instruction is connected not only with the need to isolate the room from groundwater as far as possible: the film will not allow the cement jelly to go to the flooring when filling the floor. Thanks to this concrete will retain maximum strength.
- The waterproofing is laid out reinforcing mesh with a mesh of 10-15 cm. The thickness of the wire – 5-6 millimeters. Reinforcement is laid out on the factory or improvised wire supports: the grid should be approximately in the middle of the screed layer.
Here, however, lined corrugated fittings are used. So, too, can be.
- Finally, the floor is filled with concrete. You can walk on the surface in about 5-7 days; concrete gains full strength in a month.
The walls of the cellar are often made of brick or ceramic blocks; However, the construction of the cellar under the house imposes some restrictions on our project. Exterior waterproofing masonry and backfill in our case will be quite difficult to perform.
The obvious solution – the construction of walls of monolithic reinforced concrete.
- We mount reinforcing bars. Usually used grooved fittings section of 12-14 millimeters; however, nothing prevents you from placing finished reinforcement mesh in one or two layers or using any trimming of pipes, angles, etc.
Tip: an annealed wire is used to assemble the rebar. It is better not to use welded joints: when temperature drops, they are more likely to cause the monolith to crack.
Reinforcement lattice knit annealed wire.
- We form a vertical formwork. Any available materials can be used for it – boards (including unedged and even slab), plywood, OSB. With a lack of material for formwork, it can be rearranged higher as you fill the wall sections.
- Fill the space between the formwork and the waterproofing wall of the excavation wall with M200 concrete and higher or self-propelled cement-sand mortar in a ratio of 1: 3 (for cement M400). Permissible additive 3 parts of rubble. The formwork is poured in layers of 20-25 centimeters with a mandatory splicing of each layer.
The walls are brought to the level of the bottom surface of the floor beams.
Despite the fact that there is a warm room above the cellar, the floor should still be reliably insulated.
- Inside the cellar should always be a temperature of +1 – +12 degrees. Excessive heating due to heat exchange with living quarters is useless: the cellar is built in the ground precisely in order to keep it cold.
- Heat losses during a heating season to a residential house also seem to be useless.
So, how to insulate wood floors?
- From below to beams the board board is filed. The boards are fastened with screws or nails hammered at a 45-degree angle in the razbezhku, in different directions, two nails into each board at the intersection with each beam.
- A vapor barrier film is laid out along the hemmed shield, designed to prevent the insulation of the insulation.
- Then the space between the beams is filled with the insulation itself. Glass wool is perfectly suitable for our purposes, the price of which is much lower than that of most competing solutions.
- On insulation fit waterproofing material. Roll waterproofing laid out with overlapping bands; the seams are taped.
- On top of it is laid bearing floor and finishing floor.
Some more schemes of warming the wooden floor.
Rough cellar ready. However, during operation, we will inevitably encounter moisture in it.
Where does excess moisture come from?
- High groundwater and rainwater will inevitably seep into the basement through the floor and walls. Any waterproofing is not absolute.
Dampness – the eternal problem of basements and cellars.
- Vegetables in the process of storage evaporate quite a lot of moisture, which condenses on cold surfaces – walls and floor.
- Finally, temperature fluctuations in the cellar also lead to the fact that the excess moisture from the warmer air condenses on surfaces whose temperature is lower.
How to solve these problems?
It helps to fight excess humidity. What does the hood look like in the cellar under the house?
The ventilation system for the basement consists of two pipes – supply and exhaust. In their quality, special ventilation pipes with a foam layer can be used to effectively prevent the transmission of sounds; however, a much more popular option is the usual PVC sewer pipe.
Sewer pipes and fittings are perfect for laying ventilation.
What should be the diameter?
- For a room of up to 10 cubic meters, a pair of 50-mm pipes is enough.
- For volumes up to 25 m3, pipes with a diameter of 110 mm are used.
- With a volume of up to 75 m3, ventilation is installed with a cross section of 150 millimeters.
Captain Evidence reminds: sectional area and, respectively. the effective capacity of the pipe is proportional to the square of its diameter. About 9 times more air will pass through the channel with a section of 150 mm than through a channel with a section of 50 mm.
The exhaust pipe is discharged through the living room to the roof of the house. It should be flush with the ridge of the roof or slightly protrude above it. In the cellar the pipe starts just below the ceiling.
The intake pipe opens in the basement 20-50 cm above the floor and is displayed outside through any window in the basement or directly above it.
The inlet pipe is supplied with a grid from rodents. Exhaust – deflector, an umbrella that protects ventilation from precipitation and increases traction in windy weather.
The scheme of exhaust ventilation.
Drain pit is a simple and effective way to get rid of rainwater and groundwater entering the cellar.
- In any convenient place of the cellar, a well of about 50×50 cm in size comes off. Depth is up to a meter.
- Its walls are concreted or laid out with bricks. The bottom is covered with rubble.
- A drainage or fecal pump with a float switch is installed in the well. The hose or pipe from the pump is discharged into the sewer or just behind the blind area of the house.
In the photo – a drainage pump with a float level sensor.
For more information on how to build a cellar under the house with your own hands, the reader will find in the video in this article (find out here how to whiten the cellar).
Successes in construction!
Cellar under the house
To keep the blanks for the winter long and safely, a special room should be equipped for them. The cellar under the house is one of the most popular options for placing a vegetable store. In order for the premises to meet certain standards, work should be carried out with the highest quality possible. The optimal result can be achieved only when performing all stages of construction. Build a cellar under the house with your own hands can be quite quickly and without great expense.
The first thing to take care of before building the cellar is a geological survey of the site. This will determine the level of soil water. In the absence of a hydrological map, all research will have to be done by hand. You should also make a drawing of the cellar.
The determination of the groundwater level is carried out in the spring. At this time, the water rises to its maximum value. At a close location of the well the water level can be determined by the distance to the water surface. If there is none, you will have to dig a hole in advance.
The safest is the level of soil water, rising to 5 m. With a closer distance of water to ground level, you should consider waterproofing the cellar. This means that when digging a pit for an underground room, consideration should be given to the space that will be needed for the layer of waterproofing material.
How to make a cellar under the house? First you need to dig a pit of sufficient depth. In the process, a shovel and a bucket are used. First, it is necessary to calculate the size of the future pit for the cellar. The device of the pit can be divided into several stages:
- if the cellar is equipped under the already built house, you should remove the floor in one of the rooms;
- Dig a hole of necessary dimensions;
- clear the bottom of the pit for the cellar;
- fall asleep rubble;
- I will level the pillow;
- fill the bottom of the cellar with bitumen, which will ensure blockage of the capillary particles of rubble.
If groundwater is deposited at a depth greater than 5 m, the pit for the cellar should be further deepened by 0.8 m. To avoid subsidence of the foundation of the house, dig a hole at a distance of 1 meter from the foundation of the building.
During the construction of the cellar under the house walls are often built from brick or ceramic blocks. With this solution, it will be more difficult to waterproof the room from the outside. To avoid difficulties, it is better to choose the option of a cellar with monolithic walls. Reinforced concrete construction will reliably protect the room from moisture. The walls of the cellar should be made at least 0.4 m thick.
The procedure is quite simple:
- we establish a framework from fittings;
- we build a timbering of boards or plywood;
- pour concrete solution;
- we carry out work on the waterproofing of the walls of the cellar.
Such walls of the cellar will reliably protect the room from moisture. In addition, they will be reliable enough not to squint in the process of operation.
The reinforcement cage is made of rods with a cross section of 12 mm. They must be grooved. The rods are connected to each other by knitting wire. Such a connection is the most convenient. If you use welding, subsequently, as a result of soil shifts, cracking of concrete is possible.
Features of concrete pouring
To build a formwork for the monolithic construction of the walls of the cellar, you can use different materials. Among them may be plywood, boards, slabs OSB. If there is a shortage of the necessary material for formwork, you can rearrange different elements as you pour the solution.
Use better cement of a certain brand. Most of all for the walls of the cellar fit M200. You can also use cement M400. It is necessary to mix in such proportions – 1 part of cement, 3 parts of gravel and 3 parts of sand. Concrete is poured in layers. After each new layer, air bubbles are expelled from the solution. This is done with the help of a deep vibrator.
The walls of the cellar are erected right up to the ceiling itself. As soon as the solution hardens, it is necessary to perform internal and external waterproofing of the room. Inside the cellar walls are plastering. Sand-cement layer is applied with a thickness of 3 cm.
The walls of the cellar are waterproofed from the inside and outside. A clay castle should be placed between the walls of the pit in which the cellar is equipped, and the concrete walls of the building. To do this, in a gap lay thick clay in layers. Each layer is carefully tamped. Such a measure will allow to reliably protect the cellar from moisture penetrating outside.
Then comes the turn of the internal waterproofing. For this task, you can buy penetrating formulations. They are able to clog the smallest pores of the material of the walls of the cellar, providing absolute tightness. They are conveniently applied and quickly crystallize. The budget version of waterproofing the walls of the cellar from the inside – the use of bitumen mastic and roofing material. Sheets of material overlap each other. This allows you to protect the walls of the cellar from moisture penetration from inside the room.
Most often, concrete is used to close the basement of the cellar. This solution is practical and durable. Often, the owners of a private house decide to leave the dirt basement of the cellar. Ground floor has several significant drawbacks:
- winter harvesting can be spoiled by worms and various insects;
- the cellar will be visited by rodents;
- The soil often contains anaerobic bacteria, in the course of which methane is released.
Concretes the floor according to a certain technology:
- First, the base is leveled. This is necessary for the proper installation of further layers.
- The bottom is covered with sand. Thus, a cushion is formed. Usually it will rise to a height of 10 cm.
- Bulk material compacted. Water is used for this purpose. Sand must be carefully shed.
- The entire bottom of the cellar is covered with plastic wrap. It will help stop the concrete milk, which is formed when pouring the solution, and also help prevent groundwater from entering the room.
- Laying reinforcement. The grid has a thickness of 6 mm. Cells are usually made with dimensions of 15 cm.
- The grid must be placed in the middle of the concrete layer.
- Pouring concrete.
- Performance of a finishing coupler. It is equipped 3 days after pouring the solution.
As soon as the floor is ready, care must be taken to perform the floor.
The temperature range that must be maintained in the cellar is usually between +1 and +12 degrees. Even taking into account that a heated room will be located above the cellar, the flooring should be reliably insulated.
Heating of the basement is excluded. There are a number of features that should be considered:
- Temperature indicators in the cellar should be different from those that are maintained in the living room. This is because at room temperature vegetables and fruits can deteriorate.
- From the living rooms should not go warm.
- The overlap should be reliably isolated from the living rooms also for the reason that an unpleasant smell can rise from the cellar.
If the overlap is made of wood, the process of insulation is subject to a certain technology. The insulation procedure is as follows:
- To the existing beams bottom nail boards. They must be attached closely.
- The received board board from below is closed with a vapor barrier film. It will serve as protection for insulation. Moisture from the cellar will not fall on the material of insulation.
- After fixing the vapor barrier is completed, the insulation material is laid into the gaps between the supporting beams of the ceiling. In this case, mineral wool is often used as a heater.
- A layer of waterproofing is placed on top. It will protect the mineral wool from the ingress of fluid from the dwelling.
Tip! The joints of waterproofing materials are recommended to be glued with construction tape.
Over time, excess moisture begins to accumulate in the cellar. There are many reasons for this. Water can evaporate from stored vegetables, rise from the ground, or result from temperature fluctuations. However, high humidity contributes to the deterioration of products. To protect the workpieces from the negative impact, it is necessary to equip the ventilation system in the cellar.
The main principle of its construction is the need to create channels through which air will not only enter the room, but also leave it. For this purpose, equipped with supply and discharge pipe.
In order for the cellar ventilation under the house to work as efficiently as possible, it will be necessary to find plastic or asbestos-cement pipes of the appropriate cross section. It depends on the size of the cellar:
- 50 mm for 10 cu. meters;
- 110 mm – for 25;
- 150 mm – for 75.
Such indicators are optimal. So that the air circulates naturally, the pipes are located in the opposite corners of the cellar. You should also install them correctly.
Exhaust pipe is placed near the ceiling. The inflow area is usually located at the bottom edge of 30 cm from the floor of the cellar. On the street they can be placed almost at the same height. It is better to install the exhaust pipe as high as possible.
To prevent small rodents from entering the cellar, the supply air duct is equipped with a metal grid. A special umbrella is installed on the exhaust channel, which will strengthen the traction.
Once all the work on the device cellar under the house will be completed, you can proceed to the construction of the stairs and the hatch, which will close the inlet. Attention should also be paid to the proper installation of electrical wiring.
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Sources: http://podvaldoma.ru/stroitelstvo/pogreb/obustrojstvo-v-dome.html, http://mypodval.ru/ustroystvo/276-pogreb-pod-domom, http://bouw.ru/article/ pogreb-pod-domom