The floor should be laid in two layers. For laying the first layer, you can use raw wooden material.
Boards should be laid in such a way that due to them the marking of the future location of the walls is indicated. Be sure to treat the wood with a special antiseptic, it will help to avoid further rotting of the material.
Be sure to use level when laying floorboards. With it you can make a flat floor. It is on how the floor is laid that the whole geometry of the future house depends.
Then anchor bolts, attach the boards to the foundation. The distance between them should be approximately two meters. But that’s not all. Further lags are placed on top. In between it is necessary to place insulation material – foam or mineral wool.
At the end a second layer is made. Smooth boards with dimensions of 5×15 cm are attached to the logs.
Due to the frame ensures a long life of the house. The framework from wooden material will be the most suitable, as metal frameworks have high cost.
For the manufacture of a wooden frame, an oak bar with a cross section of 150×150 mm is perfect. If there is no timber from this tree, then you can use the wood of other people.
All angles are connected by the method of “thorn-groove”. During fitting, these corners must be made so that there is no gap between them.
It is advisable not to use metal fasteners for fastening. They are further oxidized and lead to rotting of the material and loosening of the whole structure. It is best to use wood pins for bonding.
You also need to make bracing. If you do not do this, then this may lead to loss of stiffness of the entire space of the house. It is recommended to use the technology of three braces during the construction of the panel house.
After installing the frame, you must select the material for wall insulation. The most suitable materials are thermal insulation insulation type, which completely covers all voids in the walls.
It is very important that the house maintains an optimal level of heat during the cold period, so it is best to install boards with a large thickness, its size should be at least 10 cm. Expanded polystyrene is excellent for wall insulation.
Also mineral wool is excellent as a heater. It can be installed in walls using bars with a section of 15×20 cm. The bars are best stuffed upright. At the joints of slabs, it is desirable to nail bars with a larger width.
Then you can begin to finish the walls on the inside. Paint, smooth wood, drywall or art painting are great for wall cladding. Also, walls can be trimmed with a tongue-and-groove board, which, when attached to frame supports, is installed in a horizontal position.
Next on the floor you can lay the usual linoleum or laminate. Also a good option would be parquet.
This is also a very important element during the construction of the panel house and its installation should be approached very carefully. It is desirable that the size of the windows was 18% of the wall area where the window opening will be installed.
For longer stays, it is best to install double or triple glazed windows.
From the outside, walls can be sheathed with vinyl or metal siding. Vinyl siding does not heat up quickly in the sun, and metal can be coated with a solution against corrosion. Nowadays, block-house finishing is very popular. Walls trimmed with this material are like a real log.
Usually this material is set by the castle connection. Further, all the material is covered with a solution of ignition, in consequence, it greatly increases the service life of the whole house.
Also as an exterior finish, you can use decorative plaster. In the process of applying this material on the walls of the house, you can make various forms up to imitation of a decorative stone. In addition, this coating has a high service life and perfectly resists all environmental influences.
Installation of roofing and engineering communications
As the basis for the roof is best to use mauerlat – thick timber. Then laying roof should be done as follows:
- First you need to take the bars with constrained edges, with a cross section of 50×150 mm. When joining, the edges must be joined at an angle of 50 degrees;
- Next, the resulting rafters are connected with nails and fastened with a transverse board in the form of the letter “A”;
- Each intersection in the form of the letter “A” must be fixed with the help of two kerchiefs;
- After that, you need to make a crate. For crates used boards 25×100 mm, which must be installed at a distance of 100 mm from each other;
- The crate is fixed on top with a furniture stapler, roofing felt or any other synthetic material;
- Then a metal tile is installed on top of the ruberoid. The roof is superimposed from the upper rows and to the top of the roof (ridge). Sheets should be overlapped, row by row, until they reach the top of the roof;
- Excess sticking out part is trimmed. The ridge strip is fastened with screws.
- Installation of engineering communications.
Laying electrical communications, water supply and sewage systems is laborious work and it requires additional knowledge in this matter. Therefore, for these purposes it is best to take the help of experts.
- During the selection of the project should be borne in mind that any architectural innovations can complicate the entire process of manufacturing shields. In addition, they lead to additional unplanned costs;
- It is necessary to choose a heater that has high thermal insulation and long service life;
- It is advisable to choose such dimensions of the boards, the weight of which allows for assembly at home without the use of additional mechanization means;
- Before you enter into an agreement for the manufacture of panel panels, you should still get acquainted in detail with the work already done by this manufacturer. It is best to drive to the addresses on which houses have already been built. It is also advisable to talk with the owners and find out their opinion about this manufacturer. After complete information on the basis of reviews, it will be possible to understand whether it is worth ordering services from this manufacturer.
Building a panel house with your own hands is a very complicated and time consuming process. It requires a great deal of responsibility and care. Be sure all construction must be performed in accordance with the requirements and rules.
Before construction should pay great attention to the project of the planned house. In addition, it is advisable to consult with experienced professionals to find out all the nuances of the construction of a frame house. Only with this approach can we build a strong and durable house that will last a long time.
Shield house do it yourself, step by step instructions
How to build a house and provide yourself with housing with a minimum of effort, money and time? This is possible if you are ready to consider the option of building a panel house with your own hands. Such a house is the perfect combination of quality, investment and speed of construction work. The basis of the panel house provides for a frame that is hidden inside the structure and is not exposed to the external environment. All materials used in construction are reliable and durable. Construction of a frame-shield house with their own hands will cost almost 50% cheaper than building a brick house.
And the whole construction process requires, as a rule, no more than 6 months.
Before proceeding directly to the process, it is very important to understand the technology of panel construction – this will greatly facilitate your work. The whole technology is divided into several important stages:
At your choice, you can either independently create a project, or entrust this matter to professional architects. All that is needed to create a project is to understand the functionality of architectural programs and involve all family members in the process in order to make the planning as comfortable as possible for everyone. It is extremely difficult at one of the stages of work to make changes to the project. Redesigning the frame-shield buildings – the procedure is very expensive. At this stage it is necessary to plan the connection to the house of all the necessary engineering communications: water supply and sewage, heating, ventilation and electricity.
The choice of material for the construction of the frame
The technology of building panel houses allows you to use almost any frame material: you can choose a bar (150×150) or thick boards (more than 150×50).
From the point of view of professionals, the most suitable material is pine, not expensive and at the same time durable enough. Significantly speed up the process of work and facilitate the task of purchasing dried billets. If the climate allows, then the frame can be erected from metal profiles.
Selection of construction site and foundation
Choosing a construction site, it is necessary to assess the structure of the soil, the level of its freezing, the level of groundwater, the level of freezing of the soil. During the construction of panel houses there are no restrictions on weak soils. For convenience, it is better to choose a flat platform, but if there is no such possibility, consider the unevenness of the site in the project: change the basement of the house. Another option is to artificially create a platform by changing the relief.
The technology of panel construction of the house allows you to build it on a light basis. You can choose one of three types of foundation: columnar. plate or tape.
- The first thing to do at the foundation casting stage is to dig a trench. Its depth should be about 2 meters, or should be guided by climatic conditions: the depth of the trench should not be less than 100-200 mm. below freezing.
- The next stage is the installation of formwork. It should be made of edged boards across the width of the trench, the height of the board – more than 40 cm above the top edge of the trench dug by you. For formwork, use a trim board. Choose 1 or 3 grade, the length should be 3.4-6 meters, and the thickness of 20-25 millimeters.
- After that, at the bottom of the trench are laid: brick and stones, or other materials, poured a layer of sand about 20 centimeters and everything is filled with water. The procedure with sand and water should be repeated 3-5 times.
When the level of sand ceases to change, you can begin to create a skeleton of reinforcement, channel bars, pipes, etc. And then cast concrete. Concrete should be poured gradually, in layers with a thickness of 20-30 cm. At the same time, the mixture should be thoroughly compressed.
Construction of the frame of the house and mounting shields
The next stage after the creation of the foundation: the construction of the walls of the frame-panel construction and the construction of the building On the basement waterproofing it is necessary to install the lower strapping. After this, the installation of the racks begins at a distance of approximately 1 m.
In places where doors and windows are planned, racks are installed depending on their width. attach the rack to the trim should be using staples and nails. To increase stability, it is better to nail additional slopes to the corner posts. Having fastened all the vertical elements, you can start laying the lag of the floor in the slots of the harness. Keep in mind that between them you need to leave a distance that will be leveled to the thickness of the insulation. At the same stage, the upper harness is installed.
Then shields are made: a heater should be laid in metal or wooden frames. Do not forget that it is necessary to make waterproofing and vapor barrier from the outside and, accordingly, the inside. The outer lining is better to make from the board, puff plywood, drywall. The finished shields are fixed on the frame.
After the shields are fixed, you can begin to finish the panel house outside. For these purposes, you can choose a variety of materials: for example, metal or vinyl siding. lining, block house. It is better to fasten sheets of outer skin, starting from the corner and continuing in a circle. After the sheathing is ready, proceed with laying the finishing floor. You can also install windows and doors.
Installation of the roof of the panel house is made in the most traditional ways. First, the rafters are mounted. Secondly, the crate. Then the waterproofing layer, insulation and vapor barrier layer. The final stage – the installation of roofing. The best roofing material is metal. This material is easy, which means that the construction will be minimal pressure, in addition, metal tile is reliable and easy to install. The roof on the technology of frame-shield houses also need to be warmed.
To insulate the shield house with your own hands, use such insulation as boiler slag, or mineral wool, expanded clay or foam. You can find out about the warming of a frame house here: http://domsdelat.ru/yteplenie/uteplenie-karkasnogo-doma-svoimi-rukami/
Before wall insulation, be sure to lay a waterproofing layer.
After you finish the process of insulation, you can proceed to the inner lining of the room.
As for carrying out all the necessary communications, this is the work that is better to be entrusted to specialists. If you still decide to do it yourself the most important thing, in addition to the technical part, is to get the technical conditions for local authorities to connect the house to the heating, water supply, sewage and power supply systems.
In today’s market there are a huge number of different tools and materials that will help you in the construction. The technology of building a panel house is quite simple and, having studied all the steps, you can easily cope with this process! Such a house is not only easy to build, but also very comfortable for living.
Features of construction: assembled panel houses with their own hands
Since the prices for the installation of houses are growing, it is much more profitable to do the installation by hand. This is especially true of such buildings as shield prefab houses. They are suitable for temporary seasonal residence, as well as for permanent. Prefabricated buildings have reached the peak of their popularity today. The main reason for this is the relatively low cost and ease of self-construction of a frame-panel building. In this case, you can build a building in 10 weeks.
Prefabricated house during installation
Start of construction: preparation
So, before you start building a frame-shield cottage, you must relate three things:
- Real conditions of construction.
- Your preference.
- Financial stock.
The real conditions of construction include features of the site on which construction will be carried out, climate, the location of the sun and shade, abundance of precipitation or constantly blowing wind, and other objective data that will help determine the future home.
The location of the frame house on the site
The preferences of the future owner include the size of the frame-panel building, the height of the floors, the presence of a veranda, a balcony, the type of roof, preferences in the use of options for materials, how quickly I want to build.
The presence of a certain financial amount allows you to define more priority qualities of the house, and lower priority, which can be changed or even saved. For example, the owner prefers a two-storey mansion, but there is not enough money, and then it is more rational to change a full-fledged second floor to a residential attic.
House built according to the preferences of the owner
When you have more or less decided on the future frame-shield house, it is advisable to make its detailed plan. It should include an external description of the building with a sketch, an internal description, as well as a plan of communications and engineering systems (water supply plan, electrical wiring, ventilation system, etc.).
Project sketch of a frame house
If you really want to do everything according to your mind, it is better to come to the site with the architect, and have a plan in place. Then the design will be tied to the environment, and the room itself will be much more comfortable. For example, it is better to make a bedroom on the north side of the plot; then it will be much more comfortable for you to sleep, and a large, bright living room in the south. Children’s rooms are well positioned with windows to the west or east, and preferably from the leeward side. Considering all these factors, you can make the shield house very cozy and comfortable.
In addition, the plan should indicate all dimensions, internal partitions, aisles, doors, windows, built-in niches and more.
Frame house plan
Do not forget to check the soil of the site, and find out which foundation will fit your project. The greater the load on the foundation, the more thoroughly the foundation is made.
First steps at a construction site
Building always starts with markup. At this point, it is already necessary to determine where in the site your frame shield house will be located.
It is necessary to make a marking of the future foundation from a rope and a peg. To build a formwork, it is necessary to dig a trench along the marked lines (with the help of a small excavator), with the help of a board or other material to make walls that need to be laid out with a film.
The foundation with formwork and thrust
The film will protect the cement mortar from being poured into the cracks between the formwork boards. In order for the boards to be fixed securely, it is necessary to put struts between the walls of the formwork. When everything is ready, we pour in the mortar, and drown the reinforcement or mesh in it – this will allow us to make a more rigid foundation. We also drown anchor bolts, on which over time we will put a harness.
Once the cement hardens, you can make the lower strapping. We use roofing material (or other waterproofing material), which is laid on the surface of the foundation. The surface should be smooth, the geometry should be checked – the drops are no more than 1 cm.
The first timber strapping laid on the roofing material
We lay the harness and fix it on the anchor bolts. Special attention is paid to the connection in the corners. There are several clutch options, the most popular schemes are visible on the diagrams. All of them can be done by hand using a power saw.
Shield frame-houses have a base – the frame. It is a wooden frame of timber with a pitch of about 100 cm. The house is mounted with your own hands from the corners, the corner posts are securely fastened to the harness. We skip the step between the pillars, bypassing the door or window openings. Places such openings should be further strengthened bolts.
Frame – the basis of the shield house
For a more rigid construction, we use horizontal lintels between the uprights and the struts. It is desirable to install the struts with your own hands at least in the corners.
When the wall frame is erected, go to the roof frame. To do this, make the truss system and crates. Simplicity is one of the advantages of frame houses.
Walls of future construction
After the installation of the frame, you can proceed to the formation of the actual walls. The wall in the frame house is a multi-layer construction consisting of specific films, insulation and OSB-3 in the form of shields covering the entire structure.
Prefab House Wall
The formation of the wall begins with insulation. In terms of insulation of the frame house, you can use the following materials:
- mineral wool
- glass wool
- polystyrene foam
- natural insulation (straw, chips, etc.)
Warming mineral wool is considered the most successful solution. Mineral wool is presented in the form of mats or rolls, everyone chooses the kind that is more convenient for him to stack with his own hands. Most often these are mats that are installed from the bottom up.
Important: any insulation in the form of cotton wool must be well fastened, as over time it compresses, and cracks appear. Use glue or just nail insulation.
If the insulation is presented in the form of rolls, its end is fixed at the very top of the wall and the roll is unwound down, after which it is cut along the lower level of the wall. Do it yourself for saving. The width of the insulation should be equal to the step between the risers, so even at the stage of the construction of the frame, determine the type of insulation. The thickness of the insulation is equal to the thickness of the timber, which is used in construction.
Warming of a frame-shield house with mineral wool
If we talk about the foam, then its strengths – this is the price and moisture resistance, so foam is used for additional external insulation. It is easily installed on the mounting rail with his own hands, which is nailed to the bottom of the frame and is the basis for insulation plates. However, the foam burns quite well, which is its disadvantage in the application for wooden frame houses. However, building a house with foam is still possible.
Thermal insulation of the house foam
Glass wool is rarely used, since working with it requires special care and equipment, and its biggest plus is that mice, who are a real scourge of wooden frame houses, do not like it.
About the lifetime of the frame house you can read here.
Waterproofing the wall is the most important step. Its role is performed either by modern membranes or film. Waterproofing is placed directly from the side of the insulation and does not allow moisture to get from outside to inside the wall.
Waterproofing of walls and roofs in a frame shield house
Waterproofing material during installation must be devoid of gaps, so that moisture does not have the opportunity to get to the insulation. Many types of insulation, especially wool, do not tolerate moisture, and lose their thermal performance in just one rainy season. Therefore, we apply an overlap of 25–20 cm over the waterproofing film, and glue the film with a special tape, connecting the two films into one.
No matter how we try to protect the insulation from moisture, sometimes this can not be avoided. Since the dew point is located in the center of the wall, steam condensate is often formed on the insulation. Part of the moisture gets into the wall even at the time of installation. Therefore, such excess moisture should be removed somewhere. To solve this problem help diffuse vapor barrier membranes.
Vapor barrier walls of the house
Membranes are modern films that do not let moisture inside the wall, but at the same time remove moisture from the wall to the outside. Thus, the insulation always remains dry and lasts much longer.
Detailed information on the construction technology of a frame house can be found here.
When the wall is ready, the wall is closed on both sides with OSB sheets. They actually form the wall, and in addition, the exterior and interior trim is easily attached to the shields. Interior decoration usually requires additional installation of plasterboard.
Panel house, sheathed OSB
Shields should choose only those that have a certificate, since in our market, cases of poisoning of tenants with formaldehydes, which are contained in the glue of this plate of Chinese origin, have become frequent. During operation, poisons are gradually released and enter the human body, where they accumulate and cause various diseases. Therefore, pay attention to European manufacturers with safety certificates.
For fixing plates OSB use a screwdriver and screws. Why today choose a frame house, read here.
Sources: http://okarkase.ru/frame-home/shhitovoj-dom/shhitovoj-dom-svoimi-rukami-poshagovaya-instrukciya.html, http://domsdelat.ru/poleznie-soveti/shhitovoj-dom-svoimi- rukami-poshagovaya-instrukciya.html, http://karkasblog.ru/mounting/sborno-shhitovye-doma-svoimi-rukami.html